Gene Symbol: Plau
Description: plasminogen activator, urokinase
Alias: u-PA, uPA, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, U-plasminogen activator
Species: mouse
Products:     Plau

Top Publications

  1. Shushakova N, Eden G, Dangers M, Zwirner J, Menne J, Gueler F, et al. The urokinase/urokinase receptor system mediates the IgG immune complex-induced inflammation in lung. J Immunol. 2005;175:4060-8 pubmed the cell surface-specific receptor (uPAR), a binding partner for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)...
  2. Stacey K, Fowles L, Colman M, Ostrowski M, Hume D. Regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene transcription by macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3430-41 pubmed
    The mouse urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene was used as a model macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-inducible gene to investigate CSF-1 signalling pathways...
  3. Cook A, Braine E, Campbell I, Hamilton J. Differing roles for urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator in collagen-induced arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:917-26 pubmed
    ..Our data highlight the complexities of PA function, and suggest that approaches either to target u-PA or to enhance local t-PA activity in joints may be of therapeutic benefit in rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  4. Carmeliet P, Schoonjans L, Kieckens L, Ream B, Degen J, Bronson R, et al. Physiological consequences of loss of plasminogen activator gene function in mice. Nature. 1994;368:419-24 pubmed
    ..Mice with combined t-PA and u-PA deficiency suffer extensive spontaneous fibrin deposition, with its associated effects on growth, fertility and survival. ..
  5. Jögi A, Rønø B, Lund I, Nielsen B, Ploug M, Høyer Hansen G, et al. Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12746 pubmed publisher
    ..closure as have mice simultaneously lacking the two plasminogen activators, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  6. Bryer S, Fantuzzi G, Van Rooijen N, Koh T. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator plays essential roles in macrophage chemotaxis and skeletal muscle regeneration. J Immunol. 2008;180:1179-88 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA-/-) exhibit decreased accumulation of macrophages following muscle injury and severely impaired muscle regeneration...
  7. Gyetko M, Libre E, Fuller J, Chen G, Toews G. Urokinase is required for T lymphocyte proliferation and activation in vitro. J Lab Clin Med. 1999;133:274-88 pubmed
    We have previously demonstrated that urokinase-deficient (uPA-/-) mice do not increase lung T lymphocyte number and fail to mount protective immune responses during pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection...
  8. Guo Y, Li J, Hagström E, Ny T. Beneficial and detrimental effects of plasmin(ogen) during infection and sepsis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24774 pubmed publisher, by using mice lacking genes for plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase-type PA (uPA), we have investigated the functional roles of active plasmin in infection and sepsis...
  9. Gondi C, Lakka S, Dinh D, Olivero W, Gujrati M, Rao J. Intraperitoneal injection of a hairpin RNA-expressing plasmid targeting urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor and uPA retards angiogenesis and inhibits intracranial tumor growth in nude mice. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4051-60 pubmed
    ..potential of using plasmid-expressed RNA interference (RNAi) targeting urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) and uPA to treat human glioma...

More Information


  1. Almholt K, Lund L, Rygaard J, Nielsen B, Danø K, Rømer J, et al. Reduced metastasis of transgenic mammary cancer in urokinase-deficient mice. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:525-32 pubmed
    ..Proteolytically active plasmin is generated from inactive plasminogen by one of 2 activators, uPA or tPA. We now find that uPA deficiency alone significantly reduces metastasis >7-fold in the MMTV-PymT model...
  2. Cook A, De Nardo C, Braine E, Turner A, Vlahos R, Way K, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator and arthritis progression: role in systemic disease with immune complex involvement. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R37 pubmed publisher
    ..For immune complex-mediated peritonitis, and perhaps some other inflammatory responses, it is suggested that the u-PA involvement may be upstream of C5a signaling. ..
  3. Deindl E, Ziegelhoffer T, Kanse S, Fernandez B, Neubauer E, Carmeliet P, et al. Receptor-independent role of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator during arteriogenesis. FASEB J. 2003;17:1174-6 pubmed
    To define the role of the plasminogen activators (PAs) urokinase PA (uPA) and tissue PA (tPA) as well as the uPA receptor (uPAR) in arteriogenesis, we investigated their impact in a rabbit and mouse model of adaptive collateral artery ..
  4. Li J, Ny A, Leonardsson G, Nandakumar K, Holmdahl R, Ny T. The plasminogen activator/plasmin system is essential for development of the joint inflammatory phase of collagen type II-induced arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:783-92 pubmed
    ..used the autoimmune collagen type II (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) model and mice deficient for urokinase-type PA (uPA) or plasminogen to investigate the role of the PA system for development of arthritis...
  5. Gyetko M, Sud S, Chen G, Fuller J, Chensue S, Toews G. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is required for the generation of a type 1 immune response to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Immunol. 2002;168:801-9 pubmed
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)(-/-) mice cannot mount protective host defenses during infection with the opportunistic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (52D). Because effective host defense against C...
  6. Lund L, Green K, Stoop A, Ploug M, Almholt K, Lilla J, et al. Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice. EMBO J. 2006;25:2686-97 pubmed
    Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing...
  7. Lijnen H, Van Hoef B, Collen D. Characterization of the murine plasminogen/urokinase-type plasminogen-activator system. Eur J Biochem. 1996;241:840-8 pubmed
    ..However, quantitative differences were observed both in the presence of cells and in plasma which may contribute to a reduced u-PA-mediated fibrinolytic activity in the murine systems. ..
  8. Leonardsson G, Peng X, Liu K, Nordstrom L, Carmeliet P, Mulligan R, et al. Ovulation efficiency is reduced in mice that lack plasminogen activator gene function: functional redundancy among physiological plasminogen activators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:12446-50 pubmed
    ..single-deficient mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), or PA inhibitor type 1(PAI-1) gene function were recently found to have normal reproduction, although mice with a ..
  9. Nagai N, Okada K, Kawao N, Ishida C, Ueshima S, Collen D, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) augments brain damage in a murine model of ischemic stroke. Neurosci Lett. 2008;432:46-9 pubmed publisher permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in mice with genetic deficiency of uPAR (uPAR(-/-)) or of uPA (uPA(-/-)). Brain damage at 3 days was smaller in uPAR(-/-) mice (4.5+/-1...
  10. el Fahime E, Mills P, Lafreniere J, Torrente Y, Tremblay J. The urokinase plasminogen activator: an interesting way to improve myoblast migration following their transplantation. Exp Cell Res. 2002;280:169-78 pubmed
    ..Here, we studied the role of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in this process...
  11. Luikart S, Masri M, Wahl D, Hinkel T, Beck J, Gyetko M, et al. Urokinase is required for the formation of mactinin, an alpha-actinin fragment that promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1591:99-107 pubmed
    ..For in vivo tests, inflammatory fluid (from bronchoalvelolar lavage) was collected from uPA (urokinase) knockout mice and their wild-type counterparts after intratracheal challenge with Pneumocystis carinii...
  12. Cook A, Vlahos R, Massa C, Braine E, Lenzo J, Turner A, et al. The effect of tissue type-plasminogen activator deletion and associated fibrin(ogen) deposition on macrophage localization in peritoneal inflammation. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:659-67 pubmed
    ..Peritoneal inflammation in t-PA-/- mice represents a useful model to study the progression of intra-abdominal adhesions during surgery and clinical peritonitis. ..
  13. Carmeliet P, Moons L, Herbert J, Crawley J, Lupu F, Lijnen R, et al. Urokinase but not tissue plasminogen activator mediates arterial neointima formation in mice. Circ Res. 1997;81:829-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, u-PA plays a significant role in vascular wound healing and arterial neointima formation after injury, most likely by affecting cellular migration. ..
  14. Gyetko M, Sud S, Kendall T, Fuller J, Newstead M, Standiford T. Urokinase receptor-deficient mice have impaired neutrophil recruitment in response to pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. J Immunol. 2000;165:1513-9 pubmed
    Leukocytes express both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87). Evidence in vitro has implicated uPAR as a modulator of beta2 integrin function, particularly CR3 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1)...
  15. Lluis F, Roma J, Suelves M, Parra M, Aniorte G, Gallardo E, et al. Urokinase-dependent plasminogen activation is required for efficient skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. Blood. 2001;97:1703-11 pubmed
    Plasminogen activators urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) are extracellular proteases involved in various tissue remodeling processes...
  16. Wang X, Bdeir K, Yarovoi S, Cines D, Fang W, Abraham E. Involvement of the urokinase kringle domain in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. J Immunol. 2006;177:5550-7 pubmed
    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) plays a major role in fibrinolytic processes and also can potentiate LPS-induced neutrophil activation through interactions with its kringle domain (KD)...
  17. Connolly B, Choi E, Gardsvoll H, Bey A, Currie B, Chavakis T, et al. Selective abrogation of the uPA-uPAR interaction in vivo reveals a novel role in suppression of fibrin-associated inflammation. Blood. 2010;116:1593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we developed a new mouse strain (Plau(GFDhu/GFDhu)) in which the interaction between endogenous uPA and uPAR is selectively abrogated, whereas other ..
  18. Carmeliet P, Moons L, Dewerchin M, Rosenberg S, Herbert J, Lupu F, et al. Receptor-independent role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in pericellular plasmin and matrix metalloproteinase proteolysis during vascular wound healing in mice. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:233-45 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that binding of u-PA to u-PAR is not required to provide sufficient pericellular u-PA-mediated plasmin proteolysis to allow cellular migration into a vascular wound. ..
  19. Koh T, Bryer S, Pucci A, Sisson T. Mice deficient in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 have improved skeletal muscle regeneration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C217-23 pubmed
    ..Specifically, mice deficient in either urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA-/- mice) or plasminogen demonstrate markedly impaired muscle regeneration after injury...
  20. Abraham E, Gyetko M, Kuhn K, Arcaroli J, Strassheim D, Park J, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophil activation. J Immunol. 2003;170:5644-51 pubmed
    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine protease that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin...
  21. Gyetko M, Aizenberg D, Mayo Bond L. Urokinase-deficient and urokinase receptor-deficient mice have impaired neutrophil antimicrobial activation in vitro. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:648-56 pubmed
    Leukocytes express both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the urokinase receptor (uPAR, CD87). We have shown that neutrophil recruitment to the lung during P...
  22. Carmeliet P, Moons L, Lijnen R, Baes M, Lemaitre V, Tipping P, et al. Urokinase-generated plasmin activates matrix metalloproteinases during aneurysm formation. Nat Genet. 1997;17:439-44 pubmed
    ..18), singly or combined with a deficiency of t-PA (Apoe-/-:Plat-/-) or of u-PA (Apoe-/-:Plau-/-; ref...
  23. Rijneveld A, Levi M, Florquin S, Speelman P, Carmeliet P, van der Poll T. Urokinase receptor is necessary for adequate host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2002;168:3507-11 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of uPAR and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) during pneumonia caused by a beta(2) integrin-independent respiratory pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  24. Suelves M, Lopez Alemany R, Lluis F, Aniorte G, Serrano E, Parra M, et al. Plasmin activity is required for myogenesis in vitro and skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. Blood. 2002;99:2835-44 pubmed generated from proteolytic cleavage of the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
  25. Busso N, Péclat V, Van Ness K, Kolodziesczyk E, Degen J, Bugge T, et al. Exacerbation of antigen-induced arthritis in urokinase-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:41-50 pubmed
    In rheumatoid arthritis, synovial expression of urokinase (uPA) activity is greatly increased (Busso, N., V. Péclat, A. So, and A. -P. Sappino. 1997. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 56:550- 557)...
  26. Irigoyen J, Munoz Canoves P, Montero L, Koziczak M, Nagamine Y. The plasminogen activator system: biology and regulation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;56:104-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, modulation of mRNA stability is an important factor in overall regulation. This review summarizes current understanding of the biology and regulation of genes involved in plasminogen activation at different levels. ..
  27. Yang Y, Carmeliet P, Hamilton J. Tissue-type plasminogen activator deficiency exacerbates arthritis. J Immunol. 2001;167:1047-52 pubmed
    ..Fibrin deposition appeared to parallel disease severity under the various conditions, suggesting that PA-mediated fibrinolysis may be normally playing a protective role in inflammatory joint disease. ..
  28. Lund L, Bjørn S, Sternlicht M, Nielsen B, Solberg H, Usher P, et al. Lactational competence and involution of the mouse mammary gland require plasminogen. Development. 2000;127:4481-92 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a critical, dose-dependent requirement for Plg in lactational differentiation and mammary gland remodeling during involution. ..
  29. Chen J, Chang L, Wu C, Tseng T, Lin J, Lin Y, et al. Significance of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in the progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in clinical and mouse models. J Biomed Sci. 2016;23:24 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study was designed to investigate the roles of uPA and suPAR in FSGS in clinical and mouse models...
  30. Merchan J, Tang J, Hu G, Lin Y, Mutter W, Tong C, et al. Protease activity of urokinase and tumor progression in a syngeneic mammary cancer model. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:756-64 pubmed
    ..Genes encoding murine tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase (uPA), and vector controls were stably transfected into 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells, and cell proliferation in vitro ..
  31. Piguet P, Vesin C, Da Laperousaz C, Rochat A. Role of plasminogen activators and urokinase receptor in platelet kinetics. Hematol J. 2000;1:199-205 pubmed
    ..We took advantage of genetically deficient mice to explore the role of urokinase (uPA) and tissue type (tPA) PAs, as well as the uPA receptor (uPAR, CD87) in platelet kinetics...
  32. Bi Oh S, Suh N, Kim I, Lee J. Impacts of aging and amyloid-β deposition on plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res. 2015;1597:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant alteration in the expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is detected...
  33. Riehle K, Johnson M, Johansson F, Bauer R, Hayes B, Gilbertson D, et al. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is not necessary for platelet-derived growth factor-c activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our ELISA data suggest a difference between in vitro and in vivo activation of this growth factor, and our mouse model confirms that multiple proteases cleave and activate PDGF-C in vivo. ..
  34. Zhao Y, Greene Till R, Hardies S. Mus spretus LINE-1s in C57BL/6J map to at least two different chromosomes. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:679-80 pubmed
  35. Shi H, Liu L, Liu L, Geng J, Chen L. Inhibition of tumor growth by β-elemene through downregulation of the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a murine intraocular melanoma model. Melanoma Res. 2015;25:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA expression levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were assayed by real-time PCR, and the protein ..
  36. Wei C, Möller C, Altintas M, Li J, Schwarz K, Zacchigna S, et al. Modification of kidney barrier function by the urokinase receptor. Nat Med. 2008;14:55-63 pubmed
    ..Blockade of alphavbeta3 integrin reduces podocyte motility in vitro and lowers proteinuria in mice. Our findings show a physiological role for uPAR signaling in the regulation of kidney permeability. ..
  37. Singh I, Burnand K, Collins M, Luttun A, Collen D, Boelhouwer B, et al. Failure of thrombus to resolve in urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene-knockout mice: rescue by normal bone marrow-derived cells. Circulation. 2003;107:869-75 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is associated with an ingress of monocytes into the thrombus...
  38. Nassar T, Haj Yehia A, Akkawi S, Kuo A, Bdeir K, Mazar A, et al. Binding of urokinase to low density lipoprotein-related receptor (LRP) regulates vascular smooth muscle cell contraction. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40499-504 pubmed
    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes involving cell adhesion and migration in addition to fibrinolysis...
  39. Hu X, Tang Z, Li Y, Liu W, Zhang S, Wang B, et al. Deletion of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in Sertoli cells causes infertility in mice. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12982 pubmed publisher
    ..These results collectively suggest that Shp2 is a critical signaling protein that is required to maintain Sertoli cell function and could serve as a novel target for male infertility therapies. ..
  40. Abbott C, Chambers D. Analysis of CAG trinucleotide repeats from mouse cDNA sequences. Ann Hum Genet. 1994;58:87-94 pubmed
    ..Sinh1b maps very distally on the X chromosome, and Chat maps to chromosome 14. ..
  41. Harvey M, Leco K, Arcellana Panlilio M, Zhang X, Edwards D, Schultz G. Proteinase expression in early mouse embryos is regulated by leukaemia inhibitory factor and epidermal growth factor. Development. 1995;121:1005-14 pubmed
    ..this study, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their inhibitors was investigated during early mouse embryo development...
  42. Stepanova V, Dergilev K, Holman K, Parfyonova Y, Tsokolaeva Z, Teter M, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is critical for progression of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)-deficient tumors. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:20528-20543 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that LAM lesions and angiomyolipomas overexpress urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)...
  43. Witowsky J, Abell A, Johnson N, Johnson G, Cuevas B. MEKK1 is required for inducible urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5941-6 pubmed
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) regulates the remodeling of extracellular matrix and controls reparative processes such as wound healing and liver regeneration...
  44. Lahtinen L, Ndode Ekane X, Barinka F, Akamine Y, Esmaeili M, Rantala J, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator regulates neurodegeneration and neurogenesis but not vascular changes in the mouse hippocampus after status epilepticus. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:692-703 pubmed publisher
    Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is increased after brain injury, suggesting that, like in cancer tissue, uPA plays roles in brain remodeling...
  45. Yanai H, Toren D, Vierlinger K, Hofner M, Nöhammer C, Chilosi M, et al. Wound healing and longevity: lessons from long-lived αMUPA mice. Aging (Albany NY). 2015;7:167-76 pubmed
    ..It appears that the CR-like longevity phenotype is associated with more balanced and efficient WH mechanisms in old age, which could ensure a long-term survival advantage. ..
  46. Yamaguchi I, Lopez Guisa J, Cai X, Collins S, Okamura D, Eddy A. Endogenous urokinase lacks antifibrotic activity during progressive renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F12-9 pubmed
    Interstitial fibrosis is a universal feature of progressive kidney disease. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is thought to participate for several reasons: 1) uPA is produced predominantly in kidney, 2) its inhibitor ..
  47. Hou Y, Okamoto C, Okada K, Kawao N, Kawata S, Ueshima S, et al. c-Myc is essential for urokinase plasminogen activator expression on hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;75:186-94 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether c-Myc regulates expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) on hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
  48. DiPasquale D, Cheng M, Billich W, Huang S, Van Rooijen N, Hornberger T, et al. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator and macrophages are required for skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1278-85 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis of this study was that the extracellular serine protease, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), is required for muscle hypertrophy, in part by promoting macrophage accumulation in muscle subjected to increased ..
  49. Martínez Hernández M, Baiza Gutman L, Castillo Trápala A, Armant D. Regulation of proteinases during mouse peri-implantation development: urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression and cross talk with matrix metalloproteinase 9. Reproduction. 2011;141:227-39 pubmed publisher
    Trophoblast cells express urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU) and may depend on its activity for endometrial invasion and tissue remodeling during peri-implantation development...
  50. Lu C, Lee R, Hwu Y, Lin M, Yeh L, Chen Y, et al. Involvement of the serine protease inhibitor, SERPINE2, and the urokinase plasminogen activator in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74602 pubmed publisher
    The serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2) inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU) and tissue-type plasminogen activator...
  51. Daci E, Everts V, Torrekens S, Van Herck E, Tigchelaar Gutterr W, Bouillon R, et al. Increased bone formation in mice lacking plasminogen activators. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:1167-76 pubmed
    Plasminogen activators tPA and uPA are involved in tissue remodeling, but their role in bone growth is undefined. Mice lacking tPA and uPA show increased bone formation and bone mass...
  52. Ploplis V, Tipton H, Menchen H, Castellino F. A urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficiency diminishes the frequency of intestinal adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice. J Pathol. 2007;213:266-74 pubmed
    ..In the current study, a mouse model of colon cancer, Apc(Min/+), with an additional deficiency of uPA (Apc(Min/+)/Plau-/-) was used to determine the effects of uPA on tumour initiation and growth...
  53. White R, Dowler L, Adkison L, Ezekowitz R, Sastry K. The murine mannose-binding protein genes (Mbl 1 and Mbl 2) localize to chromosomes 14 and 19. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:807-9 pubmed
  54. Tobar N, Villar V, Santibanez J. ROS-NFkappaB mediates TGF-beta1-induced expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell invasion. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;340:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are critical components in cell migration and invasion induced by TGF-beta1,..
  55. Pinsky D, Liao H, Lawson C, Yan S, Chen J, Carmeliet P, et al. Coordinated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and inhibition of plasminogen activator gene expression by hypoxia promotes pulmonary vascular fibrin deposition. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:919-28 pubmed contrast, transcripts for both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased under hypoxic conditions...
  56. Pontén A, Folestad E, Pietras K, Eriksson U. Platelet-derived growth factor D induces cardiac fibrosis and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in heart-specific transgenic mice. Circ Res. 2005;97:1036-45 pubmed
    ..Our data raise the possibility that this growth factor may be involved in cardiac fibrosis and atherosclerosis. ..
  57. Leksa V, Loewe R, Binder B, Schiller H, Eckerstorfer P, Forster F, et al. Soluble M6P/IGF2R released by TACE controls angiogenesis via blocking plasminogen activation. Circ Res. 2011;108:676-85 pubmed publisher
    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system is among the most crucial pericellular proteolytic systems associated with the processes of angiogenesis...
  58. Stempien Otero A, Plawman A, Meznarich J, Dyamenahalli T, Otsuka G, Dichek D. Mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis induced by urokinase plasminogen activator. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15345-51 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that mice with macrophage-targeted overexpression of urokinase plasminogen activator (SR-uPA+/o mice) develop cardiac macrophage accumulation by 5 weeks of age and cardiac fibrosis by 15 weeks...
  59. Mazzieri R, Pietrogrande G, Gerasi L, Gandelli A, Colombo P, Moi D, et al. Urokinase Receptor Promotes Skin Tumor Formation by Preventing Epithelial Cell Activation of Notch1. Cancer Res. 2015;75:4895-909 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that uPAR signaling is nonessential for normal epidermal homeostasis, our results argue that uPAR may present a promising disease-specific target for preventing skin cancer development. ..
  60. Timme T, Truong L, Merz V, Krebs T, Kadmon D, Flanders K, et al. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions and transforming growth factor-beta expression during mouse prostate morphogenesis. Endocrinology. 1994;134:1039-45 pubmed
  61. Hu J, Du L, Chu T, Otsuka G, Dronadula N, Jaffe M, et al. Overexpression of urokinase by plaque macrophages causes histological features of plaque rupture and increases vascular matrix metalloproteinase activity in aged apolipoprotein e-null mice. Circulation. 2010;121:1637-44 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque rupture are poorly understood. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is expressed at elevated levels by macrophages in advanced human plaques...
  62. Nomura K, Miyagawa S, Ayukawa K, Soeda J, Taniguchi S, Kawasaki S. Inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator delays expression of c-jun, activated transforming growth factor beta 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 during post-hepatectomy liver regeneration in mice. J Hepatol. 2002;36:637-44 pubmed
  63. Gutierrez L, Schulman A, Brito Robinson T, Noria F, Ploplis V, Castellino F. Tumor development is retarded in mice lacking the gene for urokinase-type plasminogen activator or its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Cancer Res. 2000;60:5839-47 pubmed
    In vivo tumor progression in mice with targeted deficiencies in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (UPA-/-) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1-/-), was studied using a fibrosarcoma tumor model...
  64. Sonoda K, Nakamura T, Young H, Hart D, Carmeliet P, Stein Streilein J. NKT cell-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator promotes peripheral tolerance associated with eye. J Immunol. 2007;179:2215-22 pubmed
    ..cells (required for development of peripheral tolerance) actually produced urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) during tolerance induction...
  65. Marudamuthu A, Bhandary Y, Shetty S, Fu J, Sathish V, Prakash Y, et al. Role of the urokinase-fibrinolytic system in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung injury. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:55-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are highly susceptible, whereas those deficient in plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) are resistant to lung ..
  66. Weiler Guettler H, Christie P, Beeler D, Healy A, Hancock W, Rayburn H, et al. A targeted point mutation in thrombomodulin generates viable mice with a prethrombotic state. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1983-91 pubmed
    ..The thrombomodulin-deficient animals provide a murine model to examine known or identify unknown genetic and environmental factors that lead to the development of thrombosis. ..
  67. Zhou H, Nichols A, Wohlwend A, Bolon I, Vassalli J. Extracellular proteolysis alters tooth development in transgenic mice expressing urokinase-type plasminogen activator in the enamel organ. Development. 1999;126:903-12 pubmed
    By catalyzing plasmin formation, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) can generate widespread extracellular proteolysis and thereby play an important role in physiological and pathological processes...
  68. Bergers G, Brekken R, McMahon G, Vu T, Itoh T, Tamaki K, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 triggers the angiogenic switch during carcinogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:737-44 pubmed
    ..Absence of MMP-2 does not impair induction of angiogenesis, but retards tumour growth, whereas lack of urokinase has no effect. Our results show that MMP-9 is a component of the angiogenic switch. ..
  69. Ceci J, Kingsley D, Silan C, Copeland N, Jenkins N. An interspecific backcross linkage map of the proximal half of mouse chromosome 14. Genomics. 1990;6:673-8 pubmed
    ..Loci that were mapped in this study include Bmp-1, Ctla-1, Hap, hr, Plau, Psp-2, Rib-1, and Tcra...
  70. Hovius J, Bijlsma M, van der Windt G, Wiersinga W, Boukens B, Coumou J, et al. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000447 pubmed publisher
    ..uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function...
  71. Heymans S, Pauschinger M, De Palma A, Kallwellis Opara A, Rutschow S, Swinnen M, et al. Inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator or matrix metalloproteinases prevents cardiac injury and dysfunction during viral myocarditis. Circulation. 2006;114:565-73 pubmed tested the hypothesis that increased expression of the proteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is implicated in cardiac inflammation, injury, and subsequent failure during ..
  72. Gur Wahnon D, Mizrachi T, Maaravi Pinto F, Lourbopoulos A, Grigoriadis N, Higazi A, et al. The plasminogen activator system: involvement in central nervous system inflammation and a potential site for therapeutic intervention. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:124 pubmed publisher
    ..EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in mice deficient for the urokinase PA (uPA-/-), or the urokinase PA receptor (uPAR-/-)...
  73. Teesalu T, Blasi F, Talarico D. Expression and function of the urokinase type plasminogen activator during mouse hemochorial placental development. Dev Dyn. 1998;213:27-38 pubmed
    ..We have performed in situ expression analysis of urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), as well as functionally related molecules (uPA receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-..
  74. Carmeliet P, Collen D. Genetic analysis of the plasminogen and coagulation system in mice. Haemostasis. 1996;26 Suppl 4:132-53 pubmed
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    ..On the basis of this model we propose that the CAH-like domain of RPTP gamma may have a function other than catalysis of hydration of metabolic CO2. ..
  76. Belin D, Vassalli J, Combepine C, Godeau F, Nagamine Y, Reich E, et al. Cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression of cDNAs encoding mouse urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Eur J Biochem. 1985;148:225-32 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to these enzymes, mouse urokinase contains no N-glycosylation site. Bacteria harbouring one of the recombinant plasmids synthesize and secrete into their periplasm a protease indistinguishable from mouse urokinase. ..