Gene Symbol: Pparg
Description: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma
Alias: Nr1c3, PPAR-gamma, PPAR-gamma2, PPARgamma, PPARgamma2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Pparg

Top Publications

  1. Ohno H, Shinoda K, Spiegelman B, Kajimura S. PPAR? agonists induce a white-to-brown fat conversion through stabilization of PRDM16 protein. Cell Metab. 2012;15:395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying compounds that stabilize PRDM16 protein may represent a plausible therapeutic pathway for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. ..
  2. Chou W, Galmozzi A, Partida D, Kwan K, Yeung H, Su A, et al. Identification of regulatory elements that control PPAR? expression in adipocyte progenitors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72511 pubmed publisher
  3. Vasheghani F, Monemdjou R, Fahmi H, Zhang Y, Perez G, Blati M, et al. Adult cartilage-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma knockout mice exhibit the spontaneous osteoarthritis phenotype. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PPAR? is a critical regulator of cartilage health, the lack of which leads to an accelerated spontaneous OA phenotype. ..
  4. Qiang L, Wang L, Kon N, Zhao W, Lee S, Zhang Y, et al. Brown remodeling of white adipose tissue by SirT1-dependent deacetylation of Ppar?. Cell. 2012;150:620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SirT1-dependent Ppar? deacetylation is a form of selective Ppar? modulation of potential therapeutic import. ..
  5. Kim J, Park K, Lee E, Jang W, Seo J, Shin S, et al. Suppression of PPAR? through MKRN1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation prevents adipocyte differentiation. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:594-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that MKRN1 is an elusive PPAR? E3 ligase that targets PPAR? for proteasomal degradation by ubiquitin-dependent pathways, and further depict MKRN1 as a novel target for diseases involving PPAR?. ..
  6. Skelhorne Gross G, Reid A, Apostoli A, Di Lena M, Rubino R, Peterson N, et al. Stromal adipocyte PPAR? protects against breast tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:1412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports a protective effect of activating PPAR? as a novel chemopreventive therapy for breast cancer. ..
  7. Cipolletta D, Feuerer M, Li A, Kamei N, Lee J, Shoelson S, et al. PPAR-? is a major driver of the accumulation and phenotype of adipose tissue Treg cells. Nature. 2012;486:549-53 pubmed publisher
  8. Oger F, Dubois Chevalier J, Gheeraert C, Avner S, Durand E, Froguel P, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? regulates genes involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and lipid metabolism during adipogenesis through functionally distinct enhancer classes. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:708-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PPAR utilizes both broadly active and cell type-specific enhancers to modulate the dynamic range of activation of genes involved in the adipogenic process. ..
  9. Ikeda Y, Sugawara A, Taniyama Y, Uruno A, Igarashi K, Arima S, et al. Suppression of rat thromboxane synthase gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in macrophages via an interaction with NRF2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33142-50 pubmed
    ..regulation of the rat thromboxane synthase (TXS) gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in macrophages. The transcription activity of a cloned 5'-flanking region (1...

More Information


  1. Seale P, Bjork B, Yang W, Kajimura S, Chin S, Kuang S, et al. PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch. Nature. 2008;454:961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that PRDM16 specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis. ..
  2. Klotz L, Dani I, Edenhofer F, Nolden L, Evert B, Paul B, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma control of dendritic cell function contributes to development of CD4+ T cell anergy. J Immunol. 2007;178:2122-31 pubmed
    ..we provide molecular evidence that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a negative regulator of DC maturation and function...
  3. Abella A, Dubus P, Malumbres M, Rane S, Kiyokawa H, Sicard A, et al. Cdk4 promotes adipogenesis through PPARgamma activation. Cell Metab. 2005;2:239-49 pubmed
    ..We show that the effects of cdk4 are not limited to the control of differentiation; cdk4 also participates in adipocyte function through activation of PPARgamma.
  4. Luo W, Cao J, Li J, He W. Adipose tissue-specific PPARgamma deficiency increases resistance to oxidative stress. Exp Gerontol. 2008;43:154-63 pubmed
    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) critically regulates adipogenesis and lipogenesis...
  5. Evans Molina C, ROBBINS R, Kono T, Tersey S, Vestermark G, Nunemaker C, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation restores islet function in diabetic mice through reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and maintenance of euchromatin structure. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2053-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PPAR-gamma agonists exert a direct effect in diabetic islets to reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress and enhance Pdx1 levels, leading to favorable alterations of the islet gene chromatin architecture...
  6. Wan Y, Saghatelian A, Chong L, Zhang C, Cravatt B, Evans R. Maternal PPAR gamma protects nursing neonates by suppressing the production of inflammatory milk. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1895-908 pubmed
    ..While PPAR gamma is known to promote adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipose tissue, its role in the lactating mammary gland is ..
  7. Duan S, Ivashchenko C, Russell M, Milstone D, Mortensen R. Cardiomyocyte-specific knockout and agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma both induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Circ Res. 2005;97:372-9 pubmed
    ..Further, rosiglitazone causes cardiac hypertrophy at least partially independent of PPAR-gamma in cardiomyocytes and through different mechanisms from CM-PGKO. ..
  8. Rosen E, Kulkarni R, Sarraf P, Ozcan U, Okada T, Hsu C, et al. Targeted elimination of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in beta cells leads to abnormalities in islet mass without compromising glucose homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7222-9 pubmed
    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis and cellular differentiation...
  9. Lee C, Chawla A, Urbiztondo N, Liao D, Boisvert W, Evans R, et al. Transcriptional repression of atherogenic inflammation: modulation by PPARdelta. Science. 2003;302:453-7 pubmed
    ..PPARdelta and its ligands may thus serve as therapeutic targets to attenuate inflammation and slow the progression of atherosclerosis. ..
  10. Shibuya A, Wada K, Nakajima A, Saeki M, Katayama K, Mayumi T, et al. Nitration of PPARgamma inhibits ligand-dependent translocation into the nucleus in a macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264. FEBS Lett. 2002;525:43-7 pubmed
    ..Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor whose activation is linked to several physiological pathways including regulation of ..
  11. Diab A, Deng C, Smith J, Hussain R, Phanavanh B, Lovett Racke A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2002;168:2508-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PPAR-gamma ligands may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases such as multiple sclerosis. ..
  12. Hansmann G, de Jesus Perez V, Alastalo T, Alvira C, Guignabert C, Bekker J, et al. An antiproliferative BMP-2/PPARgamma/apoE axis in human and murine SMCs and its role in pulmonary hypertension. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1846-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report an interplay between PPARgamma and its transcriptional target apoE downstream of BMP-2 signaling...
  13. Hamza M, Pott S, Vega V, Thomsen J, Kandhadayar G, Ng P, et al. De-novo identification of PPARgamma/RXR binding sites and direct targets during adipogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4907 pubmed publisher
    ..in these disorders is the nuclear hormone transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma)...
  14. Park K, Waki H, Villanueva C, Monticelli L, Hong C, Kang S, et al. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 is a small molecule-inducible modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression and adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..identified the small molecule harmine as a regulator of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and adipocyte differentiation...
  15. Wu Z, Rosen E, Brun R, Hauser S, Adelmant G, Troy A, et al. Cross-regulation of C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma controls the transcriptional pathway of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Mol Cell. 1999;3:151-8 pubmed
    ..Fibroblasts from C/EBP alpha(-/-) mice undergo adipose differentiation through expression and activation of PPAR gamma, though several clear defects are apparent...
  16. Nicol C, Adachi M, Akiyama T, Gonzalez F. PPARgamma in endothelial cells influences high fat diet-induced hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:549-56 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands improve human hypertension...
  17. Hong J, Hwang E, McManus M, Amsterdam A, Tian Y, Kalmukova R, et al. TAZ, a transcriptional modulator of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Science. 2005;309:1074-8 pubmed
    ..Two key transcription factors, Runx2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), drive MSCs to differentiate into either osteoblasts or adipocytes, respectively...
  18. Schupp M, Clemenz M, Gineste R, Witt H, Janke J, Helleboid S, et al. Molecular characterization of new selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulators with angiotensin receptor blocking activity. Diabetes. 2005;54:3442-52 pubmed
    ..interactions and target gene regulation, should result in potent insulin sensitization in the absence of PPARgamma-mediated adverse effects...
  19. Norris A, Chen L, Fisher S, Szanto I, Ristow M, Jozsi A, et al. Muscle-specific PPARgamma-deficient mice develop increased adiposity and insulin resistance but respond to thiazolidinediones. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:608-18 pubmed
    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improves insulin resistance by increasing insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle...
  20. Nakajima A, Wada K, Miki H, Kubota N, Nakajima N, Terauchi Y, et al. Endogenous PPAR gamma mediates anti-inflammatory activity in murine ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:460-9 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor whose activation has been linked to several physiologic pathways including those related to the regulation of intestinal inflammation...
  21. Amin R, Mathews S, Camp H, Ding L, Leff T. Selective activation of PPARgamma in skeletal muscle induces endogenous production of adiponectin and protects mice from diet-induced insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The role muscle PPARgamma plays in metabolic regulation and in mediating the antidiabetic effects of the thiazolidinediones is not ..
  22. Helledie T, Grøntved L, Jensen S, Kiilerich P, Rietveld L, Albrektsen T, et al. The gene encoding the Acyl-CoA-binding protein is activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma through an intronic response element functionally conserved between humans and rodents. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26821-30 pubmed
    ..The rat ACBP gene is directly activated by PPARgamma/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) and PPARalpha/RXRalpha, but not by PPARdelta/RXRalpha, through a PPAR-..
  23. Yang L, Yan D, Yan C, Du H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and ligands inhibit surfactant protein B gene expression in the lung. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36841-7 pubmed
    ..The studies support the concept that surfactant protein B homeostasis is influenced by neutral lipid metabolites in the lung. ..
  24. Sugii S, Olson P, SEARS D, Saberi M, Atkins A, Barish G, et al. PPARgamma activation in adipocytes is sufficient for systemic insulin sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22504-9 pubmed publisher
    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes, how its activation in individual tissues contributes to TZD's therapeutic action ..
  25. Jiang M, Fernandez S, Jerome W, He Y, Yu X, Cai H, et al. Disruption of PPARgamma signaling results in mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia involving active autophagy. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:469-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We selectively knocked down PPARgamma2 isoform in wild-type mouse prostatic epithelial cells and examined the consequences of this in a tissue ..
  26. Schmidt S, Jørgensen M, Chen Y, Nielsen R, Sandelin A, Mandrup S. Cross species comparison of C/EBP? and PPAR? profiles in mouse and human adipocytes reveals interdependent retention of binding sites. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:152 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we show that the binding of C/EBP? and PPAR? in adipocytes have evolved in a highly interdependent manner, indicating a significant cooperativity between these two transcription factors. ..
  27. Nakachi Y, Yagi K, Nikaido I, Bono H, Tonouchi M, Schonbach C, et al. Identification of novel PPARgamma target genes by integrated analysis of ChIP-on-chip and microarray expression data during adipocyte differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:362-6 pubmed publisher
    b>PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) acts as a key molecule of adipocyte differentiation, and transactivates multiple target genes involved in lipid metabolic pathways...
  28. Matsusue K, Haluzik M, Lambert G, Yim S, Gavrilova O, Ward J, et al. Liver-specific disruption of PPARgamma in leptin-deficient mice improves fatty liver but aggravates diabetic phenotypes. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:737-47 pubmed
    To elucidate the function of PPARgamma in leptin-deficient mouse (ob/ob) liver, a PPARgamma liver-null mouse on an ob/ob background, ob/ob-PPARgamma(fl/fl)AlbCre(+), was produced using a floxed PPARgamma allele, PPARgamma(fl/fl), and Cre ..
  29. Tang Q, Otto T, Lane M. Mitotic clonal expansion: a synchronous process required for adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:44-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that MCE is a prerequisite for differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. ..
  30. Tamori Y, Masugi J, Nishino N, Kasuga M. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in maintenance of the characteristics of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes. 2002;51:2045-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PPAR-gamma plays an important role in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes at least in part by maintaining the expression of genes that confer the characteristics of mature adipocytes. ..
  31. Babaev V, Yancey P, Ryzhov S, Kon V, Breyer M, Magnuson M, et al. Conditional knockout of macrophage PPARgamma increases atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 and low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:1647-53 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is highly expressed in macrophage-derived foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions, and its expression may have a dramatic impact on atherosclerosis...
  32. Vidal Puig A, Jimenez Linan M, Lowell B, Hamann A, Hu E, Spiegelman B, et al. Regulation of PPAR gamma gene expression by nutrition and obesity in rodents. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:2553-61 pubmed
    ..The potential for regulation of PPAR gamma gene expression in vivo is unknown...
  33. Bassaganya Riera J, Misyak S, Guri A, Hontecillas R. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in F4/80(hi) adipose tissue macrophages and dampens adipose-tissue inflammation. Cell Immunol. 2009;258:138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we hypothesized that F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM differentially express PPAR gamma. This study phenotypically and functionally characterizes F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM subsets during obesity...
  34. Pérez Mancera P, Bermejo Rodríguez C, González Herrero I, Herranz M, Flores T, Jimenez R, et al. Adipose tissue mass is modulated by SLUG (SNAI2). Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2972-86 pubmed
    ..gene expression both in vivo and in vitro showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated factor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) expression was altered...
  35. Jones J, Shelton K, Guan Y, Breyer M, Magnuson M. Generation and functional confirmation of a conditional null PPARgamma allele in mice. Genesis. 2002;32:134-7 pubmed
  36. Jain S, Pulikuri S, Zhu Y, Qi C, Kanwar Y, Yeldandi A, et al. Differential expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1 and PPAR-binding protein PBP in the brown fat, urinary bladder, colon, and breast of the mouse. Am J Pathol. 1998;153:349-54 pubmed
    ..Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and PPAR-binding protein (PBP) interact with PPARgamma and act as coactivators to enhance ligand-dependent transcription...
  37. Koutnikova H, Cock T, Watanabe M, Houten S, Champy M, Dierich A, et al. Compensation by the muscle limits the metabolic consequences of lipodystrophy in PPAR gamma hypomorphic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14457-62 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor, which controls adipocyte differentiation...
  38. Son N, Yu S, Tuinei J, Arai K, Hamai H, Homma S, et al. PPAR?-induced cardiolipotoxicity in mice is ameliorated by PPAR? deficiency despite increases in fatty acid oxidation. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3443-54 pubmed publisher
  39. Kim S, Kim A, Lee H, Son Y, Lee G, Lee J, et al. miR-27a is a negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation via suppressing PPARgamma expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we reveal that miR-27a is involved in adipocyte differentiation by binding to the PPARgamma 3'-UTR whose sequence motifs are highly conserved in mammals...
  40. Jiang M, Jerome W, Hayward S. Autophagy in nuclear receptor PPARgamma-deficient mouse prostatic carcinogenesis. Autophagy. 2010;6:175-6 pubmed
    ..stress accompanying prostatic carcinogenesis, we characterized in vitro and in vivo models of PPARgamma- and PPARgamma2-deficiency in mouse prostate epithelia...
  41. Pan D, Fujimoto M, Lopes A, Wang Y. Twist-1 is a PPARdelta-inducible, negative-feedback regulator of PGC-1alpha in brown fat metabolism. Cell. 2009;137:73-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected physiological role for twist-1 in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and have important implications for understanding metabolic control and metabolic diseases. ..
  42. Wang N, Yang G, Jia Z, Zhang H, Aoyagi T, Soodvilai S, et al. Vascular PPARgamma controls circadian variation in blood pressure and heart rate through Bmal1. Cell Metab. 2008;8:482-91 pubmed publisher
    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are PPARgamma activators that exhibit vasculoprotective properties. To determine the vascular function of PPARgamma, we analyzed Tie2Cre/flox and SM22Cre/flox mice...
  43. Nielsen R, Pedersen T, Hagenbeek D, Moulos P, Siersbaek R, Megens E, et al. Genome-wide profiling of PPARgamma:RXR and RNA polymerase II occupancy reveals temporal activation of distinct metabolic pathways and changes in RXR dimer composition during adipogenesis. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2953-67 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in vivo and ex vivo and has been shown to control the expression of several adipocyte-specific genes...
  44. Necela B, Su W, Thompson E. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma down-regulates follistatin in intestinal epithelial cells through SP1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29784-94 pubmed publisher
    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) down-regulates the expression of follistatin mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo...
  45. Odegaard J, Ricardo Gonzalez R, Goforth M, Morel C, Subramanian V, Mukundan L, et al. Macrophage-specific PPARgamma controls alternative activation and improves insulin resistance. Nature. 2007;447:1116-20 pubmed
    ..Using mice with macrophage-specific deletion of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), we show here that PPARgamma is required for maturation of alternatively activated macrophages...
  46. Pérez Mancera P, Vicente Dueñas C, González Herrero I, Sanchez Martin M, Flores Corral T, Sanchez Garcia I. Fat-specific FUS-DDIT3-transgenic mice establish PPARgamma inactivation is required to liposarcoma development. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:2069-73 pubmed
    ..in the adipocyte differentiation process after induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression...
  47. Dowell P, Otto T, Adi S, Lane M. Convergence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and Foxo1 signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45485-91 pubmed
    ..Foxo1 antagonized PPARgamma activity and vice versa indicating that these transcription factors functionally interact in a reciprocal ..
  48. Heikkinen S, Argmann C, Feige J, Koutnikova H, Champy M, Dali Youcef N, et al. The Pro12Ala PPARgamma2 variant determines metabolism at the gene-environment interface. Cell Metab. 2009;9:88-98 pubmed publisher
    The metabolic impact of the common peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 2 (PPARgamma2) variant Pro12Ala in human populations has been widely debated...
  49. Lu M, Sarruf D, Talukdar S, Sharma S, Li P, Bandyopadhyay G, et al. Brain PPAR-? promotes obesity and is required for the insulin-sensitizing effect of thiazolidinediones. Nat Med. 2011;17:618-22 pubmed publisher
    ..As PPAR-? is also expressed in neurons, we generated mice with neuron-specific Pparg knockout (Pparg brain knockout (BKO)) to determine whether neuronal PPAR-? signaling contributes to either weight ..
  50. Duan S, Ivashchenko C, Whitesall S, D Alecy L, Duquaine D, Brosius F, et al. Hypotension, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance in generalized PPARgamma-deficient mice rescued from embryonic lethality. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:812-22 pubmed
    We rescued the embryonic lethality of global PPARgamma knockout by breeding Mox2-Cre (MORE) mice with floxed PPARgamma mice to inactivate PPARgamma in the embryo but not in trophoblasts and created a generalized PPARgamma knockout mouse ..
  51. Guignabert C, Alvira C, Alastalo T, Sawada H, Hansmann G, Zhao M, et al. Tie2-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in mice causes PDGF receptor-beta-dependent pulmonary arterial muscularization. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L1082-90 pubmed publisher
    ..is reduced in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of patients with PA hypertension (PAH), and we reported that deletion of PPARgamma in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of transgenic mice results in PAH...
  52. Draper E, Reynolds C, Canavan M, Mills K, Loscher C, Roche H. Omega-3 fatty acids attenuate dendritic cell function via NF-?B independent of PPAR?. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus n-3 PUFA activate PPAR? and interact with NF-?B in DC. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of EPA and DHA on DCs are independent of PPAR?. ..
  53. Li A, Brown K, Silvestre M, Willson T, Palinski W, Glass C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands inhibit development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:523-31 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates fat-cell development and glucose homeostasis and is the molecular target of a class of insulin-sensitizing agents used for the ..