Gene Symbol: Pomc
Description: pro-opiomelanocortin-alpha
Alias: ACTH, Beta-LPH, Clip, Gamma-LPH, Npp, Pomc-1, Pomc1, alpha-MSH, alphaMSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH, pro-opiomelanocortin, adrenal corticotropic hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, beta-endorphin, corticotropin-like intermediary peptide, corticotropin-lipotropin, melanotropin gamma, met-enkephalin
Species: mouse
Products:     Pomc

Top Publications

  1. de Souza F, Santangelo A, Bumaschny V, Avale M, Smart J, Low M, et al. Identification of neuronal enhancers of the proopiomelanocortin gene by transgenic mouse analysis and phylogenetic footprinting. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3076-86 pubmed
    The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is expressed in the pituitary and arcuate neurons of the hypothalamus...
  2. Hochgeschwender U, Costa J, Reed P, Bui S, Brennan M. Altered glucose homeostasis in proopiomelanocortin-null mouse mutants lacking central and peripheral melanocortin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:5194-202 pubmed
    ..We tested this in a mouse model where the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene encoding all of the melanocortins has been genetically deleted...
  3. Wittmann G, Hrabovszky E, Lechan R. Distinct glutamatergic and GABAergic subsets of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons revealed by in situ hybridization in male rats and mice. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3287-302 pubmed publisher
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) neurons in the hypothalamus regulate various aspects of energy homeostasis and metabolism...
  4. Bumaschny V, Yamashita M, Casas Cordero R, Otero Corchon V, de Souza F, Rubinstein M, et al. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons...
  5. Pelling M, Anthwal N, McNay D, Gradwohl G, Leiter A, Guillemot F, et al. Differential requirements for neurogenin 3 in the development of POMC and NPY neurons in the hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2011;349:406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..fate mapping and loss of function studies in mice demonstrate that Ngn3+ progenitors contribute to subsets of POMC, NPY, TH and SF1 neurons and is required for the specification of these neuronal subtypes in the ventral ..
  6. Hill J, Williams K, Ye C, Luo J, Balthasar N, Coppari R, et al. Acute effects of leptin require PI3K signaling in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1796-805 pubmed publisher
    ..food intake and body weight homeostasis require the direct action of leptin on hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. It has been proposed that leptin action requires PI3K activity...
  7. Coll A, Challis B, Lopez M, Piper S, Yeo G, O Rahilly S. Proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice are hypersensitive to the adverse metabolic effects of glucocorticoids. Diabetes. 2005;54:2269-76 pubmed
    Congenital lack of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) causes obesity and glucocorticoid deficiency. The responses of Pomc-/- and wild-type mice to the administration of corticosterone were compared...
  8. Fioramonti X, Contie S, Song Z, Routh V, Lorsignol A, Penicaud L. Characterization of glucosensing neuron subpopulations in the arcuate nucleus: integration in neuropeptide Y and pro-opio melanocortin networks?. Diabetes. 2007;56:1219-27 pubmed
    ..in glucose-inhibited neurons and the neurotransmitter identity (neuropeptide Y [NPY] or pro-opio melanocortin [POMC]) of glucosensing neurons has remained controversial...
  9. Langlais D, Couture C, Sylvain Drolet G, Drouin J. A pituitary-specific enhancer of the POMC gene with preferential activity in corticotrope cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:348-59 pubmed publisher
    Cell-specific expression of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene depends on the combination of tissue- and cell-restricted transcription factors such as Pitx1 and Tpit...

More Information


  1. Xu A, Ste Marie L, Kaelin C, Barsh G. Inactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) neurons causes decreased pomc expression, mild obesity, and defects in compensatory refeeding. Endocrinology. 2007;148:72-80 pubmed
    ..by acting on multiple neuronal subgroups in the hypothalamus, including those that express proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) and agouti-related protein (Agrp)...
  2. Good D, Porter F, Mahon K, Parlow A, Westphal H, Kirsch I. Hypogonadism and obesity in mice with a targeted deletion of the Nhlh2 gene. Nat Genet. 1997;15:397-401 pubmed
    ..Our results support a role for Nhlh2 in the onset of puberty and the regulation of body weight metabolism. ..
  3. Japón M, Rubinstein M, Low M. In situ hybridization analysis of anterior pituitary hormone gene expression during fetal mouse development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1994;42:1117-25 pubmed
    ..5 (E9.5) to postnatal Day 1 (P1). Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was expressed in the basal diencephalon on Day E10...
  4. Bilodeau S, Roussel Gervais A, Drouin J. Distinct developmental roles of cell cycle inhibitors p57Kip2 and p27Kip1 distinguish pituitary progenitor cell cycle exit from cell cycle reentry of differentiated cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1895-908 pubmed publisher
  5. Hentges S, Otero Corchon V, Pennock R, King C, Low M. Proopiomelanocortin expression in both GABA and glutamate neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13684-90 pubmed publisher
    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons have been intensively studied because of their essential role in regulating energy balance and body weight...
  6. Ericson J, Norlin S, Jessell T, Edlund T. Integrated FGF and BMP signaling controls the progression of progenitor cell differentiation and the emergence of pattern in the embryonic anterior pituitary. Development. 1998;125:1005-15 pubmed
    ..BMPs, in contrast, have no apparent effect on cell proliferation but instead appear to act with FGFs to control the initial selection of thyrotroph and corticotroph progenitor identity. ..
  7. Tung Y, Piper S, Yeung D, O Rahilly S, Coll A. A comparative study of the central effects of specific proopiomelancortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin peptides on food intake and body weight in pomc null mice. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5940-7 pubmed
    ..The ligands for these receptors are derived from the prohormone proopiomelancortin (POMC), which is posttranslationally processed to produce a set of melanocortin peptides with a range of activities at ..
  8. Heisler L, Cowley M, Tecott L, Fan W, Low M, Smart J, et al. Activation of central melanocortin pathways by fenfluramine. Science. 2002;297:609-11 pubmed
    ..These results provide a mechanistic explanation of d-FEN's anorexic actions and indicate that drugs targeting these downstream melanocortin pathways may prove to be effective and more selective anti-obesity treatments. ..
  9. Ellsworth B, Butts D, Camper S. Mechanisms underlying pituitary hypoplasia and failed cell specification in Lhx3-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2008;313:118-29 pubmed
  10. Reichardt H, Schutz G. Feedback control of glucocorticoid production is established during fetal development. Mol Med. 1996;2:735-44 pubmed
    ..GR-dependent regulation of the HPA axis is established during fetal development, suggesting that maternal factors have an important role in influencing the HPA axis of the adult offspring. ..
  11. Charles M, Suh H, Hjalt T, Drouin J, Camper S, Gage P. PITX genes are required for cell survival and Lhx3 activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1893-903 pubmed
    ..Thus, the combined dosage of these PITX family members is vital for pituitary development, and their persistent coexpression in the adult pituitary suggests a continued role in maintenance of pituitary function. ..
  12. Makimura H, Mizuno T, Roberts J, Silverstein J, Beasley J, Mobbs C. Adrenalectomy reverses obese phenotype and restores hypothalamic melanocortin tone in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Diabetes. 2000;49:1917-23 pubmed
    ..Relative to lean controls, ob/ob mice also exhibit decreased hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and increased hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AGRP) mRNA and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA...
  13. Ellsworth B, Egashira N, Haller J, Butts D, Cocquet J, Clay C, et al. FOXL2 in the pituitary: molecular, genetic, and developmental analysis. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2796-805 pubmed
    ..These data place FOXL2 in the hierarchy of pituitary developmental control and suggest a role in regulation of Cga gene expression...
  14. Zhao L, Zevallos S, Rizzoti K, Jeong Y, Lovell Badge R, Epstein D. Disruption of SoxB1-dependent Sonic hedgehog expression in the hypothalamus causes septo-optic dysplasia. Dev Cell. 2012;22:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that reduced levels of Shh expression in the hypothalamus cause SOD. ..
  15. Coll A, Fassnacht M, Klammer S, Hahner S, Schulte D, Piper S, et al. Peripheral administration of the N-terminal pro-opiomelanocortin fragment 1-28 to Pomc-/- mice reduces food intake and weight but does not affect adrenal growth or corticosterone production. J Endocrinol. 2006;190:515-25 pubmed
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a polypeptide precursor that undergoes extensive processing to yield a range of peptides with biologically diverse functions...
  16. van de Wall E, Leshan R, Xu A, Balthasar N, Coppari R, Liu S, et al. Collective and individual functions of leptin receptor modulated neurons controlling metabolism and ingestion. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1773-85 pubmed
    ..arcuate nucleus: the agouti gene-related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron...
  17. Parton L, Ye C, Coppari R, Enriori P, Choi B, Zhang C, et al. Glucose sensing by POMC neurons regulates glucose homeostasis and is impaired in obesity. Nature. 2007;449:228-32 pubmed
    ..To address these issues, we disrupted glucose sensing in glucose-excited pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons via transgenic expression of a mutant Kir6...
  18. Padilla S, Carmody J, Zeltser L. Pomc-expressing progenitors give rise to antagonistic neuronal populations in hypothalamic feeding circuits. Nat Med. 2010;16:403-5 pubmed publisher
    ..that might be susceptible to gestational influences in mice, we characterized the ontogeny of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) cell populations, which exert opposing influences on food intake and body weight...
  19. Guo L, Munzberg H, Stuart R, Nillni E, Bjørbaek C. N-acetylation of hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and regulation by leptin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11797-802 pubmed
    ..The POMC-derived peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) is a melanocortin 4 receptor agonist, and its potency in reducing energy intake is strongly increased by N-..
  20. Yaswen L, Diehl N, Brennan M, Hochgeschwender U. Obesity in the mouse model of pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency responds to peripheral melanocortin. Nat Med. 1999;5:1066-70 pubmed
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides (the melanocortins adrenocorticotropin, alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone; and the endogenous opioid beta-endorphin) have a diverse array of biological activities, ..
  21. McNay D, Pelling M, Claxton S, Guillemot F, Ang S. Mash1 is required for generic and subtype differentiation of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1623-32 pubmed
    ..Although Mash1 is not required for propiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, it is required for normal development of POMC(+) neurons...
  22. Davis S, Camper S. Noggin regulates Bmp4 activity during pituitary induction. Dev Biol. 2007;305:145-60 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates the importance of attenuating the activity of Bmp signaling during pituitary induction in order to maintain the proper balance of signaling factors necessary for pituitary organogenesis. ..
  23. Challis B, Coll A, Yeo G, Pinnock S, Dickson S, Thresher R, et al. Mice lacking pro-opiomelanocortin are sensitive to high-fat feeding but respond normally to the acute anorectic effects of peptide-YY(3-36). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4695-700 pubmed
    Inactivating mutations of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene in both mice and humans leads to hyperphagia and obesity...
  24. Wang Y, Martin J, Bai C. Direct and indirect requirements of Shh/Gli signaling in early pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2010;348:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore suggest both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous requirements for Gli2 in regulation of pituitary progenitor specification, proliferation and differentiation. ..
  25. Treier M, Gleiberman A, O Connell S, Szeto D, McMahon J, McMahon A, et al. Multistep signaling requirements for pituitary organogenesis in vivo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1691-704 pubmed
  26. Coll A, Challis B, Yeo G, Snell K, Piper S, Halsall D, et al. The effects of proopiomelanocortin deficiency on murine adrenal development and responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4721-7 pubmed
    ..smaller adrenal glands with significantly lower levels of corticosterone both basally and in response to CRH and ACTH than wild-type mice, indicating that two functional copies of the Pomc gene are necessary to support the fully ..
  27. Brinkmeier M, Potok M, Cha K, Gridley T, Stifani S, Meeldijk J, et al. TCF and Groucho-related genes influence pituitary growth and development. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2152-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that Tcf4 and Aes influence pituitary growth and development, and place Tcf4 and Tle3 in the genetic hierarchy with Prop1. ..
  28. Smart J, Tolle V, Low M. Glucocorticoids exacerbate obesity and insulin resistance in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:495-505 pubmed
    Null mutations of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) cause obesity in humans and rodents, but the contributions of central versus pituitary POMC deficiency are not fully established...
  29. Tolle V, Low M. In vivo evidence for inverse agonism of Agouti-related peptide in the central nervous system of proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice. Diabetes. 2008;57:86-94 pubmed
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) peptides processed from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) regulate energy homeostasis by activating neuronal melanocortin receptor (MC-R) signaling...
  30. Sheng H, Zhadanov A, Mosinger B, Fujii T, Bertuzzi S, Grinberg A, et al. Specification of pituitary cell lineages by the LIM homeobox gene Lhx3. Science. 1996;272:1004-7 pubmed
    ..The determination of all pituitary cell lineages, except the corticotrophs, was affected, suggesting that a distinct, Lhx3-independent ontogenetic pathway exists for the initial specification of this lineage. ..
  31. Schulte D, Shapiro I, Reincke M, Beuschlein F. Expression and spatio-temporal distribution of differentiation and proliferation markers during mouse adrenal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:72-81 pubmed
    ..5 until 2 weeks post partum) during mouse adrenal development. In addition, adrenocorticotropin-hormone (ACTH) receptor (melanocortin-2-receptor (MC2-R)) expression was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and co-localized ..
  32. Chalmers J, Lin S, Martino T, Arab S, Liu P, Husain M, et al. Diurnal profiling of neuroendocrine genes in murine heart, and shift in proopiomelanocortin gene expression with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. J Mol Endocrinol. 2008;41:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis and demonstrate the simultaneous expression of neuroendocrine genes in normal murine heart, including POMC, GnRH, neuropeptide Y, leptin receptor, GH-releasing hormone, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, ..
  33. Michaud J, Rosenquist T, May N, Fan C. Development of neuroendocrine lineages requires the bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3264-75 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly indicate that SIM1 functions upstream to maintain Brn2 expression, which in turn directs the terminal differentiation of specific neuroendocrine lineages within the PVN/SON. ..
  34. Peng C, Mukhopadhyay A, Jarrett J, Yoshikawa K, Kessler J. BMP receptor 1A regulates development of hypothalamic circuits critical for feeding behavior. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17211-24 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally these observations indicate that BMPR1A signaling regulates postnatal establishment of OLIG1 lineage-derived ARH neuronal circuits that are critical for leptin-mediated feeding behavior. ..
  35. Prince K, Colvin S, Park S, Lai X, Witzmann F, Rhodes S. Developmental analysis and influence of genetic background on the Lhx3 W227ter mouse model of combined pituitary hormone deficiency disease. Endocrinology. 2013;154:738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Lhx3(W227ter/W227ter) embryos have deficiencies of ACTH, ?-glycoprotein subunit, GH, PRL, TSH?, and LH? during prenatal development...
  36. Budry L, Couture C, Balsalobre A, Drouin J. The Ets factor Etv1 interacts with Tpit protein for pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:25387-96 pubmed publisher
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is expressed in two lineages of the pituitary, the anterior lobe corticotrophs and the intermediate lobe melanotrophs...
  37. Bernstein H, Keilhoff G, Seidel B, Stanarius A, Huang P, Fishman M, et al. Expression of hypothalamic peptides in mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase: reduced beta-END immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus. Neuroendocrinology. 1998;68:403-11 pubmed
    ..peptides beta-endorphin (beta-END), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and corticotropin (ACTH) by use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...
  38. Terroni P, Anthony F, Hanson M, Cagampang F. Expression of agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin and the leptin receptor isoforms in fetal mouse brain from pregnant dams on a protein-restricted diet. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;140:111-5 pubmed
    ..Levels of expression for these genes were altered in brains of E12 fetuses from pregnant dams on a protein-restricted diet, suggesting that the fetal brain is responsive to changes in maternal nutrition prior to birth. ..
  39. Aujla P, Naratadam G, Xu L, Raetzman L. Notch/Rbpj? signaling regulates progenitor maintenance and differentiation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons. Development. 2013;140:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc), containing pro-opoiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons, regulates feeding, energy balance and body size...
  40. Colvin J, Green R, Schmahl J, Capel B, Ornitz D. Male-to-female sex reversal in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor 9. Cell. 2001;104:875-89 pubmed
    ..While Sry is found only in some mammals, Fgfs are highly conserved. Thus, Fgfs may function in sex determination and reproductive system development in many species. ..
  41. Lanctot C, Gauthier Y, Drouin J. Pituitary homeobox 1 (Ptx1) is differentially expressed during pituitary development. Endocrinology. 1999;140:1416-22 pubmed
    ..The quantitative differences in Ptx1 expression in pituitary cell lineages may relate to a role in cell proliferation, lineage commitment, and/or the control of organ development. ..
  42. Lin C, Kioussi C, O Connell S, Briata P, Szeto D, Liu F, et al. Pitx2 regulates lung asymmetry, cardiac positioning and pituitary and tooth morphogenesis. Nature. 1999;401:279-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pitx2 is a transcription factor that encodes 'leftness' of the lung. ..
  43. Liu B, Mortrud M, Low M. DNA elements with AT-rich core sequences direct pituitary cell-specific expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene in transgenic mice. Biochem J. 1995;312 ( Pt 3):827-32 pubmed
    ..in sites 1 (-146/-136) and 2 (-201/-192) and an unidentified protein, which we call PP1 (putative pituitary POMC1), interacts with AT-rich regions in sites 2 (-202/-193) and 3 (-262/-253)...
  44. Pulichino A, Vallette Kasic S, Tsai J, Couture C, Gauthier Y, Drouin J. Tpit determines alternate fates during pituitary cell differentiation. Genes Dev. 2003;17:738-47 pubmed
    ..factor Tpit was identified as a cell-specific factor for expression of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene...
  45. Sun Y, Bak B, Schoenmakers N, van Trotsenburg A, Oostdijk W, Voshol P, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our observations delineate a new X-linked disorder in which loss-of-function mutations in IGSF1 cause central hypothyroidism, likely secondary to an associated impairment in pituitary TRH signaling. ..
  46. Tan T, Yang Z, Huang W, Lim A. ANF(1-28) is a potent suppressor of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA but a weak inhibitor of beta EP-LI release from AtT-20 cells. J Endocrinol. 1994;143:R1-4 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the cellular contents and secretion of (beta endorphin-like immunoreactivity) beta EP-LI from these cultures were also examined...
  47. Skoubis P, Lam H, Shoblock J, Narayanan S, Maidment N. Endogenous enkephalins, not endorphins, modulate basal hedonic state in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1379-84 pubmed
  48. Füchsl A, Langgartner D, Reber S. Mechanisms underlying the increased plasma ACTH levels in chronic psychosocially stressed male mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84161 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that both basal and acute stressor-induced (forced swim (FS), 6 min) plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, the number of total and corticotroph pituitary cells, and relative protein ..
  49. Darlington T, McCarthy R, Cox R, Miyamoto Ditmon J, Gallego X, Ehringer M. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling. Genes Brain Behav. 2016;15:474-90 pubmed publisher
    ..and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2...
  50. Bentley C, Zidehsarai M, Grindley J, Parlow A, Barth Hall S, Roberts V. Pax6 is implicated in murine pituitary endocrine function. Endocrine. 1999;10:171-7 pubmed
  51. Chida D, Nakagawa S, Nagai S, Sagara H, Katsumata H, Imaki T, et al. Melanocortin 2 receptor is required for adrenal gland development, steroidogenesis, and neonatal gluconeogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18205-10 pubmed
    b>ACTH (i.e., corticotropin) is the principal regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and stimulates steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland via the specific cell-surface melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R)...
  52. Mercer R, Michaelson S, Chee M, Atallah T, Wevrick R, Colmers W. Magel2 is required for leptin-mediated depolarization of POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in mice. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003207 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies demonstrate that arcuate nucleus pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expressing neurons are unresponsive to leptin...
  53. Kaneko K, Xu P, Cordonier E, Chen S, Ng A, Xu Y, et al. Neuronal Rap1 Regulates Energy Balance, Glucose Homeostasis, and Leptin Actions. Cell Rep. 2016;16:3003-3015 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, neuronal Rap1 critically regulates leptin sensitivity and mediates HFD-induced obesity and hypothalamic pathology and may represent a potential therapeutic target for obesity treatment. ..