Gene Symbol: Pou5f1
Description: POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1
Alias: NF-A3, Oct-3, Oct-3/4, Oct-4, Oct3, Oct3/4, Oct4, Otf-3, Otf-4, Otf3, Otf3-rs7, Otf3g, Otf4, POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1, POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 transcript variant 2 oct4b', POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 transcript variant 3 oct4b, octamer-binding protein 3, octamer-binding protein 4, octamer-binding transcription factor 3, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 alternative
Species: mouse
Products:     Pou5f1

Top Publications

  1. Lengner C, Camargo F, Hochedlinger K, Welstead G, Zaidi S, Gokhale S, et al. Oct4 expression is not required for mouse somatic stem cell self-renewal. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:403-15 pubmed
    The Pou domain containing transcription factor Oct4 is a well-established regulator of pluripotency in the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst as well as in embryonic stem cells...
  2. Tay Y, Zhang J, Thomson A, Lim B, Rigoutsos I. MicroRNAs to Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 coding regions modulate embryonic stem cell differentiation. Nature. 2008;455:1124-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we focus on the mouse Nanog, Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) and Sox2 genes and demonstrate the existence of many naturally occurring miRNA targets in their amino acid coding ..
  3. Warr N, Carré G, Siggers P, Faleato J, Brixey R, Pope M, et al. Gadd45? and Map3k4 interactions regulate mouse testis determination via p38 MAPK-mediated control of Sry expression. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1020-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a requirement for GADD45? in promoting MAP3K4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK signaling in embryonic gonadal somatic cells for testis determination in the mouse. ..
  4. Ding J, Xu H, Faiola F, Ma ayan A, Wang J. Oct4 links multiple epigenetic pathways to the pluripotency network. Cell Res. 2012;22:155-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Oct4 is a well-known transcription factor that plays fundamental roles in stem cell self-renewal, pluripotency, and somatic cell reprogramming...
  5. Suzuki H, Tsuda M, Kiso M, Saga Y. Nanos3 maintains the germ cell lineage in the mouse by suppressing both Bax-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. Dev Biol. 2008;318:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus suggest that heterogeneity exists in the PGC populations and that Nanos3 maintains the germ cell lineage by suppressing both Bax-dependent and Bax-independent apoptotic pathways. ..
  6. Do D, Ueda J, Messerschmidt D, Lorthongpanich C, Zhou Y, Feng B, et al. A genetic and developmental pathway from STAT3 to the OCT4-NANOG circuit is essential for maintenance of ICM lineages in vivo. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1378-90 pubmed publisher
    Although it is known that OCT4-NANOG are required for maintenance of pluripotent cells in vitro, the upstream signals that regulate this circuit during early development in vivo have not been identified...
  7. Sharov A, Masui S, Sharova L, Piao Y, Aiba K, Matoba R, et al. Identification of Pou5f1, Sox2, and Nanog downstream target genes with statistical confidence by applying a novel algorithm to time course microarray and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation data. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:269 pubmed publisher
    Target genes of a transcription factor (TF) Pou5f1 (Oct3/4 or Oct4), which is essential for pluripotency maintenance and self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells, have previously been identified based on their response to Pou5f1 ..
  8. Stanghellini I, Falco G, Lee S, Monti M, Ko M. Trim43a, Trim43b, and Trim43c: Novel mouse genes expressed specifically in mouse preimplantation embryos. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Trim43 genes will be useful stage-specific markers for the study of preimplantation embryos. ..
  9. Campolo F, Gori M, Favaro R, Nicolis S, Pellegrini M, Botti F, et al. Essential role of Sox2 for the establishment and maintenance of the germ cell line. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1408-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox2 also stimulates the expression of Zfp148, which is required for normal development of fetal germ cells, and Rif1, a potential regulator of PGC pluripotency. ..

More Information


  1. Pfeiffer M, Balbach S, Esteves T, Crosetto N, Boiani M. Enhancing somatic nuclear reprogramming by Oct4 gain-of-function in cloned mouse embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1649-57 pubmed publisher
    Cloned mouse embryo development to blastocyst stage correlates positively with the expression level of Oct4 (Pou5f1) at the morula stage, as reported previously by our laboratory...
  2. Cockburn K, Biechele S, Garner J, Rossant J. The Hippo pathway member Nf2 is required for inner cell mass specification. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish a clear role for Nf2 upstream of Yap in the preimplantation embryo and demonstrate that Hippo signaling is essential to segregate the ICM from the TE. ..
  3. Navarro P, Chambers I, Karwacki Neisius V, Chureau C, Morey C, Rougeulle C, et al. Molecular coupling of Xist regulation and pluripotency. Science. 2008;321:1693-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that key factors supporting pluripotency-Nanog, Oct3/4, and Sox2-bind within Xist intron 1 in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells...
  4. Gill M, Hu Y, Lin Y, Page D. Licensing of gametogenesis, dependent on RNA binding protein DAZL, as a gateway to sexual differentiation of fetal germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In C57BL/6 mice, Dazl is required for licensing. Licensing serves as a gateway from the embryonic processes shared between the sexes--germ cell specification and migration--to the sex-specific pathways of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. ..
  5. Tan M, Au K, Leong D, Foygel K, Wong W, Yao M. An Oct4-Sall4-Nanog network controls developmental progression in the pre-implantation mouse embryo. Mol Syst Biol. 2013;9:632 pubmed publisher
    ..We delineated the regulons of Oct4, Sall4, and Nanog and identified a set of metabolism- and transport-related genes that were controlled by these ..
  6. Stadtfeld M, Maherali N, Borkent M, Hochedlinger K. A reprogrammable mouse strain from gene-targeted embryonic stem cells. Nat Methods. 2010;7:53-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As these 'reprogrammable mice' can be easily bred, they are a useful tool to study the mechanisms underlying cellular reprogramming. ..
  7. Thomson M, Liu S, Zou L, Smith Z, Meissner A, Ramanathan S. Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers. Cell. 2011;145:875-89 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit that maintains pluripotency, we found that Oct4 and Sox2, proteins that maintain ESC identity, also orchestrate germ layer fate selection...
  8. Zalzman M, Falco G, Sharova L, Nishiyama A, Thomas M, Lee S, et al. Zscan4 regulates telomere elongation and genomic stability in ES cells. Nature. 2010;464:858-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show a unique mode of genome maintenance in ES cells. ..
  9. Wang K, Sengupta S, Magnani L, Wilson C, Henry R, Knott J. Brg1 is required for Cdx2-mediated repression of Oct4 expression in mouse blastocysts. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10622 pubmed publisher
    ..cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm is governed by the mutually antagonistic effects of the transcription factors Oct4 and Cdx2. Evidence indicates that suppression of Oct4 expression in the trophectoderm is mediated by Cdx2...
  10. Sugimoto M, Kondo M, Hirose M, Suzuki M, Mekada K, Abe T, et al. Molecular identification of t(w5): Vps52 promotes pluripotential cell differentiation through cell-cell interactions. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also required in the formation of embryonic structures at a later stage of development, revealing hitherto unknown functions of Vps52 in the development of a multicellular organism. ..
  11. Krentz A, Murphy M, Zhang T, Sarver A, Jain S, Griswold M, et al. Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line. Dev Biol. 2013;377:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the strong evidence for involvement of DMRT1 in human TGCT, the downstream genes and pathways identified in this study provide potentially useful candidates for roles in the human disease. ..
  12. Akamatsu W, DeVeale B, Okano H, Cooney A, van der Kooy D. Suppression of Oct4 by germ cell nuclear factor restricts pluripotency and promotes neural stem cell development in the early neural lineage. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2113-24 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 8.5 in vivo, accompanied by a decrease in non-neural competency. We found that Oct4 is expressed in LIF-dependent primitive neural stem cells and suppressed in FGF-dependent definitive neural stem ..
  13. Esch D, Vahokoski J, Groves M, Pogenberg V, Cojocaru V, Vom Bruch H, et al. A unique Oct4 interface is crucial for reprogramming to pluripotency. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:295-301 pubmed publisher
    Terminally differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency by the forced expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc...
  14. Niakan K, Ji H, Maehr R, Vokes S, Rodolfa K, Sherwood R, et al. Sox17 promotes differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells by directly regulating extraembryonic gene expression and indirectly antagonizing self-renewal. Genes Dev. 2010;24:312-26 pubmed publisher
    ..into extraembryonic cell types and maintain expression of pluripotency-associated transcription factors, including Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2...
  15. Gao X, Tate P, Hu P, Tjian R, Skarnes W, Wang Z. ES cell pluripotency and germ-layer formation require the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling component BAF250a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..contributes to the proper expression of numerous genes involved in ES cell self-renewal, including Sox2, Utf1, and Oct4. Furthermore, the pluripotency defects in BAF250a mutant ES cells appear to be cell lineage-specific...
  16. Kelly K, Ng D, Jayakumaran G, Wood G, Koide H, Doble B. ?-catenin enhances Oct-4 activity and reinforces pluripotency through a TCF-independent mechanism. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:214-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest previously underappreciated, divergent TCF-dependent and TCF-independent roles for ?-catenin in ESCs. ..
  17. Cook M, Munger S, Nadeau J, Capel B. Regulation of male germ cell cycle arrest and differentiation by DND1 is modulated by genetic background. Development. 2011;138:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..germ cells fail to enter mitotic arrest in G0 and do not downregulate the pluripotency markers NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4. We show that DND1 directly binds a group of transcripts that encode negative regulators of the cell cycle, ..
  18. Mullen A, Orlando D, Newman J, Lovén J, Kumar R, Bilodeau S, et al. Master transcription factors determine cell-type-specific responses to TGF-? signaling. Cell. 2011;147:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Smad3 occupies the genome with Oct4 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Myod1 in myotubes, and PU.1 in pro-B cells...
  19. Han D, Greber B, Wu G, Tapia N, Arauzo Bravo M, Ko K, et al. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into epiblast stem cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc into somatic cells has been shown to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that are ..
  20. Tam W, Lim C, Han J, Zhang J, Ang Y, Ng H, et al. T-cell factor 3 regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal by the transcriptional control of multiple lineage pathways. Stem Cells. 2008;26:2019-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, Tcf3 binds to and represses the Oct4 promoter, and this repressive effect requires both the Groucho and CtBP interacting domains of Tcf3...
  21. Shin D, Zuba Surma E, Wu W, Ratajczak J, Wysoczynski M, Ratajczak M, et al. Novel epigenetic mechanisms that control pluripotency and quiescence of adult bone marrow-derived Oct4(+) very small embryonic-like stem cells. Leukemia. 2009;23:2042-51 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we identified in adult tissues a population of Oct4(+)SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs)...
  22. Mizuno N, Kosaka M. Novel variants of Oct-3/4 gene expressed in mouse somatic cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30997-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we determined novel promoter regions that are sufficient for the expression of Oct-3/4 transcript variants in somatic cells. These findings provide new insights into the postnatal role of Oct-3/4 in somatic tissues. ..
  23. Messerschmidt D, Kemler R. Nanog is required for primitive endoderm formation through a non-cell autonomous mechanism. Dev Biol. 2010;344:129-37 pubmed publisher
    Early lineage segregation in mouse development results in two, either CDX2- or OCT4/NANOG-positive, cell populations. CDX2-positive cells form the trophectoderm (TE), OCT4/NANOG-positive cells the inner cell mass (ICM)...
  24. Folmes C, Nelson T, Martinez Fernandez A, Arrell D, Lindor J, Dzeja P, et al. Somatic oxidative bioenergetics transitions into pluripotency-dependent glycolysis to facilitate nuclear reprogramming. Cell Metab. 2011;14:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the energetic infrastructure of somatic cells transitions into a required glycolytic metabotype to fuel induction of pluripotency. ..
  25. DeVeale B, Brokhman I, Mohseni P, Babak T, Yoon C, Lin A, et al. Oct4 is required ~E7.5 for proliferation in the primitive streak. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003957 pubmed publisher
    b>Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM) in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm...
  26. Zhang J, Tomasini A, Mayer A. RBM19 is essential for preimplantation development in the mouse. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:115 pubmed publisher
    ..The timing of developmental arrest occurs after expression of the inner cell mass markers OCT3/4 and NANOG, but prior to the specification of trophectoderm as reflected by CDX2 expression...
  27. Radzisheuskaya A, Chia G, Dos Santos R, Theunissen T, Castro L, Nichols J, et al. A defined Oct4 level governs cell state transitions of pluripotency entry and differentiation into all embryonic lineages. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:579-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Oct4 is considered a master transcription factor for pluripotent cell self-renewal, but its biology remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Oct4 using the process of induced pluripotency...
  28. Home P, Ray S, Dutta D, Bronshteyn I, Larson M, Paul S. GATA3 is selectively expressed in the trophectoderm of peri-implantation embryo and directly regulates Cdx2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a novel function of GATA3, in which it is selectively expressed in TE, regulates expression of key genes in TE lineage, and is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation...
  29. Aksoy I, Jauch R, Chen J, Dyla M, Divakar U, Bogu G, et al. Oct4 switches partnering from Sox2 to Sox17 to reinterpret the enhancer code and specify endoderm. EMBO J. 2013;32:938-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that genomic redistribution of Oct4 by alternative partnering with Sox2 and Sox17 is a fundamental regulatory event of endodermal specification...
  30. Kim B, Kim Y, Sakuma R, Hui C, Ruther U, Jorgensen J. Primordial germ cell proliferation is impaired in Fused Toes mutant embryos. Dev Biol. 2011;349:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..From these studies, we have discovered that the Ft locus on mouse chromosome 8 is associated with cell cycle deficits within the primordial germ cell population that initiates just before translocation into the genital ridge. ..
  31. Ralston A, Cox B, Nishioka N, Sasaki H, Chea E, Rugg Gunn P, et al. Gata3 regulates trophoblast development downstream of Tead4 and in parallel to Cdx2. Development. 2010;137:395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Cdx2 plays a central role by repressing pluripotency genes, such as Oct4, and promoting extraembryonic trophoblast fate at the blastocyst stage...
  32. Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Ohinata Y, Shigeta M, Yamanaka K, Saitou M. Complex genome-wide transcription dynamics orchestrated by Blimp1 for the specification of the germ cell lineage in mice. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1617-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Blimp1 is not a single initiator but a dominant coordinator of the transcriptional program for the establishment of the germ cell fate in mice. ..
  33. Maherali N, Sridharan R, Xie W, Utikal J, Eminli S, Arnold K, et al. Directly reprogrammed fibroblasts show global epigenetic remodeling and widespread tissue contribution. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:55-70 pubmed publisher
    Ectopic expression of the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 is sufficient to confer a pluripotent state upon the fibroblast genome, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
  34. Teo A, Arnold S, Trotter M, Brown S, Ang L, Chng Z, et al. Pluripotency factors regulate definitive endoderm specification through eomesodermin. Genes Dev. 2011;25:238-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the pluripotency factors NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2 have an essential function in this network by actively directing differentiation...
  35. Le Bin G, Muñoz Descalzo S, Kurowski A, Leitch H, Lou X, Mansfield W, et al. Oct4 is required for lineage priming in the developing inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2014;141:1001-10 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Oct4 is required in vitro for establishment and maintenance of embryonic stem cells and for reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency...
  36. Schrode N, Saiz N, Di Talia S, Hadjantonakis A. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2014;29:454-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a framework for quantitative analyses of mammalian embryos and establishes GATA6 as a nodal point in the gene regulatory network driving ICM lineage specification. ..
  37. Chassot A, Ranc F, Gregoire E, Roepers Gajadien H, Taketo M, Camerino G, et al. Activation of beta-catenin signaling by Rspo1 controls differentiation of the mammalian ovary. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1264-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a balance between Sox9 and beta-catenin activation determines the fate of the gonad, with Rspo1 acting as a crucial regulator of canonical beta-catenin signaling required for female development. ..
  38. Ewen K, Jackson A, Wilhelm D, Koopman P. A male-specific role for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in germ cell sex differentiation in mice. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling in XY germ cells ex vivo reduced expression of the pluripotency marker POU5F1 and increased the expression of Stra8 and SYCP3, premeiosis and meiosis markers, respectively, to levels ..
  39. Heng J, Feng B, Han J, Jiang J, Kraus P, Ng J, et al. The nuclear receptor Nr5a2 can replace Oct4 in the reprogramming of murine somatic cells to pluripotent cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;6:167-74 pubmed publisher
    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with the introduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc...
  40. Brambrink T, Foreman R, Welstead G, Lengner C, Wernig M, Suh H, et al. Sequential expression of pluripotency markers during direct reprogramming of mouse somatic cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:151-9 pubmed publisher
    Pluripotency can be induced in differentiated murine and human cells by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc...
  41. Marikawa Y, Tamashiro D, Fujita T, Alarcon V. Dual roles of Oct4 in the maintenance of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells: as negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and competence provider for Brachyury induction. Stem Cells Dev. 2011;20:621-33 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor Oct4 is expressed in pluripotent cell lineages during mouse development, namely, in inner cell mass (ICM), primitive ectoderm, and primordial germ cells...
  42. Alder O, Lavial F, Helness A, Brookes E, Pinho S, Chandrashekran A, et al. Ring1B and Suv39h1 delineate distinct chromatin states at bivalent genes during early mouse lineage commitment. Development. 2010;137:2483-92 pubmed publisher
  43. Gupta P, Ho P, Huq M, Ha S, Park S, Khan A, et al. Retinoic acid-stimulated sequential phosphorylation, PML recruitment, and SUMOylation of nuclear receptor TR2 to suppress Oct4 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11424-9 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported an intricate mechanism underlying the homeostasis of Oct4 expression in normally proliferating stem cell culture of P19, mediated by SUMOylation of orphan nuclear receptor TR2...
  44. de Vries W, Evsikov A, Brogan L, Anderson C, Graber J, Knowles B, et al. Reprogramming and differentiation in mammals: motifs and mechanisms. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2008;73:33-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 form the core components of the pluripotency circuitry would imply that control at the ..
  45. Warr N, Siggers P, Bogani D, Brixey R, Pastorelli L, Yates L, et al. Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are required for normal male sexual development in mice. Dev Biol. 2009;326:273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarities between the abnormalities of embryonic sexual development in Sfrp1(-/-)Sfrp2(-/-) embryos with those exhibited by the Looptail and Wnt5a mutants suggest that disrupted non-canonical Wnt signalling may cause these defects. ..
  46. Miyanari Y, Torres Padilla M. Control of ground-state pluripotency by allelic regulation of Nanog. Nature. 2012;483:470-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of epigenetic marks and the activation of pluripotent-cell-specific genes such as Nanog and Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1)...
  47. Anton R, Kestler H, Kuhl M. Beta-catenin signaling contributes to stemness and regulates early differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5247-54 pubmed
    ..During differentiation, activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway influences formation of mesoderm and cardiomyocytes in a time and dose dependent manner. ..
  48. Donohoe M, Silva S, Pinter S, Xu N, Lee J. The pluripotency factor Oct4 interacts with Ctcf and also controls X-chromosome pairing and counting. Nature. 2009;460:128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) lies at the top of the XCI hierarchy, and regulates XCI by triggering X-chromosome pairing and counting...
  49. Yu H, Kunarso G, Hong F, Stanton L. Zfp206, Oct4, and Sox2 are integrated components of a transcriptional regulatory network in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Presented here are data showing that Zfp206 works together with two other transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2, which are also essential regulators of ESC pluripotency...
  50. Iwafuchi Doi M, Matsuda K, Murakami K, Niwa H, Tesar P, Aruga J, et al. Transcriptional regulatory networks in epiblast cells and during anterior neural plate development as modeled in epiblast stem cells. Development. 2012;139:3926-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct interaction of these factors with enhancers of Otx2, Hesx1 and Sox2 genes was demonstrated. Thus, a combination of regulatory processes that suppresses non-ANP lineages and promotes neural plate development determines the ANP...
  51. Hammachi F, Morrison G, Sharov A, Livigni A, Narayan S, Papapetrou E, et al. Transcriptional activation by Oct4 is sufficient for the maintenance and induction of pluripotency. Cell Rep. 2012;1:99-109 pubmed publisher
    b>Oct4 is an essential regulator of pluripotency in vivo and in vitro in embryonic stem cells, as well as a key mediator of the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells...
  52. Anokye Danso F, Trivedi C, Juhr D, Gupta M, Cui Z, Tian Y, et al. Highly efficient miRNA-mediated reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells to pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:376-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This miRNA-based reprogramming approach is two orders of magnitude more efficient than standard Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Myc-mediated methods...
  53. Bogani D, Siggers P, Brixey R, Warr N, Beddow S, Edwards J, et al. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4) reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000196 pubmed publisher