Gene Symbol: Ppp1cc
Description: protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isoform
Alias: PP-1G, PP1, dis2m1, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit, PP1C gamma 1, PP1C gamma 2, protein phosphatase 1C catalytic subunit
Species: mouse
Products:     Ppp1cc

Top Publications

  1. Chakrabarti R, Kline D, Lu J, Orth J, Pilder S, Vijayaraghavan S. Analysis of Ppp1cc-null mice suggests a role for PP1gamma2 in sperm morphogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2007;76:992-1001 pubmed
    ..major isoforms, two of which, PP1gamma1 and PP1gamma2, are derived by alternative splicing of a single gene, Ppp1cc. PP1gamma2 is the most abundant isoform in the testis, and is a key regulator of sperm motility...
  2. Okano K, Heng H, Trevisanato S, Tyers M, Varmuza S. Genomic organization and functional analysis of the murine protein phosphatase 1c gamma (Ppp1cc) gene. Genomics. 1997;45:211-5 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the genomic organization of the murine Ppp1cc gene that encodes the PP1c gamma 1 and PP1c gamma 2 isoforms. We determined that Ppp1cc maps to F1.2-G1.2 on chromosome 5 by FISH mapping...
  3. Bynagari Y, Nagy B, Tuluc F, Bhavaraju K, Kim S, Vijayan K, et al. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation. ..
  4. Koshibu K, Graff J, Beullens M, Heitz F, Berchtold D, Russig H, et al. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates the histone code for long-term memory. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13079-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a critical regulator of chromatin remodeling in the mammalian brain that controls histone PTMs and gene ..
  5. Varmuza S, Jurisicova A, Okano K, Hudson J, Boekelheide K, Shipp E. Spermiogenesis is impaired in mice bearing a targeted mutation in the protein phosphatase 1cgamma gene. Dev Biol. 1999;205:98-110 pubmed
    Type 1 protein phosphatases (PP1) are involved in diverse cellular activities, ranging from glycogen metabolism to chromatin structure modification, mitosis, and meiosis...
  6. Soler D, Kadunganattil S, Ramdas S, Myers K, Roca J, Slaughter T, et al. Expression of transgenic PPP1CC2 in the testis of Ppp1cc-null mice rescues spermatid viability and spermiation but does not restore normal sperm tail ultrastructure, sperm motility, or fertility. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphatase 1, PPP1CC1 and PPP1CC2, are translated from alternatively spliced transcripts of a single gene, Ppp1cc, and differ only at their extreme C-termini...
  7. Hrabchak C, Henderson H, Varmuza S. A testis specific isoform of endophilin B1, endophilin B1t, interacts specifically with protein phosphatase-1c gamma2 in mouse testis and is abnormally expressed in PP1c gamma null mice. Biochemistry. 2007;46:4635-44 pubmed
    ..A potential role for endophilin B1t in mammalian spermatogenesis is discussed within the context of the PP1c gamma knockout testis phenotype. ..
  8. Oppedisano Wells L, Varmuza S. Protein phosphatase 1cgamma is required in germ cells in murine testis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;65:157-66 pubmed
    ..There may be an additional cell nonautonomous role played by this gene in testes, possibly mediated by defective signaling between germ cells and Sertoli cells. ..
  9. Hrabchak C, Varmuza S. Identification of the spermatogenic zip protein Spz1 as a putative protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulatory protein that specifically binds the PP1cgamma2 splice variant in mouse testis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:37079-86 pubmed
    ..We propose that the interaction between Spz1 and PP1cgamma2 may be required for proper regulation of spermatogenesis and fertility in males. ..

More Information


  1. Traweger A, Wiggin G, Taylor L, Tate S, Metalnikov P, Pawson T. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates the phosphorylation state of the polarity scaffold Par-3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP1 (predominantly the alpha isoform) binds Par-3, which localizes to tight junctions in MDCKII cells...
  2. Wang R, Kaul A, Sperry A. TLRR (lrrc67) interacts with PP1 and is associated with a cytoskeletal complex in the testis. Biol Cell. 2010;102:173-89 pubmed publisher
    ..repeat protein that we have named TLRR (testis leucine-rich repeat), associated with the manchette that contains a PP1 (protein phosphatase-1)-binding site...
  3. Cheng L, Pilder S, Nairn A, Ramdas S, Vijayaraghavan S. PP1gamma2 and PPP1R11 are parts of a multimeric complex in developing testicular germ cells in which their steady state levels are reciprocally related. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4861 pubmed publisher
    ..A biochemical approach was employed to learn how expression versus deficiency of PP1gamma2, the predominant PP1 isoform in male germ cells, affects spermatogenesis...
  4. Zhang Z, Yang J, Liu X, Jia X, Xu S, Gong K, et al. Effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on expression of PP1? in learning and memory. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:277-283 pubmed publisher
    ..And it is also well known that protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1) and DNA methylation are critically involved in learning and memory...
  5. Mann M, Latham K, Varmuza S. Identification of genes showing altered expression in preimplantation and early postimplantation parthenogenetic embryos. Dev Genet. 1995;17:223-32 pubmed
  6. Jurisicova A, Lopes S, Meriano J, Oppedisano L, Casper R, Varmuza S. DNA damage in round spermatids of mice with a targeted disruption of the Pp1cgamma gene and in testicular biopsies of patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. Mol Hum Reprod. 1999;5:323-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that one of the features of the pathology associated with azoospermia is fragmented DNA in haploid germ cells. This raises questions about the suitability of using these cells for fertility treatment. ..
  7. Walsh J, Young M. TGF-beta regulation of focal adhesion proteins and motility of premalignant oral lesions via protein phosphatase 1. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:3159-64 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest interplay between TGF-? and PP-1 in promoting a more malignant phenotype in premalignant oral lesion cells. ..
  8. Chen R, Rato C, Yan Y, Crespillo Casado A, Clarke H, Harding H, et al. G-actin provides substrate-specificity to eukaryotic initiation factor 2α holophosphatases. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..initiation factor 2a (eIF2a) restores protein synthesis at the waning of stress responses and requires a PP1 catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit, PPP1R15A/GADD34 or PPP1R15B/CReP...
  9. Graff J, Koshibu K, Jouvenceau A, Dutar P, Mansuy I. Protein phosphatase 1-dependent transcriptional programs for long-term memory and plasticity. Learn Mem. 2010;17:355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1), in particular, was recently shown to be important for transcription-dependent memory by regulating chromatin ..
  10. Davies T, Varmuza S. Development to blastocyst is impaired when intracytoplasmic sperm injection is performed with abnormal sperm from infertile mice harboring a mutation in the protein phosphatase 1cgamma gene. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1470-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ICSI with any kind of testicular sperm carries an increased risk of embryo fragmentation and that abnormal testicular sperm has an added risk of embryo wastage at later preimplantation stages. ..
  11. Oppedisano L, Haines G, Hrabchak C, Fimia G, Elliott R, Sassone Corsi P, et al. The rate of aneuploidy is altered in spermatids from infertile mice. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:710-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that impaired spermatogenesis may lead to production of aneuploid gametes. Analysis of aneuploidy in gametes from infertile men, coupled with appropriate genetic counselling, is recommended prior to ICSI. ..
  12. Wang R, Sperry A. PP1 forms an active complex with TLRR (lrrc67), a putative PP1 regulatory subunit, during the early stages of spermiogenesis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21767 pubmed publisher
    ..is associated with the spermatid cytoskeleton in mouse testis and is a binding partner of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), an extremely well conserved signaling molecule...
  13. Huang Z, Somanath P, Chakrabarti R, Eddy E, Vijayaraghavan S. Changes in intracellular distribution and activity of protein phosphatase PP1gamma2 and its regulating proteins in spermatozoa lacking AKAP4. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:384-92 pubmed
    ..sperm flagellum proteins PP1gamma2 (protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isoform, formally known as PPP1CC), GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3), SP17 (sperm autoantigenic protein 17, formally known as SPA17), and other ..
  14. Shmueli A, Gdalyahu A, Sapoznik S, Sapir T, Tsukada M, Reiner O. Site-specific dephosphorylation of doublecortin (DCX) by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;32:15-26 pubmed
    ..of specific sites phosphorylated by JNK is mediated by Neurabin II, which recruits the phosphatase PP1. During cortical development, the expression pattern of PP1 is widespread, while the expression of DCX and Neurabin ..
  15. Macleod G, Shang P, Booth G, Mastropaolo L, Manafpoursakha N, Vogl A, et al. PPP1CC2 can form a kinase/phosphatase complex with the testis-specific proteins TSSK1 and TSKS in the mouse testis. Reproduction. 2014;147:1-12 pubmed publisher
    The mouse protein phosphatase gene Ppp1cc is essential for male fertility, with mutants displaying a failure in spermatogenesis including a widespread loss of post-meiotic germ cells and abnormalities in the mitochondrial sheath...
  16. Opaluch A, Schneider M, Chiang C, Nguyen Q, Maestre A, Mulder L, et al. Positive regulation of TRAF6-dependent innate immune responses by protein phosphatase PP1-?. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89284 pubmed publisher
    ..Through a gain-of-function genetic screen, we identified the gamma catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1-?) as a positive regulator of MyD88-dependent proinflammatory innate immune activation...
  17. Llorian M, Beullens M, Andrés I, Ortiz J, Bollen M. SIPP1, a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor and interactor of protein phosphatase-1. Biochem J. 2004;378:229-38 pubmed
    ..and interactor of protein phosphatase-1, hence the name SIPP1 for splicing factor that interacts with PQBP-1 and PP1 (protein phosphotase 1)...
  18. Smith G, Sadhu A, Mathies S, Wolf D. Characterization of protein phosphatases in mouse oocytes. Dev Biol. 1998;204:537-49 pubmed
    ..OA) enhances the resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes, indicating that serine/threonine protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) and/or PP2A is involved...
  19. Woldemichael B, Jawaid A, Kremer E, Gaur N, Krol J, Marchais A, et al. The microRNA cluster miR-183/96/182 contributes to long-term memory in a protein phosphatase 1-dependent manner. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12594 pubmed publisher
    ..by multiple molecular activators and suppressors, including the key signalling regulator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)...
  20. Chan W, Wu S, Ruszczyk L, Law E, Lee T, Baxendale V, et al. The complexity of antisense transcription revealed by the study of developing male germ cells. Genomics. 2006;87:681-92 pubmed
    ..Thus antisense transcripts have complex origins and structures and the sense and antisense transcripts can be regulated independently. ..
  21. Mayanglambam A, Bhavanasi D, Vijayan K, Kunapuli S. Differential dephosphorylation of the protein kinase C-zeta (PKC?) in an integrin ?IIb?3-dependent manner in platelets. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..antagonist, SC-57101; or by okadaic acid used at concentrations that inhibits protein serine/threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A in vitro...
  22. Kelsall I, Rosenzweig D, Cohen P. Disruption of the allosteric phosphorylase a regulation of the hepatic glycogen-targeted protein phosphatase 1 improves glucose tolerance in vivo. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1123-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Under glycogenolytic conditions, the interaction of hepatic glycogen-associated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1-G(L)) with glycogen phosphorylase a is believed to inhibit the dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen ..
  23. Danial N, Gramm C, Scorrano L, Zhang C, Krauss S, Ranger A, et al. BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis. Nature. 2003;424:952-6 pubmed
    ..BAD resides in a functional holoenzyme complex together with protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic units, Wiskott-Aldrich family member WAVE-1 as an A kinase anchoring protein, and glucokinase (..
  24. Shin J, Kim T, Kim H, Kim H, Suh M, Lee S, et al. Aurkb/PP1-mediated resetting of Oct4 during the cell cycle determines the identity of embryonic stem cells. elife. 2016;5:e10877 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the regulation of Oct4 by Aurora kinase b (Aurkb)/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) during the cell cycle is important for resetting Oct4 to pluripotency and cell cycle genes in determining the ..
  25. Forgione N, Vogl A, Varmuza S. Loss of protein phosphatase 1c{gamma} (PPP1CC) leads to impaired spermatogenesis associated with defects in chromatin condensation and acrosome development: an ultrastructural analysis. Reproduction. 2010;139:1021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse models of male infertility such as the Ppp1cc knockout mouse display very similar phenotypes to humans with testicular failure...
  26. Brieño Enríquez M, Moak S, Toledo M, Filter J, Gray S, Barbero J, et al. Cohesin Removal along the Chromosome Arms during the First Meiotic Division Depends on a NEK1-PP1γ-WAPL Axis in the Mouse. Cell Rep. 2016;17:977-986 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulation of WAPL by NEK1-PDS5B is mediated by protein phosphatase 1 gamma (PP1γ), which both interacts with and is a phosphotarget of NEK1...
  27. Ohkura H, Kinoshita N, Miyatani S, Toda T, Yanagida M. The fission yeast dis2+ gene required for chromosome disjoining encodes one of two putative type 1 protein phosphatases. Cell. 1989;57:997-1007 pubmed
    ..These dis2+ and similar polypeptides of yeasts and mouse are found to be highly homologous (75%-90% identical) to rabbit protein phosphatase 1. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to mitotic control...
  28. Liu R, Correll R, Davis J, Vagnozzi R, York A, Sargent M, et al. Cardiac-specific deletion of protein phosphatase 1β promotes increased myofilament protein phosphorylation and contractile alterations. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;87:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Ppp1ca-loxP, Ppp1cb-loxP and Ppp1cc-loxP alleles were crossed with either an Nkx2...
  29. Carmody L, Bauman P, Bass M, Mavila N, DePaoli Roach A, Colbran R. A protein phosphatase-1gamma1 isoform selectivity determinant in dendritic spine-associated neurabin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21714-23 pubmed
    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) catalytic subunit isoforms interact with diverse proteins, typically containing a canonical (R/K)(V/I)XF motif...
  30. Winnay J, Hammer G. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-mediated signaling cascades coordinate a cyclic pattern of steroidogenic factor 1-dependent transcriptional activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:147-66 pubmed
    ..In addition, the current study demonstrates that specific enzymatic activities are capable of regulating distinct facets of a highly ordered transcriptional response...
  31. Gushiken F, Hyojeong H, Pradhan S, Langlois K, Alrehani N, Cruz M, et al. The catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 gamma regulates thrombin-induced murine platelet alpha(IIb)beta(3) function. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8304 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies illustrate a role for PP1cgamma in maintaining GSK3beta-serine9 phosphorylation downstream of thrombin signaling and promoting thrombus formation via fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. ..
  32. Jiang Y, Luo W, Howe P. Dab2 stabilizes Axin and attenuates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by preventing protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-Axin interactions. Oncogene. 2009;28:2999-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate Axin, leading to its destabilization...
  33. Sinha N, Puri P, Nairn A, Vijayaraghavan S. Selective ablation of Ppp1cc gene in testicular germ cells causes oligo-teratozoospermia and infertility in mice. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:128 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ppp1cc gene encodes two alternatively spliced variants, PP1 gamma1 (PPP1CC1) and PP1 gamma2 (PPP1CC2)...
  34. Parra M, Mahmoudi T, Verdin E. Myosin phosphatase dephosphorylates HDAC7, controls its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and inhibits apoptosis in thymocytes. Genes Dev. 2007;21:638-43 pubmed
    ..Myosin phosphatase dephosphorylates HDAC7 and promotes its nuclear localization, leading to the repression of the HDAC7 target, Nur77, and the inhibition of apoptosis in CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. ..
  35. Haege S, Galetzka D, Zechner U, Haaf T, Gamerdinger M, Behl C, et al. Spatial learning and expression patterns of PP1 mRNA in mouse hippocampus. Neuropsychobiology. 2010;61:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the role of dephosphorylation during that model for spatial learning, we analyzed protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) expression in the hippocampus of mice at various stages of the task and in two groups with different learning ..
  36. Bose S, Hutson I, Harris C. Hepatic Glucocorticoid Receptor Plays a Greater Role Than Adipose GR in Metabolic Syndrome Despite Renal Compensation. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4943-4960 pubmed
    ..This indicates that liver GR might be more important in development of MS in dexamethasone-treated mice, whereas adipose GR plays a little role in these paradigms. ..
  37. Sinha N, Pilder S, Vijayaraghavan S. Significant expression levels of transgenic PPP1CC2 in testis and sperm are required to overcome the male infertility phenotype of Ppp1cc null mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47623 pubmed publisher
    PPP1CC2, one of four isoforms of the ser/thr protein phosphatase PP1, is a mammalian-specific splice variant of the Ppp1cc gene, and the only isoform whose expression is confined almost completely to spermatogenic cells...
  38. Van Campenhout C, Eitelhuber A, Gloeckner C, Giallonardo P, Gegg M, Oller H, et al. Dlg3 trafficking and apical tight junction formation is regulated by nedd4 and nedd4-2 e3 ubiquitin ligases. Dev Cell. 2011;21:479-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an unexpected evolutionary diversification of the vertebrate Dlg family in basolateral epithelium formation. ..
  39. Saadat M, Nomoto K, Mizuno Y, Kikuchi K, Yoshida M. Assignment of the gene encoding type 1 gamma protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PPP1CC) on human, rat, and mouse chromosomes. Jpn J Hum Genet. 1996;41:159-65 pubmed
    ..in situ hybridization (FISH) method, a gene encoding the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 gamma (PPP1CC) was mapped to human 12q24.1-q24.2, rat 7 q22, and mouse 10C...
  40. Lee H, Chen R, Kim H, Etchegaray J, Weaver D, Lee C. The period of the circadian oscillator is primarily determined by the balance between casein kinase 1 and protein phosphatase 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..primarily through PER phosphorylation kinetics set by the balance between CK1?/? and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)...
  41. Terry Lorenzo R, Carmody L, Voltz J, Connor J, Li S, Smith F, et al. The neuronal actin-binding proteins, neurabin I and neurabin II, recruit specific isoforms of protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunits. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27716-24 pubmed
    Neurabins are protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) targeting subunits that are highly concentrated in dendritic spines and post-synaptic densities...
  42. Popescu M, Gurel Z, Ronni T, Song C, Hung K, Payne K, et al. Ikaros stability and pericentromeric localization are regulated by protein phosphatase 1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13869-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that Ikaros interacts with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) via a conserved PP1 binding motif, RVXF, in the C-terminal end of the Ikaros protein...
  43. Li T, Chalifour L, Paudel H. Phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 during nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6619-28 pubmed
    ..In this study, we observed that phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) on Thr(320) is reduced in brain extracts from Egr-1(-/-) mice, indicating that a kinase downstream of Egr-1 ..
  44. Korrodi Gregório L, Vieira S, Esteves S, Silva J, Freitas M, Brauns A, et al. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network. Biol Open. 2013;2:453-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present...
  45. Gu M, Zhang T, Lin W, Liu Z, Lai R, Xia D, et al. Protein phosphatase PP1 negatively regulates the Toll-like receptor- and RIG-I-like receptor-triggered production of type I interferon by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation at serines 396 and 385 in macrophage. Cell Signal. 2014;26:2930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) has been reported to be important in many cell functions, including development, differentiation, and ..
  46. Cid C, Garcia Bonilla L, Camafeita E, Burda J, Salinas M, Alcazar A. Proteomic characterization of protein phosphatase 1 complexes in ischemia-reperfusion and ischemic tolerance. Proteomics. 2007;7:3207-18 pubmed
    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulates multiple cellular processes. Protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation is largely altered during ischemia and subsequent reperfusion...
  47. Croci C, Sticht H, Brandstätter J, Enz R. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors bind to protein phosphatase 1C. Mapping and modeling of interacting sequences. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50682-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, these results provide a molecular description of the interaction between protein phosphatase 1C and metabotropic glutamate receptors and thereby increase our understanding of glutamatergic signal transduction. ..
  48. Yang H, Hou H, Pahng A, Gu H, Nairn A, Tang Y, et al. Protein Phosphatase-1 Inhibitor-2 Is a Novel Memory Suppressor. J Neurosci. 2015;35:15082-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Type I protein phosphatase (PP1), in particular, has been shown to constrain learning and memory formation...
  49. Silva J, Yoon S, De Bock P, Goltsev A, Gevaert K, Mendes J, et al. Construction and analysis of a human testis/sperm-enriched interaction network: Unraveling the PPP1CC2 interactome. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:375-385 pubmed publisher
    Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1CC tissue-specific alternative splice restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa, is essential for spermatogenesis and spermatozoa motility...
  50. Schmutz I, Wendt S, Schnell A, Kramer A, Mansuy I, Albrecht U. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a post-translational regulator of the mammalian circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21325 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) as regulator of period and light-induced resetting of the mammalian circadian clock...
  51. Wang X, Swain J, Bollen M, Liu X, Ohl D, Smith G. Endogenous regulators of protein phosphatase-1 during mouse oocyte development and meiosis. Reproduction. 2004;128:493-502 pubmed
    ..Okadaic acid (OA) inhibition of PP1 and/or PP2A stimulates oocyte germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB)...
  52. Saadat M, Kakinoki Y, Mizuno Y, Kikuchi K, Yoshida M. Chromosomal localization of human, rat, and mouse protein phosphatase type 1 beta catalytic subunit genes (PPP1CB) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Jpn J Genet. 1994;69:697-700 pubmed
    ..the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 beta (PPP1CB) in human and its corresponding gene in rat (PP1 delta) and mouse (dis2m2) were mapped to human 2p23, rat 6q21-q23, and mouse 12D, respectively...
  53. Matsuzawa S, Tamura T, Mizuno Y, Kobayashi S, Okuyama H, Tsukitani Y, et al. Increase in potential activities of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A in lymphoid tissues of autoimmune MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J Biochem. 1992;111:472-7 pubmed
    The differential assay conditions for protein phosphatases PP1, PP2A, and PP2C were extensively studied by using crude extracts from mouse lymphoid tissues as enzyme sources...