Gene Symbol: Ppargc1a
Description: peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, gamma, coactivator 1 alpha
Alias: A830037N07Rik, Gm11133, PGC-1, PPARGC-1-alpha, Pgc-1alpha, Pgc1, Pgco1, Ppargc1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PPAR-gamma coactivator 1-alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Ppargc1a

Top Publications

  1. Rhee J, Ge H, Yang W, Fan M, Handschin C, Cooper M, et al. Partnership of PGC-1alpha and HNF4alpha in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14683-90 pubmed
    ..These data point to a crucial role for the PGC-1alpha/HNF4alpha partnership in hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. ..
  2. Arany Z, Novikov M, Chin S, Ma Y, Rosenzweig A, Spiegelman B. Transverse aortic constriction leads to accelerated heart failure in mice lacking PPAR-gamma coactivator 1alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10086-91 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the data suggest that elevating PGC-1alpha activity may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of heart failure. ..
  3. Wu Z, Huang X, Feng Y, Handschin C, Feng Y, Gullicksen P, et al. Transducer of regulated CREB-binding proteins (TORCs) induce PGC-1alpha transcription and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14379-84 pubmed
    ..Our results, together with previous findings, strongly suggest that TORCs play a key role in linking these external signals to the transcriptional program of adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis by activating PGC-1alpha gene transcription. ..
  4. Shin J, Ko H, Kang H, Lee Y, Lee Y, Pletinkova O, et al. PARIS (ZNF746) repression of PGC-1? contributes to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Cell. 2011;144:689-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of PARIS provides a molecular mechanism for neurodegeneration due to parkin inactivation. ..
  5. Adhihetty P, Uguccioni G, Leick L, Hidalgo J, Pilegaard H, Hood D. The role of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial function and apoptotic susceptibility in muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C217-25 pubmed publisher
  6. Summermatter S, Baum O, Santos G, Hoppeler H, Handschin C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator 1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) promotes skeletal muscle lipid refueling in vivo by activating de novo lipogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that PGC-1? coordinates lipogenesis, intramyocellular lipid accumulation, and substrate oxidation in exercised skeletal muscle in vivo...
  7. Calvo J, Daniels T, Wang X, Paul A, Lin J, Spiegelman B, et al. Muscle-specific expression of PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha improves exercise performance and increases peak oxygen uptake. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:1304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus this study demonstrates that upregulation of PGC-1alpha in muscle in vivo is sufficient to greatly improve exercise performance under various exercise paradigms as well as increase peak oxygen uptake. ..
  8. Estall J, Kahn M, Cooper M, Fisher F, Wu M, Laznik D, et al. Sensitivity of lipid metabolism and insulin signaling to genetic alterations in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha expression. Diabetes. 2009;58:1499-508 pubmed publisher
  9. Iwabu M, Yamauchi T, Okada Iwabu M, Sato K, Nakagawa T, Funata M, et al. Adiponectin and AdipoR1 regulate PGC-1alpha and mitochondria by Ca(2+) and AMPK/SIRT1. Nature. 2010;464:1313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased levels of adiponectin and AdipoR1 in obesity may have causal roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance seen in diabetes. ..

More Information


  1. Espinoza D, Boros L, Crunkhorn S, Gami H, Patti M. Dual modulation of both lipid oxidation and synthesis by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta in cultured myotubes. FASEB J. 2010;24:1003-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Espinoza, D. O., Boros, L. G., Crunkhorn, S., Gami, H., Patti, M.-E. Dual Modulation of both lipid oxidation and synthesis by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta in cultured myotubes. ..
  2. Deng T, Sieglaff D, Zhang A, Lyon C, Ayers S, Cvoro A, et al. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)/PPARgamma coactivator 1beta autoregulatory loop in adipocyte mitochondrial function. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PPAR? directly induces PGC-1? expression in adipocytes and that this effect regulates adipocyte mitochondrial activity. ..
  3. Chinsomboon J, Ruas J, Gupta R, Thom R, Shoag J, Rowe G, et al. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha mediates exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that beta-adrenergic stimulation of a PGC-1alpha/ERRalpha/VEGF axis mediates exercise-induced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. ..
  4. Baur J, Pearson K, Price N, Jamieson H, Lerin C, Kalra A, et al. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature. 2006;444:337-42 pubmed
    ..These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing. ..
  5. Li S, Liu C, Li N, Hao T, Han T, Hill D, et al. Genome-wide coactivation analysis of PGC-1alpha identifies BAF60a as a regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Cell Metab. 2008;8:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define a role for the SWI/SNF complexes in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. ..
  6. Bagattin A, Hugendubler L, Mueller E. Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha promotes peroxisomal remodeling and biogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PGC-1? is critical to peroxisomal physiology, establishing a role for this factor as a fundamental orchestrator of cellular adaptation to energy demands. ..
  7. Takikita S, Schreiner C, Baum R, Xie T, Ralston E, Plotz P, et al. Fiber type conversion by PGC-1? activates lysosomal and autophagosomal biogenesis in both unaffected and Pompe skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15239 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have implications for therapy of lysosomal diseases and other disorders with altered autophagy. ..
  8. Arany Z, Foo S, Ma Y, Ruas J, Bommi Reddy A, Girnun G, et al. HIF-independent regulation of VEGF and angiogenesis by the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha. Nature. 2008;451:1008-12 pubmed publisher
    ..PGC-1alpha may provide a novel therapeutic target for treating ischaemic diseases. ..
  9. Leick L, Wojtaszewski J, Johansen S, Kiilerich K, Comes G, Hellsten Y, et al. PGC-1alpha is not mandatory for exercise- and training-induced adaptive gene responses in mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E463-74 pubmed
    ..However, PGC-1alpha is not mandatory for training-induced increases in ALAS1, COXI, and cyt c expression, showing that factors other than PGC-1alpha can exert these adaptations. ..
  10. Miura S, Kai Y, Kamei Y, Ezaki O. Isoform-specific increases in murine skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA in response to beta2-adrenergic receptor activation and exercise. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4527-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that AR activation is a major mechanism of an increase in PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscles, and the increase in PGC-1alpha mRNAs was isoform specific. ..
  11. Scott I, Webster B, Chan C, Okonkwo J, Han K, Sack M. GCN5-like protein 1 (GCN5L1) controls mitochondrial content through coordinated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:2864-72 pubmed publisher
  12. Li X, Monks B, Ge Q, Birnbaum M. Akt/PKB regulates hepatic metabolism by directly inhibiting PGC-1alpha transcription coactivator. Nature. 2007;447:1012-6 pubmed
    ..These results define a mechanism by which insulin controls lipid catabolism in the liver and suggest a novel site for therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  13. Sandri M, Lin J, Handschin C, Yang W, Arany Z, Lecker S, et al. PGC-1alpha protects skeletal muscle from atrophy by suppressing FoxO3 action and atrophy-specific gene transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16260-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the high levels of PGC-1alpha in dark and exercising muscles can explain their resistance to atrophy, and the rapid fall in PGC-1alpha during atrophy should enhance the FoxO-dependent loss of muscle mass. ..
  14. Mudo G, Mäkelä J, Di Liberto V, Tselykh T, Olivieri M, Piepponen P, et al. Transgenic expression and activation of PGC-1? protect dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV and other compounds acting via SIRT1/PGC-1? may prove useful as neuroprotective agents in PD and possibly in other neurological disorders. ..
  15. Uguccioni G, Hood D. The importance of PGC-1? in contractile activity-induced mitochondrial adaptations. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E361-71 pubmed publisher
  16. Finck B, Kelly D. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) regulatory cascade in cardiac physiology and disease. Circulation. 2007;115:2540-8 pubmed
  17. Ciron C, Lengacher S, Dusonchet J, Aebischer P, Schneider B. Sustained expression of PGC-1? in the rat nigrostriatal system selectively impairs dopaminergic function. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1861-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the central role of PGC-1? in the function and survival of dopaminergic neurons and the critical need for maintaining physiological levels of PGC-1? activity. ..
  18. Yan W, Zhang H, Liu P, Wang H, Liu J, Gao C, et al. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis due to dysfunctional adiponectin-AMPK-PGC-1? signaling contributing to increased vulnerability in diabetic heart. Basic Res Cardiol. 2013;108:329 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, hypoadiponectinemia impaired AMPK-PGC-1? signaling, resulting in dysfunctional mitochondrial biogenesis that constitutes a novel mechanism for rendering diabetic hearts more vulnerable to enhanced MI injury. ..
  19. Trausch Azar J, Leone T, Kelly D, Schwartz A. Ubiquitin proteasome-dependent degradation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1{alpha} via the N-terminal pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the cellular localization of NT-PCG-1? results in a longer-half-life and possible distinct temporal and potentially biological actions. ..
  20. Cunningham J, Rodgers J, Arlow D, Vazquez F, Mootha V, Puigserver P. mTOR controls mitochondrial oxidative function through a YY1-PGC-1alpha transcriptional complex. Nature. 2007;450:736-40 pubmed
    ..These results have important implications for our understanding of how these pathways might be altered in metabolic diseases and cancer. ..
  21. Schilling J, Lai L, Sambandam N, Dey C, Leone T, Kelly D. Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory signaling reprograms cardiac energy metabolism by repressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1 signaling. Circ Heart Fail. 2011;4:474-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactivation of PGC-1? expression can reverse the metabolic and functional derangements caused by LPS-TLR4 activation, identifying the PGC-1 axis as a candidate therapeutic target for sepsis-induced heart failure. ..
  22. Choi C, Befroy D, Codella R, Kim S, Reznick R, Hwang Y, et al. Paradoxical effects of increased expression of PGC-1alpha on muscle mitochondrial function and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19926-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, caused activation of PKC, decreased insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation, and skeletal muscle insulin resistance...
  23. Miura S, Tomitsuka E, Kamei Y, Yamazaki T, Kai Y, Tamura M, et al. Overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha leads to muscle atrophy with depletion of ATP. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:1129-39 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that overexpression of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle increases not only mitochondrial biogenesis but also uncoupling of respiration, resulting in muscle atrophy. ..
  24. Lucas E, Markwardt S, Gupta S, Meador Woodruff J, Lin J, Overstreet Wadiche L, et al. Parvalbumin deficiency and GABAergic dysfunction in mice lacking PGC-1alpha. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings indicate that PGC-1alpha is a novel regulator of interneuron gene expression and function and a potential therapeutic target for neurological disorders associated with interneuron dysfunction. ..
  25. Ma D, Li S, Lucas E, Cowell R, Lin J. Neuronal inactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) protects mice from diet-induced obesity and leads to degenerative lesions. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39087-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also implicate CaMKII?-positive neurons as an important part of the neural circuitry that governs energy expenditure in vivo. ..
  26. Aquilano K, Vigilanza P, Baldelli S, Pagliei B, Rotilio G, Ciriolo M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) reside in mitochondria: possible direct function in mitochondrial biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21590-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this work adds new knowledge on the function of SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha and highlights the direct involvement of such proteins in regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. ..
  27. Wende A, Huss J, Schaeffer P, Giguere V, Kelly D. PGC-1alpha coactivates PDK4 gene expression via the orphan nuclear receptor ERRalpha: a mechanism for transcriptional control of muscle glucose metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10684-94 pubmed
  28. Handschin C, Chin S, Li P, Liu F, Maratos Flier E, Lebrasseur N, et al. Skeletal muscle fiber-type switching, exercise intolerance, and myopathy in PGC-1alpha muscle-specific knock-out animals. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30014-21 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate a critical role for PGC-1alpha in maintenance of normal fiber type composition and of muscle fiber integrity following exertion. ..
  29. Lai L, Leone T, Zechner C, Schaeffer P, Kelly S, Flanagan D, et al. Transcriptional coactivators PGC-1alpha and PGC-lbeta control overlapping programs required for perinatal maturation of the heart. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1948-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta share roles that collectively are necessary for the postnatal metabolic and functional maturation of heart and BAT. ..
  30. Rowe G, Patten I, Zsengellér Z, El Khoury R, Okutsu M, Bampoh S, et al. Disconnecting mitochondrial content from respiratory chain capacity in PGC-1-deficient skeletal muscle. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1449-56 pubmed publisher
  31. Ruas J, White J, Rao R, Kleiner S, Brannan K, Harrison B, et al. A PGC-1? isoform induced by resistance training regulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Cell. 2012;151:1319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of PGC-1?4 is preferentially induced in mouse and human muscle during resistance exercise. These studies identify a PGC-1? protein that regulates and coordinates factors involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. ..
  32. Chang J, Fernand V, Zhang Y, Shin J, Jun H, Joshi Y, et al. NT-PGC-1α protein is sufficient to link β3-adrenergic receptor activation to transcriptional and physiological components of adaptive thermogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9100-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the transcriptional shift from exon 1a to 1b supports isoform-specific roles for NT-PGC-1α in basal and adaptive thermogenesis. ..
  33. Bhalla K, Hwang B, Dewi R, Ou L, Twaddel W, Fang H, et al. PGC1? promotes tumor growth by inducing gene expression programs supporting lipogenesis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6888-98 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC1?) is a key transcriptional regulator of several metabolic pathways including oxidative metabolism and lipogenesis...
  34. Hoeks J, Arany Z, Phielix E, Moonen Kornips E, Hesselink M, Schrauwen P. Enhanced lipid-but not carbohydrate-supported mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of PGC-1? overexpressing mice. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1026-33 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Taken together, in addition to stimulating mitochondrial proliferation in skeletal muscle, we show here that overexpression of PGC-1? leads to intrinsic mitochondrial adaptations that seem restricted to fat metabolism. ..
  35. Geng T, Li P, Yin X, Yan Z. PGC-1? promotes nitric oxide antioxidant defenses and inhibits FOXO signaling against cardiac cachexia in mice. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that PGC-1? protects muscle from catabolic wasting in chronic heart failure through enhanced nitric oxide antioxidant defenses and inhibition of the forkhead transcription factor signaling pathways. ..
  36. Wu J, Ruas J, Estall J, Rasbach K, Choi J, Ye L, et al. The unfolded protein response mediates adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle through a PGC-1?/ATF6? complex. Cell Metab. 2011;13:160-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that modulation of the UPR through PGC1? represents an alternative avenue to improve skeletal muscle function and achieve metabolic benefits.
  37. Zechner C, Lai L, Zechner J, Geng T, Yan Z, Rumsey J, et al. Total skeletal muscle PGC-1 deficiency uncouples mitochondrial derangements from fiber type determination and insulin sensitivity. Cell Metab. 2010;12:633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we conclude that PGC-1 coactivators are necessary for the oxidative and mitochondrial programs of skeletal muscle but are dispensable for fundamental fiber type determination and insulin sensitivity. ..
  38. Cui L, Jeong H, Borovecki F, Parkhurst C, Tanese N, Krainc D. Transcriptional repression of PGC-1alpha by mutant huntingtin leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Cell. 2006;127:59-69 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest a key role for PGC-1alpha in the control of energy metabolism in the early stages of HD pathogenesis. ..
  39. Finck B, Gropler M, Chen Z, Leone T, Croce M, Harris T, et al. Lipin 1 is an inducible amplifier of the hepatic PGC-1alpha/PPARalpha regulatory pathway. Cell Metab. 2006;4:199-210 pubmed
    ..These results identify lipin 1 as a selective physiological amplifier of the PGC-1alpha/PPARalpha-mediated control of hepatic lipid metabolism. ..
  40. D Errico I, Salvatore L, Murzilli S, Lo Sasso G, Latorre D, Martelli N, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1alpha) is a metabolic regulator of intestinal epithelial cell fate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6603-8 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) is a transcriptional coactivator able to up-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, respiratory capacity, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid ?-oxidation with the final ..
  41. Miura S, Kawanaka K, Kai Y, Tamura M, Goto M, Shiuchi T, et al. An increase in murine skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA in response to exercise is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptor activation. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3441-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that up-regulation of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle by exercise is mediated, at least in part, by beta-ARs activation. Among ARs, beta2-AR may mediate an increase in PGC-1alpha by exercise...
  42. Philp A, Chen A, Lan D, Meyer G, Murphy A, Knapp A, et al. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity is not required for mitochondrial biogenesis or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) deacetylation following endurance exercise. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30561-70 pubmed publisher
  43. Li L, Mühlfeld C, Niemann B, Pan R, Li R, Hilfiker Kleiner D, et al. Mitochondrial biogenesis and PGC-1? deacetylation by chronic treadmill exercise: differential response in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Basic Res Cardiol. 2011;106:1221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPK activation by IL-6 appears to be dispensable for the mitochondrial biogenic responses to chronic treadmill exercise. ..
  44. Compe E, Malerba M, Soler L, Marescaux J, Borrelli E, Egly J. Neurological defects in trichothiodystrophy reveal a coactivator function of TFIIH. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1414-22 pubmed
    ..The discovery of an unexpected stabilizing function for TFIIH deepens our understanding of the pathogenesis and neurological manifestations observed in TTD individuals. ..
  45. Chaturvedi R, Calingasan N, Yang L, Hennessey T, Johri A, Beal M. Impairment of PGC-1alpha expression, neuropathology and hepatic steatosis in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease following chronic energy deprivation. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3190-205 pubmed publisher
  46. Amat R, Planavila A, Chen S, Iglesias R, Giralt M, Villarroya F. SIRT1 controls the transcription of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma Co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in skeletal muscle through the PGC-1alpha autoregulatory loop and interaction with MyoD. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21872-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Autoregulatory control of PGC-1alpha gene transcription seems to be a pivotal mechanism for conferring a transcription-activating response to SIRT1 in skeletal muscle. ..
  47. Kajimura S, Seale P, Tomaru T, Erdjument Bromage H, Cooper M, Ruas J, et al. Regulation of the brown and white fat gene programs through a PRDM16/CtBP transcriptional complex. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the regulated docking of the CtBP proteins on PRDM16 controls the brown and white fat-selective gene programs. ..
  48. Clark J, Silvaggi J, Kiselak T, Zheng K, Clore E, Dai Y, et al. Pgc-1? overexpression downregulates Pitx3 and increases susceptibility to MPTP toxicity associated with decreased Bdnf. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48925 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may have ramifications for neuroprotective strategies targeting overexpression of PGC-1? in PD. ..
  49. Xiang Z, Valenza M, Cui L, Leoni V, Jeong H, Brilli E, et al. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 ? contributes to dysmyelination in experimental models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9544-53 pubmed publisher
    The peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 ? (PGC1?) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD)...
  50. Rasbach K, Gupta R, Ruas J, Wu J, Naseri E, Estall J, et al. PGC-1alpha regulates a HIF2alpha-dependent switch in skeletal muscle fiber types. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that HIF2? acts downstream of PGC-1? as a key regulator of a muscle fiber-type program and the adaptive response to exercise. ..