Plg

Summary

Gene Symbol: Plg
Description: plasminogen
Alias: AI649309, plasminogen, angiostatin, plasmin heavy chain A, plasmin light chain B
Species: mouse
Products:     Plg

Top Publications

  1. Bugge T, Flick M, Daugherty C, Degen J. Plasminogen deficiency causes severe thrombosis but is compatible with development and reproduction. Genes Dev. 1995;9:794-807 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice were generated to define the physiological roles of this key fibrinolytic protein and its proteolytic derivatives, plasmin and angiostatin, in development, hemostasis, and reproduction...
  2. Romer J, Bugge T, Pyke C, Lund L, Flick M, Degen J, et al. Impaired wound healing in mice with a disrupted plasminogen gene. Nat Med. 1996;2:287-92 pubmed
    Activation of plasminogen (Plg) has been proposed to play a role in proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrices in tissue remodeling events, including wound healing...
  3. Hoover Plow J, Ellis J, Yuen L. In vivo plasminogen deficiency reduces fat accumulation. Thromb Haemost. 2002;87:1011-9 pubmed
    ..and non-insulin dependent diabetes are associated with a decrease in fibrinolysis, which is mediated by the plasminogen system...
  4. Siconolfi L, Seeds N. Mice lacking tPA, uPA, or plasminogen genes showed delayed functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4348-55 pubmed
    ..These proteases include the plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue PA (tPA) and urokinase PA (uPA), and their substrate, plasminogen...
  5. Suelves M, Lopez Alemany R, Lluis F, Aniorte G, Serrano E, Parra M, et al. Plasmin activity is required for myogenesis in vitro and skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. Blood. 2002;99:2835-44 pubmed
    ..Active plasmin is generated from proteolytic cleavage of the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  6. Sun H, Ringdahl U, Homeister J, Fay W, Engleberg N, Yang A, et al. Plasminogen is a critical host pathogenicity factor for group A streptococcal infection. Science. 2004;305:1283-6 pubmed
    ..a common human pathogen, secrete streptokinase, which activates the host's blood clot-dissolving protein, plasminogen. Streptokinase is highly specific for human plasminogen, exhibiting little or no activity against other ..
  7. Frøssing S, Rønø B, Hald A, Rømer J, Lund L. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family...
  8. Lund L, Green K, Stoop A, Ploug M, Almholt K, Lilla J, et al. Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice. EMBO J. 2006;25:2686-97 pubmed
    Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing...
  9. Chun T, Sabeh F, Ota I, Murphy H, McDonagh K, Holmbeck K, et al. MT1-MMP-dependent neovessel formation within the confines of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:757-67 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, neither MMP-2, MMP-9, their cognate cell-surface receptors (i.e., beta3 integrin and CD44), nor plasminogen are essential for collagenolytic activity, endothelial cell invasion, or neovessel formation...
  10. Brodsky S, Chen J, Lee A, Akassoglou K, Norman J, Goligorsky M. Plasmin-dependent and -independent effects of plasminogen activators and inhibitor-1 on ex vivo angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1784-92 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction in diseases associated with impaired angiogenesis, including atherosclerosis, diabetic vasculopathy, and nephropathy...

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. Bugge T, Flick M, Daugherty C, Degen J. Plasminogen deficiency causes severe thrombosis but is compatible with development and reproduction. Genes Dev. 1995;9:794-807 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice were generated to define the physiological roles of this key fibrinolytic protein and its proteolytic derivatives, plasmin and angiostatin, in development, hemostasis, and reproduction...
  2. Romer J, Bugge T, Pyke C, Lund L, Flick M, Degen J, et al. Impaired wound healing in mice with a disrupted plasminogen gene. Nat Med. 1996;2:287-92 pubmed
    Activation of plasminogen (Plg) has been proposed to play a role in proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrices in tissue remodeling events, including wound healing...
  3. Hoover Plow J, Ellis J, Yuen L. In vivo plasminogen deficiency reduces fat accumulation. Thromb Haemost. 2002;87:1011-9 pubmed
    ..and non-insulin dependent diabetes are associated with a decrease in fibrinolysis, which is mediated by the plasminogen system...
  4. Siconolfi L, Seeds N. Mice lacking tPA, uPA, or plasminogen genes showed delayed functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4348-55 pubmed
    ..These proteases include the plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue PA (tPA) and urokinase PA (uPA), and their substrate, plasminogen...
  5. Suelves M, Lopez Alemany R, Lluis F, Aniorte G, Serrano E, Parra M, et al. Plasmin activity is required for myogenesis in vitro and skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. Blood. 2002;99:2835-44 pubmed
    ..Active plasmin is generated from proteolytic cleavage of the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  6. Sun H, Ringdahl U, Homeister J, Fay W, Engleberg N, Yang A, et al. Plasminogen is a critical host pathogenicity factor for group A streptococcal infection. Science. 2004;305:1283-6 pubmed
    ..a common human pathogen, secrete streptokinase, which activates the host's blood clot-dissolving protein, plasminogen. Streptokinase is highly specific for human plasminogen, exhibiting little or no activity against other ..
  7. Frøssing S, Rønø B, Hald A, Rømer J, Lund L. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family...
  8. Lund L, Green K, Stoop A, Ploug M, Almholt K, Lilla J, et al. Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice. EMBO J. 2006;25:2686-97 pubmed
    Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing...
  9. Chun T, Sabeh F, Ota I, Murphy H, McDonagh K, Holmbeck K, et al. MT1-MMP-dependent neovessel formation within the confines of the three-dimensional extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:757-67 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, neither MMP-2, MMP-9, their cognate cell-surface receptors (i.e., beta3 integrin and CD44), nor plasminogen are essential for collagenolytic activity, endothelial cell invasion, or neovessel formation...
  10. Brodsky S, Chen J, Lee A, Akassoglou K, Norman J, Goligorsky M. Plasmin-dependent and -independent effects of plasminogen activators and inhibitor-1 on ex vivo angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1784-92 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction in diseases associated with impaired angiogenesis, including atherosclerosis, diabetic vasculopathy, and nephropathy...
  11. O Reilly M, Holmgren L, Shing Y, Chen C, Rosenthal R, Moses M, et al. Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. Cell. 1994;79:315-28 pubmed
    ..The activity copurifies with a 38 kDa plasminogen fragment that we have sequenced and named angiostatin. A corresponding fragment of human plasminogen has similar activity...
  12. Ny A, Leonardsson G, Hägglund A, Hägglöf P, Ploplis V, Carmeliet P, et al. Ovulation in plasminogen-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5030-5 pubmed
    Many different studies suggest that plasmin generated from plasminogen plays a crucial role in the degradation of the follicular wall at the time of ovulation...
  13. Xiao Q, Danton M, Witte D, Kowala M, Valentine M, Bugge T, et al. Plasminogen deficiency accelerates vessel wall disease in mice predisposed to atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10335-40 pubmed
    ..To directly examine the role of the key fibrinolytic factor, plasminogen, in atherogenesis, plasminogen-deficient mice were crossed to hypercholesterolemic, apolipoprotein E-deficient ..
  14. Hoover Plow J, Wang N, Ploplis V. Growth and behavioral development in plasminogen gene-targeted mice. Growth Dev Aging. 1999;63:13-32 pubmed
    The plasminogen system, in addition to its major role in fibrinolyis, is believed to play a key role in development of the nervous system...
  15. Li J, Ny A, Leonardsson G, Nandakumar K, Holmdahl R, Ny T. The plasminogen activator/plasmin system is essential for development of the joint inflammatory phase of collagen type II-induced arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:783-92 pubmed
    The plasminogen activator (PA) system has been proposed to have important roles in rheumatoid arthritis...
  16. Lund L, Bjørn S, Sternlicht M, Nielsen B, Solberg H, Usher P, et al. Lactational competence and involution of the mouse mammary gland require plasminogen. Development. 2000;127:4481-92 pubmed
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression is induced in the mouse mammary gland during development and post-lactational involution...
  17. Gong Y, Hart E, Shchurin A, Hoover Plow J. Inflammatory macrophage migration requires MMP-9 activation by plasminogen in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3012-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasminogen (Plg) is a protease that binds to the ECM and, upon conversion to plasmin, degrades multiple ECM proteins...
  18. Ploplis V, Carmeliet P, Vazirzadeh S, Van Vlaenderen I, Moons L, Plow E, et al. Effects of disruption of the plasminogen gene on thrombosis, growth, and health in mice. Circulation. 1995;92:2585-93 pubmed
    Circumstantial evidence suggests that the plasminogen/plasmin system plays a role in many biological processes, including hemostasis, cell migration, and development...
  19. Moons L, Shi C, Ploplis V, Plow E, Haber E, Collen D, et al. Reduced transplant arteriosclerosis in plasminogen-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1788-97 pubmed
    Recent gene targeting studies indicate that the plasminogen system is implicated in cell migration and matrix degradation during arterial neointima formation and atherosclerotic aneurysm formation...
  20. Pang P, Teng H, Zaitsev E, Woo N, Sakata K, Zhen S, et al. Cleavage of proBDNF by tPA/plasmin is essential for long-term hippocampal plasticity. Science. 2004;306:487-91 pubmed
    ..Two secretory proteins, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in this process, but their ..
  21. Drew A, Tucker H, Kombrinck K, Simon D, Bugge T, Degen J. Plasminogen is a critical determinant of vascular remodeling in mice. Circ Res. 2000;87:133-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of plasminogen-mediated proteolysis in remodeling, polyethylene cuffs were placed around the femoral arteries of mice with ..
  22. Nagai N, De Mol M, Lijnen H, Carmeliet P, Collen D. Role of plasminogen system components in focal cerebral ischemic infarction: a gene targeting and gene transfer study in mice. Circulation. 1999;99:2440-4 pubmed
    The role of plasminogen system components in focal cerebral ischemic infarction (FCI) was studied in mice deficient in plasminogen (Plg-/-), in tissue or urokinase plasminogen activator (tPA-/- or uPA-/-), or in plasminogen activator ..
  23. Green K, Nielsen B, Castellino F, Rømer J, Lund L. Lack of plasminogen leads to milk stasis and premature mammary gland involution during lactation. Dev Biol. 2006;299:164-75 pubmed
    The extracellular serine protease, plasmin, is activated from its precursor, plasminogen (Plg), by the urokinase-type and tissue-type Plg activators (uPA and tPA respectively)...
  24. Heissig B, Lund L, Akiyama H, Ohki M, Morita Y, Rømer J, et al. The plasminogen fibrinolytic pathway is required for hematopoietic regeneration. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1:658-70 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about how this stress response is coordinated. Here, we show that plasminogen (Plg), a classical fibrinolytic factor, is a key player in controlling this stress response...
  25. Sha J, McCullough B, Hart E, Nassir F, Davidson N, Hoover Plow J. Apo(a) promotes thrombosis in a vascular injury model by a mechanism independent of plasminogen. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:2281-9 pubmed
    Structural similarity between apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], the unique apoprotein of lipoprotein(a), and plasminogen (Plg), the zymogen for plasmin, results in inhibition of functions of Plg by apo(a) in vitro...
  26. Tsirka S, Rogove A, Bugge T, Degen J, Strickland S. An extracellular proteolytic cascade promotes neuronal degeneration in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1997;17:543-52 pubmed
    Mice lacking the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are resistant to excitotoxin-mediated hippocampal neuronal degeneration. We have used genetic and cellular analyses to study the role of tPA in neuronal cell death...
  27. Minor K, Phillips J, Seeds N. Tissue plasminogen activator promotes axonal outgrowth on CNS myelin after conditioned injury. J Neurochem. 2009;109:706-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The following study suggests that the proteolytic enzyme tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a major function in 'conditioning-injury induced' axon regeneration...
  28. Busuttil S, Ploplis V, Castellino F, Tang L, Eaton J, Plow E. A central role for plasminogen in the inflammatory response to biomaterials. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:1798-805 pubmed
    The inflammatory response to implanted biomaterials severely limits their deployment in patients. Plasminogen has been shown to play a central role in cell migration, and therefore could regulate this inflammatory response...
  29. de Sousa L, Brasil B, Silva B, Freitas M, Nogueira S, Ferreira P, et al. Plasminogen/plasmin regulates c-fos and egr-1 expression via the MEK/ERK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:237-45 pubmed
    In this study, we showed that plasminogen (Plg) and plasmin (Pla) bind to lysine-binding sites on cell surface and trigger a signaling pathway that activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MEK and ERK1/2, which in turn leads ..
  30. Juncker Jensen A, Lund L. Phenotypic overlap between MMP-13 and the plasminogen activation system during wound healing in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16954 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, healing of skin wounds is delayed by either plasminogen-deficiency or by treatment with the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MP) inhibitor Galardin alone, while the ..
  31. Degen S, Bell S, Schaefer L, Elliott R. Characterization of the cDNA coding for mouse plasminogen and localization of the gene to mouse chromosome 17. Genomics. 1990;8:49-61 pubmed
    A full-length cDNA coding for mouse plasminogen has been isolated and characterized...
  32. Ploplis V, French E, Carmeliet P, Collen D, Plow E. Plasminogen deficiency differentially affects recruitment of inflammatory cell populations in mice. Blood. 1998;91:2005-9 pubmed
    It is widely held that the plasminogen (Plg) system plays a role in inflammation through plasmin-mediated directional cell migration...
  33. Netzel Arnett S, Mitola D, Yamada S, Chrysovergis K, Holmbeck K, Birkedal Hansen H, et al. Collagen dissolution by keratinocytes requires cell surface plasminogen activation and matrix metalloproteinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45154-61 pubmed
    ..Here we show that keratinocytes use an alternative plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinase-13-dependent pathway for dissolution of collagen fibrils...
  34. Bugge T, Kombrinck K, Flick M, Daugherty C, Danton M, Degen J. Loss of fibrinogen rescues mice from the pleiotropic effects of plasminogen deficiency. Cell. 1996;87:709-19 pubmed
    ..b>Plasminogen (Plg) deficiency in mice results in high mortality, wasting, spontaneous gastrointestinal ulceration, rectal ..
  35. Khoufache K, Berri F, Nacken W, Vogel A, Delenne M, Camerer E, et al. PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model...
  36. Green K, Almholt K, Ploug M, Rønø B, Castellino F, Johnsen M, et al. Profibrinolytic effects of metalloproteinases during skin wound healing in the absence of plasminogen. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2092-101 pubmed publisher
    Genetic ablation of plasminogen (Plg) and pharmacological inhibition of metalloproteinase activity by galardin delay skin wound healing in mice, whereas the combined inhibition of these two enzyme systems completely prevents healing...
  37. Swaisgood C, French E, Noga C, Simon R, Ploplis V. The development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice deficient for components of the fibrinolytic system. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:177-87 pubmed
    ..the effect of bleomycin, an agent that induces the development of pulmonary fibrosis, in mice deficient for plasminogen (Pg(-)(/-)), urokinase (u-PA(-)(/-)), urokinase receptor (u-PAR(-)(/-)), or tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA(-..
  38. Li Q, Ke F, Zhang W, Shen X, Xu Q, Wang H, et al. Plasmin plays an essential role in amplification of psoriasiform skin inflammation in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16483 pubmed publisher
    Although increased levels of plasminogen activators have been found in psoriatic lesions, the role of plasmin converted from plasminogen by plasminogen activators in pathogenesis of psoriasis has not been investigated...
  39. Tjwa M, Moura R, Moons L, Plaisance S, De Mol M, Jansen S, et al. Fibrinolysis-independent role of plasmin and its activators in the haematopoietic recovery after myeloablation. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:4587-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the involvement of the plasminogen (Plg) system in the haematopoietic recovery following chemotherapy...
  40. Matsuno H, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, Kozawa O. Alpha2-antiplasmin plays a significant role in acute pulmonary embolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:1734-9 pubmed
    ..investigated the physiological effects of plasmin generation in experimental acute PE using mice deficient in plasminogen (Plg-/-) or alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP-/-)...
  41. Bolon I, Zhou H, Charron Y, Wohlwend A, Vassalli J. Plasminogen mediates the pathological effects of urokinase-type plasminogen activator overexpression. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:2299-304 pubmed
    Increased expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) is associated with different pathological conditions...
  42. Schuliga M, Langenbach S, Xia Y, Qin C, Mok J, Harris T, et al. Plasminogen-stimulated inflammatory cytokine production by airway smooth muscle cells is regulated by annexin A2. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:751-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen has a role in airway inflammation. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells cleave plasminogen into plasmin, a protease with proinflammatory activity...
  43. Kremen M, Krishnan R, Emery I, Hu J, Slezicki K, Wu A, et al. Plasminogen mediates the atherogenic effects of macrophage-expressed urokinase and accelerates atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17109-14 pubmed publisher
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is expressed at elevated levels in atherosclerotic human arteries, primarily in macrophages...
  44. Barnewitz K, Maringer M, Mitteregger G, Giese A, Bertsch U, Kretzschmar H. Unaltered prion protein cleavage in plasminogen-deficient mice. Neuroreport. 2006;17:527-30 pubmed
    ..The cleavage pattern of PrP found in both brain lysates and other tissues of plasminogen knock-out mice, however, is unaltered...
  45. Hanley Hyde J, Mushinski J, Sadofsky M, Huppi K, Krall M, Kozak C, et al. Expression of murine cyclin B1 mRNAs and genetic mapping of related genomic sequences. Genomics. 1992;13:1018-30 pubmed
    ..Cycb1-rs6 (on chromosome 13) is discussed as the most likely candidate for an expressed structural gene locus. ..
  46. Chen Z, Indyk J, Strickland S. The hippocampal laminin matrix is dynamic and critical for neuronal survival. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2665-76 pubmed
    ..because there was no effect on laminin mRNA expression; and 3) occurred in both tPA(-/-) and plasminogen(-/-) mice, indicating that increased plasmin activity was not responsible...
  47. Sulniute R, Shen Y, Guo Y, Fallah M, Ahlskog N, Ny L, et al. Plasminogen is a critical regulator of cutaneous wound healing. Thromb Haemost. 2016;115:1001-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that wound closure is delayed in plasminogen-deficient mice, and a role for plasminogen in dissection of extracellular matrix was suggested...
  48. Gong Y, Fan Y, Hoover Plow J. Plasminogen regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4-mediated hematopoietic stem cell mobilization by activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasminogen (Plg) has been shown to be critical for HPSC mobilization...
  49. Cortes Canteli M, Paul J, Norris E, Bronstein R, Ahn H, Zamolodchikov D, et al. Fibrinogen and beta-amyloid association alters thrombosis and fibrinolysis: a possible contributing factor to Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 2010;66:695-709 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments suggest that one important contribution of Abeta to AD is via its effects on fibrin clots, implicating fibrin(ogen) as a potential critical factor in this disease. ..
  50. Zeng B, Bruce D, Kril J, Ploplis V, Freedman B, Brieger D. Influence of plasminogen deficiency on the contribution of polymorphonuclear leucocytes to fibrin/ogenolysis: studies in plasminogen knock-out mice. Thromb Haemost. 2002;88:805-10 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen knock-out (PG(-/-)) mice provide an unique opportunity for the study of alternative mediators of fibrinolysis...
  51. Hald A, Eickhardt H, Maerkedahl R, Feldborg C, Egerod K, Engelholm L, et al. Plasmin-driven fibrinolysis facilitates skin tumor growth in a gender-dependent manner. FASEB J. 2012;26:4445-57 pubmed publisher
    Rearrangement of the skin during wound healing depends on plasmin and plasminogen, which serve to degrade fibrin depositions in the provisional matrix and thereby facilitate keratinocyte migration...
  52. Creemers E, Cleutjens J, Smits J, Heymans S, Moons L, Collen D, et al. Disruption of the plasminogen gene in mice abolishes wound healing after myocardial infarction. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:1865-73 pubmed
    The plasminogen system plays an important role in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrices during wound healing...
  53. Drew A, Kaufman A, Kombrinck K, Danton M, Daugherty C, Degen J, et al. Ligneous conjunctivitis in plasminogen-deficient mice. Blood. 1998;91:1616-24 pubmed
    ..A probable link between plasminogen and ligneous conjunctivitis has been indicated by the recent diagnoses of plasminogen deficiency in five ..
  54. Huang M, Gong Y, Grondolsky J, Hoover Plow J. Lp(a)/apo(a) modulate MMP-9 activation and neutrophil cytokines in vivo in inflammation to regulate leukocyte recruitment. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:1503-17 pubmed publisher
    ..concentration, small isoforms of apolipoprotein [apo(a)], the unique apolipoprotein of Lp(a), and a mimic of plasminogen. Inflammation is associated with both the initiation and recovery of cardiovascular diseases, and plasminogen ..
  55. Guo Y, Li J, Hagström E, Ny T. Beneficial and detrimental effects of plasmin(ogen) during infection and sepsis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24774 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, by using mice lacking genes for plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase-type PA (uPA), we have investigated the functional ..
  56. Shimazu H, Munakata S, Tashiro Y, Salama Y, Dhahri D, Eiamboonsert S, et al. Pharmacological targeting of plasmin prevents lethality in a murine model of macrophage activation syndrome. Blood. 2017;130:59-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings identify plasmin as a decisive checkpoint in the inflammatory response during MAS and a potential novel therapeutic target for MAS. ..
  57. Melnick M, Chen H, Buckley S, Warburton D, Jaskoll T. Insulin-like growth factor II receptor, transforming growth factor-beta, and Cdk4 expression and the developmental epigenetics of mouse palate morphogenesis and dysmorphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1998;211:11-25 pubmed
    ..we show 1) the presence of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), IGF-II receptor (IGF-IIR), IGF-IR, TGF-beta, plasminogen, plasminogen activators [urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)], and ..
  58. Matys T, Pawlak R, Matys E, Pavlides C, McEwen B, Strickland S. Tissue plasminogen activator promotes the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on the amygdala and anxiety-like behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16345-50 pubmed
    ..We have previously demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the amygdala promotes stress-induced synaptic plasticity and anxiety-like behavior...
  59. Motley M, Madsen D, Jürgensen H, Spencer D, Szabo R, Holmbeck K, et al. A CCR2 macrophage endocytic pathway mediates extravascular fibrin clearance in vivo. Blood. 2016;127:1085-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular fibrin uptake was strictly dependent on plasminogen and plasminogen activator...
  60. Levi M, Moons L, Bouche A, Shapiro S, Collen D, Carmeliet P. Deficiency of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-mediated plasmin generation impairs vascular remodeling during hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Circulation. 2001;103:2014-20 pubmed
    ..A role of the plasminogen system in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling has been suggested...
  61. Kawashita E, Kanno Y, Asayama H, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, et al. Involvement of ?2-antiplasmin in dendritic growth of hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem. 2013;126:58-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that ?2AP induces dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons through p38 MAPK activation, independent of plasmin, providing new insights into the role of ?2AP in the CNS. ..
  62. Imamura Y, Morita S, Nakatani Y, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen are critical for osmotic homeostasis by regulating vasopressin secretion. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we demonstrated that the immunoreactivity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was observed specifically at neurosecretory granules of AVP-positive magnocellular terminals ..
  63. Sharon R, Abramovitz R, Miskin R. Plasminogen mRNA induction in the mouse brain after kainate excitation: codistribution with plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) mRNA. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;104:170-5 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen (Plg), which can be converted to the active protease plasmin by plasminogen activators, has been previously implicated in brain plasticity and in toxicity inflicted in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by kainate...
  64. Zwart R, Verhaagh S, De Jong J, Lyon M, Barlow D. Genetic analysis of the organic cation transporter genes Orct2/Slc22a2 and Orct3/Slc22a3 reduces the critical region for the t haplotype mutant t(w73) to 200 kb. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:734-40 pubmed
    ..The results eliminate both Orct2 and Orct3 as candidates and further reduce the critical region containing the t(w73) mutant from 500 kb to 200 kb. ..
  65. Crane D, Warner S, Bosio C. A novel role for plasmin-mediated degradation of opsonizing antibody in the evasion of host immunity by virulent, but not attenuated, Francisella tularensis. J Immunol. 2009;183:4593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis. This mechanism may also represent a more common hereto unrecognized strategy by which virulent bacteria evade detection and clearance by Ig. ..
  66. Mignemi N, Yuasa M, Baker C, Moore S, Ihejirika R, Oelsner W, et al. Plasmin Prevents Dystrophic Calcification After Muscle Injury. J Bone Miner Res. 2017;32:294-308 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. ..
  67. Yang X, Cheng R, Li C, Cai W, Ma J, Liu Q, et al. Kringle 5 of human plasminogen suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth both in grafted and xenografted mice by anti-angiogenic activity. Cancer Biol Ther. 2006;5:399-405 pubmed
    b>Plasminogen kringle 5 (K5), a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, is an endogenous angiogenic inhibitor. We have previously shown that K5 inhibits ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in a rat model...
  68. Eriksson P, Li J, Ny T, Hellstrom S. Spontaneous development of otitis media in plasminogen-deficient mice. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:501-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, the role of the plasminogen (plg)/plasmin system for the spontaneous development of chronic otitis media was investigated by the analysis ..
  69. Chen Z, Indyk J, Bugge T, Kombrinck K, Degen J, Strickland S. Neuronal death and blood-brain barrier breakdown after excitotoxic injury are independent processes. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9813-20 pubmed
    ..To test plasma protein recruitment in neuronal degeneration, we used plasminogen-deficient (plg(-/-)) mice, which are resistant to excitotoxin-induced degeneration...
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    b>Plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice experience wasting and have decreased longevity due to disseminated fibrin deposition...
  71. Liu Z, Li Y, Qian J, Cui Y, Chopp M. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94505 pubmed publisher
    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin...
  72. Currier A, Sabla G, Locaputo S, Melin Aldana H, Degen J, Bezerra J. Plasminogen directs the pleiotropic effects of uPA in liver injury and repair. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G508-15 pubmed
    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays a central role in liver repair. Nevertheless, the hepatic overexpression of uPA results in panlobular injury and neonatal mortality...
  73. Blanche H, Wright L, Vergnaud G, de Gouyon B, Lauthier V, Silver L, et al. Genetic mapping of three human homologues of murine t-complex genes localizes TCP10 to 6q27, 15 cM distal to TCP1 and PLG. Genomics. 1992;12:826-8 pubmed
    ..TCP1, TCP10, and PLG are human homologues of genes located in the proximal portion of the t-complex on mouse chromosome 17...
  74. Hultman K, Cortes Canteli M, Bounoutas A, Richards A, Strickland S, Norris E. Plasmin deficiency leads to fibrin accumulation and a compromised inflammatory response in the mouse brain. J Thromb Haemost. 2014;12:701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Brains of plasminogen (plg)- and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice were examined and characterized with regard to ..
  75. Yepes M, Sandkvist M, Coleman T, Moore E, Wu J, Mitola D, et al. Regulation of seizure spreading by neuroserpin and tissue-type plasminogen activator is plasminogen-independent. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1571-8 pubmed
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a highly specific serine proteinase expressed in the CNS during events that require neuronal plasticity...
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    ..with genetically and pharmacologically imposed deficits in the fibrin precursor fibrinogen and fibrin-degrading plasminogen to explore the hypothesis that fibrin is vital to the initiation of fracture repair, but impaired fibrin ..
  78. Himmelbauer H, Harvey R, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Silver L. High-resolution genetic analysis of a deletion on mouse chromosome 17 extending over the fused, tufted, and homeobox Nkx2-5 loci. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:814-6 pubmed
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    Structural similarities between apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), the unique apoprotein of lipoprotein(a), and plasminogen, the zymogen of plasmin, can interfere with functions of plasmin (ogen) in vitro...
  80. Pawlak R, Magarinos A, Melchor J, McEwen B, Strickland S. Tissue plasminogen activator in the amygdala is critical for stress-induced anxiety-like behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:168-74 pubmed
    ..Here we found that the serine protease tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) was upregulated in the central and medial amygdala by acute restraint stress, where it promoted ..