Pms2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pms2
Description: PMS1 homolog2, mismatch repair system component
Alias: AW555130, Pmsl2, mismatch repair endonuclease PMS2, DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2, PMS1 protein homolog 2, postmeiotic segregation increased 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Pms2

Top Publications

  1. Prolla T, Baker S, Harris A, Tsao J, Yao X, Bronner C, et al. Tumour susceptibility and spontaneous mutation in mice deficient in Mlh1, Pms1 and Pms2 DNA mismatch repair. Nat Genet. 1998;18:276-9 pubmed
    Germline mutations in the human MSH2, MLH1, PMS2 and PMS1 DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene homologues appear to be responsible for most cases of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; refs 1-5)...
  2. Ezzatizadeh V, Pinto R, Sandi C, Sandi M, Al Mahdawi S, te Riele H, et al. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;46:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and ..
  3. Cascalho M, Wong J, Steinberg C, Wabl M. Mismatch repair co-opted by hypermutation. Science. 1998;279:1207-10 pubmed
    Mice homozygous for a disrupted allele of the mismatch repair gene Pms2 have a mutator phenotype...
  4. Yao X, Buermeyer A, Narayanan L, Tran D, Baker S, Prolla T, et al. Different mutator phenotypes in Mlh1- versus Pms2-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6850-5 pubmed
    ..Mouse strains homozygous for knockouts of either the Pms2 or Mlh1 MMR gene develop cancer but exhibit very different tumor spectra; only Mlh1(-/-) animals develop intestinal ..
  5. Winter D, Phung Q, Umar A, Baker S, Tarone R, Tanaka K, et al. Altered spectra of hypermutation in antibodies from mice deficient for the DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6953-8 pubmed
    ..was studied in mice deficient for either the DNA nucleotide excision repair gene Xpa or the mismatch repair gene Pms2. High levels of mutation were found in variable genes from XPA-deficient and PMS2-deficient mice, indicating that ..
  6. Chen P, Dudley S, Hagen W, Dizon D, Paxton L, Reichow D, et al. Contributions by MutL homologues Mlh3 and Pms2 to DNA mismatch repair and tumor suppression in the mouse. Cancer Res. 2005;65:8662-70 pubmed
    ..Four mammalian homologues of Escherichia coli MutL heterodimerize to form three distinct complexes: MLH1/PMS2, MLH1/MLH3, and MLH1/PMS1...
  7. Miller A, Dudley S, Tsao J, Shibata D, Liskay R. Tractable Cre-lox system for stochastic alteration of genes in mice. Nat Methods. 2008;5:227-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This system should be particularly useful for delineating pathways of neoplasia, and determining the developmental and aging consequences of specific gene alterations. ..
  8. Baker S, Harris A, Tsao J, Flath T, Bronner C, Gordon M, et al. Enhanced intestinal adenomatous polyp formation in Pms2-/-;Min mice. Cancer Res. 1998;58:1087-9 pubmed
    ..repair in intestinal tumorigenesis, we generated mice with mutations in both Apc and the DNA mismatch repair gene, Pms2. Whereas Pms2-deficient mice do not develop intestinal tumors, mice deficient in Pms2 and heterozygous for Min, an ..
  9. Qin J, Baker S, te Riele H, Liskay R, Arnheim N. Evidence for the lack of mismatch-repair directed antirecombination during mouse meiosis. J Hered. 2002;93:201-5 pubmed
    Meiotic recombination was studied in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient mice using a strain carrying a Pms2 knockout mutation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kneitz B, Cohen P, Avdievich E, Zhu L, Kane M, Hou H, et al. MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1085-97 pubmed
    ..Our results show that MSH4 localization on chromosomes during the early stages of meiosis is essential for normal chromosome synapsis in prophase I and that it acts in the same pathway as MSH5. ..
  2. Schrader C, Guikema J, Linehan E, Selsing E, Stavnezer J. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent DNA breaks in class switch recombination occur during G1 phase of the cell cycle and depend upon mismatch repair. J Immunol. 2007;179:6064-71 pubmed
    ..We also show that nucleotide excision repair does not contribute to class switching. Our data support the hypothesis that MMR is required to convert SSBs into DSBs when SSBs on opposite strands are too distal to form DSBs spontaneously. ..
  3. Schrader C, Edelmann W, Kucherlapati R, Stavnezer J. Reduced isotype switching in splenic B cells from mice deficient in mismatch repair enzymes. J Exp Med. 1999;190:323-30 pubmed
    ..Splenic B cells from mice deficient in Msh2, Mlh1, Pms2, or Mlh1 and Pms2 were stimulated in culture with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G2b and ..
  4. Baker S, Bronner C, Zhang L, Plug A, Robatzek M, Warren G, et al. Male mice defective in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2 exhibit abnormal chromosome synapsis in meiosis. Cell. 1995;82:309-19 pubmed
    ..targeting in embryonic stem cells, we have derived mice with a null mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene homolog, PMS2. We observed microsatellite instability in the male germline, in tail, and in tumor DNA of PMS2-deficient animals...
  5. Frey S, Bertocci B, Delbos F, Quint L, Weill J, Reynaud C. Mismatch repair deficiency interferes with the accumulation of mutations in chronically stimulated B cells and not with the hypermutation process. Immunity. 1998;9:127-34 pubmed
    ..Paradoxically, whereas primary responses were found normal in MSH2- and only slightly diminished in PMS2-deficient mice, mutations in Peyer's patch B cells from both k.o...
  6. Mansouri A, Yokota Y, Wehr R, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Gruss P. Paired-related murine homeobox gene expressed in the developing sclerotome, kidney, and nervous system. Dev Dyn. 1997;210:53-65 pubmed
    ..The temporal and spatial expression pattern suggests that Uncx4.1 may play an important role in kidney development and in the differentiation of the sclerotome and the nervous system. ..
  7. Jahid S, Sun J, Edwards R, Dizon D, Panarelli N, Milsom J, et al. miR-23a promotes the transition from indolent to invasive colorectal cancer. Cancer Discov. 2012;2:540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of computationally predicted target genes in microarray data sets of patients with colorectal cancers are consistent with a role for miR-23a, but not miR-27a, specifically in invasive colorectal cancers. ..
  8. Keil K, Altmann H, Mehta V, Abler L, Elton E, Vezina C. Catalog of mRNA expression patterns for DNA methylating and demethylating genes in developing mouse lower urinary tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigation into how DNA methylation patterns are established, maintained and remodeled during the course of embryonic prostatic bud formation may provide insight into prostate morphogenesis and disease. ..
  9. Baross Francis A, Makhani N, Liskay R, Jirik F. Elevated mutant frequencies and increased C : G-->T : A transitions in Mlh1-/- versus Pms2-/- murine small intestinal epithelial cells. Oncogene. 2001;20:619-25 pubmed
    ..Mice rendered deficient in either Mlh1 or Pms2 as a result of gene targeting are prone to tumorigenesis, particularly, lymphomas...
  10. Shao C, Deng L, Chen Y, Kucherlapati R, Stambrook P, Tischfield J. Mlh1 mediates tissue-specific regulation of mitotic recombination. Oncogene. 2004;23:9017-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, different cell types respond differently to MLH1 deficiency, and the contribution of MR to tumorigenesis may be tissue-dependent in the absence of mismatch repair. ..
  11. Shin C, Turker M. A:T --> G:C base pair substitutions occur at a higher rate than other substitution events in Pms2 deficient mouse cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:995-1001 pubmed
    ..shown recently, that the predominant base-pair substitution events leading to loss of endogenous Aprt activity in Pms2 null mouse cells are A:T --> G:C mutations (Oncogene 21 (2002) 1768, Oncogene 21 (2002) 2840)...
  12. Andrew S, Xu X, Baross Francis A, Narayanan L, Milhausen K, Liskay R, et al. Mutagenesis in PMS2- and MSH2-deficient mice indicates differential protection from transversions and frameshifts. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1291-5 pubmed
    ..Knockout' mice deficient in the MMR proteins Msh2 and Pms2 crossed with mutation detection reporter (supF, lacI and cII) transgenic mice have been used to facilitate a ..
  13. Clarke A, Sansom O. Analyzing tumor suppressor activities in the murine small intestine. Oncol Res. 2003;13:333-7 pubmed
    ..We have also analyzed mice mutant for the mismatch repair genes Msh2, Mlh1, and Pms2, describing circumstances in which all of these strains show defective apoptosis, increased clonogenic survival, ..
  14. Fischer J, Schepers A, Clevers H, Shibata D, Liskay R. Occult progression by Apc-deficient intestinal crypts as a target for chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:237-46 pubmed publisher
  15. Shin Darlak C, Skinner A, Turker M. A role for Pms2 in the prevention of tandem CC --> TT substitutions induced by ultraviolet radiation and oxidative stress. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:51-7 pubmed
    ..Most spontaneous mutations in Pms2-deficient cells were single C --> T substitutions (88%), with the remainder being tandem CC --> TT ..
  16. Hamilton S, Liu B, Parsons R, Papadopoulos N, Jen J, Powell S, et al. The molecular basis of Turcot's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:839-47 pubmed
    ..Molecular diagnosis may contribute to the appropriate care of affected patients. ..
  17. Shaddock J, Dobrovolsky V, Mittelstaedt R, Heflich R, Parsons B. Frequency and types of spontaneous Hprt lymphocyte mutations in Pms2-deficient mice. Mutat Res. 2006;595:69-79 pubmed
    Deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) result in predisposition to neoplasia in both rodents and humans. Pms2 is one of the several proteins involved in the eukaryotic MMR system...
  18. Siegl Cachedenier I, Muñoz P, Flores J, Klatt P, Blasco M. Deficient mismatch repair improves organismal fitness and survival of mice with dysfunctional telomeres. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2234-47 pubmed
    ..the role of MMR in response to dysfunctional telomeres by generating mice doubly deficient for telomerase and the PMS2 MMR gene (Terc-/-/PMS2-/- mice)...
  19. Girelli Zubani G, Zivojnovic M, De Smet A, Albagli Curiel O, Huetz F, Weill J, et al. Pms2 and uracil-DNA glycosylases act jointly in the mismatch repair pathway to generate Ig gene mutations at A-T base pairs. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1169-1180 pubmed publisher
    ..Paradoxically, the MMR-nicking complex Pms2/Mlh1 is apparently dispensable for A-T mutagenesis...
  20. Fischer J, Miller A, Shibata D, Liskay R. Different phenotypic consequences of simultaneous versus stepwise Apc loss. Oncogene. 2012;31:2028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We combined a conditional Apc allele (Apc(CKO)) with a Cre reporter gene and an out-of-frame Cre allele (Pms2(cre)) that stochastically becomes functional by a frameshift mutation in single cells...
  21. Qin X, Liu L, Gerson S. Mice defective in the DNA mismatch gene PMS2 are hypersensitive to MNU induced thymic lymphoma and are partially protected by transgenic expression of human MGMT. Oncogene. 1999;18:4394-400 pubmed
    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) stabilizes the cellular genome. Mice defective in the MMR gene PMS2 are susceptible to spontaneous thymic lymphoma and sarcomas...
  22. Mizuta R, LaSalle J, Cheng H, Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Copeland N, et al. RAB22 and RAB163/mouse BRCA2: proteins that specifically interact with the RAD51 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6927-32 pubmed
    ..To detect RAD51 interactions in vivo, we developed a transient nuclear focus assay that was used to demonstrate a complete colocalization of RAB22 with RAD51 in large nuclear foci. ..
  23. Peltomaki P. DNA mismatch repair and cancer. Mutat Res. 2001;488:77-85 pubmed
    ..A brief overview of these different features of the human DNA mismatch repair system will be provided, with the emphasis in their implications in cancer development. ..
  24. Schrader C, Vardo J, Stavnezer J. Role for mismatch repair proteins Msh2, Mlh1, and Pms2 in immunoglobulin class switching shown by sequence analysis of recombination junctions. J Exp Med. 2002;195:367-73 pubmed
    ..clear differences in the sequences of switch junctions in wild-type B cells in comparison with Msh2-, Mlh1-, and Pms2-deficient B cells...
  25. Marinovic Terzic I, Yoshioka Yamashita A, Shimodaira H, Avdievich E, Hunton I, Kolodner R, et al. Apoptotic function of human PMS2 compromised by the nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphic variant R20Q. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13993-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is shown that postmeiotic segregation 2 (PMS2), an MMR protein, is required for cisplatin-induced activation of p73, a member of the p53 family of transcription ..
  26. Zivojnovic M, Delbos F, Girelli Zubani G, Julé A, Alcais A, Weill J, et al. Somatic hypermutation at A/T-rich oligonucleotide substrates shows different strand polarities in Ung-deficient or -proficient backgrounds. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..New analysis of Pms2(-/-) animals provided a complementary picture, revealing an A/T mutation ratio of 4...
  27. Qin X, Zhou H, Liu L, Gerson S. Transgenic expression of human MGMT blocks the hypersensitivity of PMS2-deficient mice to low dose MNU thymic lymphomagenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:1667-73 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene, PMS2, develop spontaneous thymic lymphomas and sarcomas. We have previously shown that PMS2(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to a single i.p...
  28. Fischer J, Dudley S, Miller A, Liskay R. An intact Pms2 ATPase domain is not essential for male fertility. DNA Repair (Amst). 2016;39:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, another MMR gene knockout, Pms2 (Pms2(ko/ko)), which contained a deletion of a portion of the ATPase domain, produced animals that were male ..
  29. Nicolaides N, Papadopoulos N, Liu B, Wei Y, Carter K, Ruben S, et al. Mutations of two PMS homologues in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Nature. 1994;371:75-80 pubmed
    ..Both hPMS1 and hPMS2 were found to be mutated in the germline of HNPCC patients. This doubles the number of genes implicated in HNPCC and may help explain the relatively high incidence of this disease. ..
  30. van Oers J, Roa S, Werling U, Liu Y, Genschel J, Hou H, et al. PMS2 endonuclease activity has distinct biological functions and is essential for genome maintenance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13384-9 pubmed publisher
    The DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2 was recently found to encode a novel endonuclease activity. To determine the biological functions of this activity in mammals, we generated endonuclease-deficient Pms2E702K knock-in mice...
  31. Kolas N, Svetlanov A, Lenzi M, Macaluso F, Lipkin S, Liskay R, et al. Localization of MMR proteins on meiotic chromosomes in mice indicates distinct functions during prophase I. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:447-58 pubmed
    ..Mutations of three of the four MutL homologues (Mlh1, Mlh3, and Pms2) result in meiotic defects...
  32. Collins S, Hervé R, Keevil C, Blaydes J, Webb J. Down-regulation of DNA mismatch repair enhances initiation and growth of neuroblastoma and brain tumour multicellular spheroids. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28123 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the DNA MMR genes MLH1 and PMS2 revealed both to be significantly down-regulated at the mRNA level compared with non-spheroid-forming cells...
  33. Bourn R, De Biase I, Pinto R, Sandi C, Al Mahdawi S, Pook M, et al. Pms2 suppresses large expansions of the (GAA·TTC)n sequence in neuronal tissues. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47085 pubmed publisher
    ..GAA·TTC)(n) sequence in the context of the human FXN locus and lack the individual MMR proteins Msh2, Msh6 or Pms2. The absence of Msh2 or Msh6 resulted in a dramatic reduction in somatic mutations, indicating that mammalian MMR ..
  34. Sansom O, Bishop S, Court H, Dudley S, Liskay R, Clarke A. Apoptosis and mutation in the murine small intestine: loss of Mlh1- and Pms2-dependent apoptosis leads to increased mutation in vivo. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003;2:1029-39 pubmed
    ..Here, we extend these studies to the MutL homologues (MLH) Mlh1 and Pms2 by analysing the apoptotic response within the small intestine of gene targeted strains...
  35. Xu X, Narayanan L, Dunklee B, Liskay R, Glazer P. Hypermutability to ionizing radiation in mismatch repair-deficient, Pms2 knockout mice. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3775-80 pubmed
    ..this tolerance phenotype would render MMR-deficient animals hypermutable to IR, we compared IR mutagenesis of Pms2-deficient versus wild-type transgenic mice carrying a lambda shuttle vector for mutation detection...
  36. Zeng M, Narayanan L, Xu X, Prolla T, Liskay R, Glazer P. Ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis via separate Pms2- and p53-dependent pathways. Cancer Res. 2000;60:4889-93 pubmed
    ..via the same pathway, mice with targeted disruptions in either the p53 gene or the MutL homologue MMR gene Pms2 were interbred and primary fibroblasts were established from the progeny with genotypes of either wild type, p53 ..
  37. Wu X, Platt J, Cascalho M. Dimerization of MLH1 and PMS2 limits nuclear localization of MutLalpha. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3320-8 pubmed
    ..Since the functions of mismatch repair are initiated in the nucleus, we asked whether nuclear transport of MLH1 and PMS2 is limiting for the nuclear localization of MutLalpha (the MLH1-PMS2 dimer)...
  38. Baross Francis A, Milhausen M, Andrew S, Jevon G, Jirik F. Tumors arising in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mice show a wide variation in mutation frequency as assessed by a transgenic reporter gene. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1259-62 pubmed
    ..mice, lacI transgene mutation frequencies were obtained from several different mouse tumors deficient for PMS2 and/or MSH2...
  39. Yoshioka K, Yoshioka Y, Hsieh P. ATR kinase activation mediated by MutSalpha and MutLalpha in response to cytotoxic O6-methylguanine adducts. Mol Cell. 2006;22:501-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MMR proteins can act as direct sensors of methylation damage and help recruit ATR-ATRIP to sites of cytotoxic O(6)-meG adducts to initiate ATR checkpoint signaling. ..
  40. Gurtu V, Verma S, Grossmann A, Liskay R, Skarnes W, Baker S. Maternal effect for DNA mismatch repair in the mouse. Genetics. 2002;160:271-7 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in Pms2, a mammalian homolog of bacterial mutL, develop cancer and display MSI in all tissues examined, including the male ..
  41. Kim N, Bozek G, Lo J, Storb U. Different mismatch repair deficiencies all have the same effects on somatic hypermutation: intact primary mechanism accompanied by secondary modifications. J Exp Med. 1999;190:21-30 pubmed
    ..certain changes in mutation patterns and frequency of point mutations were observed in Msh2 (MutS homologue) and Pms2 (MutL homologue) MMR-deficient mice (for review see Kim, N., and U. Storb. 1998. J. Exp. Med. 187:1729-1733)...
  42. Johnson J, Erdeniz N, Nguyen M, Dudley S, Liskay R. Conservation of functional asymmetry in the mammalian MutL? ATPase. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:1209-13 pubmed publisher
    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein dimer MutL? is comprised of the MutL homologues MLH1 and PMS2, which each belong to the family of GHL ATPases...
  43. Larson J, Stringer S, Stringer J. Impact of mismatch repair deficiency on genomic stability in the maternal germline and during early embryonic development. Mutat Res. 2004;556:45-53 pubmed
    The effects of lack of the mismatch repair protein PMS2 on germline and maternal-effect mutations were studied in transgenic mice that allow mutant cells to be visualized in situ...
  44. Narayanan L, Fritzell J, Baker S, Liskay R, Glazer P. Elevated levels of mutation in multiple tissues of mice deficient in the DNA mismatch repair gene Pms2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3122-7 pubmed
    The Pms2 gene has been implicated in hereditary colon cancer and is one of several mammalian homologs of the Escherichia coli mutL DNA mismatch repair gene...
  45. McLachlan S, Lee S, Steele T, Hawthorne P, Zapala M, Eskin E, et al. In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. ..
  46. Czochor J, Sulkowski P, Glazer P. miR-155 Overexpression Promotes Genomic Instability by Reducing High-fidelity Polymerase Delta Expression and Activating Error-Prone DSB Repair. Mol Cancer Res. 2016;14:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, miR-155 overexpression drives an increase in mutation frequency via multifaceted impact on DNA damage response and DNA repair pathways. ..
  47. Qin X, Shibata D, Gerson S. Heterozygous DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2-knockout mice are susceptible to intestinal tumor induction with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:833-8 pubmed
    b>PMS2-deficient (PMS2(-/-)) mice are hypersensitive to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced thymic lymphomas based on the failure to initiate mismatch repair (MMR) at O(6)-methylguanine:T mismatches formed after MNU exposure...
  48. Fischer J, Calabrese P, Miller A, Munoz N, Grady W, Shibata D, et al. Single cell lineage tracing reveals a role for Tgf?R2 in intestinal stem cell dynamics and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:12192-12197 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data reveal a key role for Tgf? signaling in regulating ISCs clonal dynamics and differentiation, with implications for cancer, tissue regeneration, and inflammation. ..
  49. Chen P, Kuraguchi M, Velasquez J, Wang Y, Yang K, Edwards R, et al. Novel roles for MLH3 deficiency and TLE6-like amplification in DNA mismatch repair-deficient gastrointestinal tumorigenesis and progression. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000092 pubmed publisher
    ..Four mammalian E. coli MutL homologues heterodimerize to form three distinct complexes: MLH1/PMS2, MLH1/MLH3, and MLH1/PMS1...
  50. Sobol R, Kartalou M, Almeida K, Joyce D, Engelward B, Horton J, et al. Base excision repair intermediates induce p53-independent cytotoxic and genotoxic responses. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39951-9 pubmed
  51. Dobrovolsky V, McKinzie P, Shaddock J, Mittelstaedt R, Heflich R, Parsons B. Pms2 deficiency results in increased mutation in the Hprt gene but not the Tk gene of Tk(+/-) transgenic mice. Mutagenesis. 2003;18:365-70 pubmed
    The effects of deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein Pms2 were investigated using the endogenous mouse Hprt and Tk genes as reporters of intragenic mutation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH)...
  52. Hegan D, Narayanan L, Jirik F, Edelmann W, Liskay R, Glazer P. Differing patterns of genetic instability in mice deficient in the mismatch repair genes Pms2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh3 and Msh6. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:2402-8 pubmed
    ..in MMR-deficient mice using two transgenic reporter genes, supFG1 and cII, in the context of mice deficient for Pms2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh3 or Msh6 or both Msh2 and Msh3 or both Msh3 and Msh6...
  53. Ehrenstein M, Rada C, Jones A, Milstein C, Neuberger M. Switch junction sequences in PMS2-deficient mice reveal a microhomology-mediated mechanism of Ig class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14553-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we find increased donor/acceptor homology at switch junctions from PMS2-deficient mice and propose that class switching can occur by microhomology-mediated end-joining...