Gene Symbol: Pla2g2a
Description: phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)
Alias: Mom1, Pla2, sPLA2, sPla2-IIA, phospholipase A2, membrane associated, GIIC sPLA2, enhancing factor, group IIA phospholipase A2, modifier of Min1, non-pancreatic secreted type II phospholipase A2, phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 2A, secretory group II phospholipase A2
Species: mouse
Products:     Pla2g2a

Top Publications

  1. Gould K, Luongo C, Moser A, McNeley M, Borenstein N, Shedlovsky A, et al. Genetic evaluation of candidate genes for the Mom1 modifier of intestinal neoplasia in mice. Genetics. 1996;144:1777-85 pubmed
    ..the Mom1 modifier of intestinal adenomas caused by ApcMin, these tests are used to evaluate two candidate genes: Pla2g2a, a secretory phospholipase, and Rap1GAP, a GTPase activating protein...
  2. Macleod K, Jacks T. Insights into cancer from transgenic mouse models. J Pathol. 1999;187:43-60 pubmed
    ..Several exising mouse strains have already been used to develop and test new therapies and conditional mutagenesis will undoubtedly increase the potential use of transgenic mice in understanding and treating cancer. ..
  3. Degg N, Weil M, Edwards A, Haines J, Coster M, Moody J, et al. Adenoma multiplicity in irradiated Apc(Min) mice is modified by chromosome 16 segments from BALB/c. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2361-3 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that chromosome 16 segments from BALB/c interact with Apc(Min) (multiple intestinal neoplasia) and specifically enhance IR-induced adenoma development in the upper part of the small intestine. ..
  4. Bailey R, Olson E, Vu M, Brueseke T, Robertson L, Christensen R, et al. Relationship between membrane physical properties and secretory phospholipase A2 hydrolysis kinetics in S49 cells during ionophore-induced apoptosis. Biophys J. 2007;93:2350-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is proposed that the membranes of apoptotic cells become susceptible to sPLA(2) through a reduction in lipid-neighbor interactions that facilitates migration of phospholipids into the enzyme active site. ..
  5. Li H, Zhang H, Wei G, Cai Q, Yan L, Xu Y. Tumor cell group via phospholipase A? is involved in prostate cancer development. Prostate. 2011;71:373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..LPA stimulated cell migration and/or invasion via a PI3K-dependent pathway. Together, our results suggest that the tumor cell iPLA??-LPA axis may represent a novel target for PCa. ..
  6. Moser A, Dove W, Roth K, Gordon J. The Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mutation: its effect on gut epithelial cell differentiation and interaction with a modifier system. J Cell Biol. 1992;116:1517-26 pubmed
  7. Kennedy B, Payette P, Mudgett J, Vadas P, Pruzanski W, Kwan M, et al. A natural disruption of the secretory group II phospholipase A2 gene in inbred mouse strains. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22378-85 pubmed
    The synovial fluid or group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) has been implicated as an important agent involved in a number of inflammatory processes...
  8. Sapirstein A, Bonventre J. Specific physiological roles of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) as defined by gene knockouts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1488:139-48 pubmed
    ..The importance of cPLA(2) in inflammation and tissue injury suggests that pharmacological targeting of this enzyme may have important therapeutic benefits. ..
  9. Singer A, Ghomashchi F, Le Calvez C, Bollinger J, Bezzine S, Rouault M, et al. Interfacial kinetic and binding properties of the complete set of human and mouse groups I, II, V, X, and XII secreted phospholipases A2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:48535-49 pubmed

More Information


  1. Silverman K, Koratkar R, Siracusa L, Buchberg A. Identification of the modifier of Min 2 (Mom2) locus, a new mutation that influences Apc-induced intestinal neoplasia. Genome Res. 2002;12:88-97 pubmed
    ..multiplicity in Min mice (Gould and Dove 1997), and encodes the secretory type II nonpancreatic phospholipase A2 (Pla2g2a) gene (MacPhee et al. 1995; Cornier et al. 1997, 2000)...
  2. Hong K, Bonventre J, O LEARY E, Bonventre J, Lander E. Deletion of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) suppresses Apc(Min)-induced tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3935-9 pubmed
    ..Notably, disruption of the mouse group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) locus (Pla2g2a), a potential source of AA for COX-2, increases tumor number despite the fact that the mutation has been ..
  3. MacPhee M, Chepenik K, Liddell R, Nelson K, Siracusa L, Buchberg A. The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal neoplasia. Cell. 1995;81:957-66 pubmed
    ..Quantitative trait loci studies have identified a locus, Mom1, which maps to the distal region of chromosome 4, that dramatically modifies Min-induced tumor number...
  4. Piris Gimenez A, Paya M, Lambeau G, Chignard M, Mock M, Touqui L, et al. In vivo protective role of human group IIa phospholipase A2 against experimental anthrax. J Immunol. 2005;175:6786-91 pubmed
    ..anthracis infection in nonimmunized hosts. Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is produced in particular by macrophages and possesses potent antibacterial activity especially against Gram-..
  5. Dietrich W, Lander E, Smith J, Moser A, Gould K, Luongo C, et al. Genetic identification of Mom-1, a major modifier locus affecting Min-induced intestinal neoplasia in the mouse. Cell. 1993;75:631-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence of a major modifier affecting expression of an inherited cancer syndrome. ..
  6. van der Houven van Oordt C, Smits R, Schouten T, Houwing Duistermaat J, Williamson S, Luz A, et al. The genetic background modifies the spontaneous and X-ray-induced tumor spectrum in the Apc1638N mouse model. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999;24:191-8 pubmed
    ..Similar to the ApcMin model, the Apc1638N intestinal tumor multiplicity seems to be modulated by Mom1. Moreover, several additional (X-ray-responsive) modifier loci appear also to affect the Apc1638N intestinal tumor ..
  7. Hong J, Hwang E, McManus M, Amsterdam A, Tian Y, Kalmukova R, et al. TAZ, a transcriptional modulator of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Science. 2005;309:1074-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TAZ functions as a molecular rheostat that modulates MSC differentiation. ..
  8. Tischfield J, Xia Y, Shih D, Klisak I, Chen J, Engle S, et al. Low-molecular-weight, calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 genes are linked and map to homologous chromosome regions in mouse and human. Genomics. 1996;32:328-33 pubmed
    The Group IIA phospholipase gene (PLA2G2A) protein coding regions exhibit significant homology with recently described Group IIC (PLA2G2C) and Group V (PLA2GV) genes...
  9. Cormier R, Bilger A, Lillich A, Halberg R, Hong K, Gould K, et al. The Mom1AKR intestinal tumor resistance region consists of Pla2g2a and a locus distal to D4Mit64. Oncogene. 2000;19:3182-92 pubmed
    ..These include the secretory phospholipase Pla2g2a, whose candidacy as a Mom1 resistance modifier has now been tested with several transgenic lines...
  10. Czarnomska A, Krysiak E, Piskorowska J, Sitarz M, Pysniak K, Pilcík T, et al. Opposite effects of modifiers of the ApcMin mutation in intestine and mammary gland. Cancer Res. 2003;63:4533-7 pubmed
  11. Reddy S, Winstead M, Tischfield J, Herschman H. Analysis of the secretory phospholipase A2 that mediates prostaglandin production in mast cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13591-6 pubmed
    ..Early phase PGD2 synthesis in activated mast cells also requires the activity of a secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2)...
  12. Fijneman R, Bade L, Peham J, van de Wiel M, van Hinsbergh V, Meijer G, et al. Pla2g2a attenuates colon tumorigenesis in azoxymethane-treated C57BL/6 mice; expression studies reveal Pla2g2a target genes and pathways. Cell Oncol. 2009;31:345-56 pubmed publisher
    The group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 gene, Pla2g2a, confers resistance to intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model...
  13. Chepenik K, Shipman Appasamy P, Ahn N, Goldowitz D. Developmental regulation of various annexins in the embryonic palate of the mouse: dexamethasone affects expression of annexin-1. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1995;15:171-81 pubmed
    ..These data permit the suggestion that lipocortin I plays some critical, but as yet undefined, role in modulating ontogeny of the murine palate. ..
  14. Lipoldová M, Havelková H, Badalova J, Demant P. Novel loci controlling lymphocyte proliferative response to cytokines and their clustering with loci controlling autoimmune reactions, macrophage function and lung tumor susceptibility. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:394-9 pubmed
    ..The possible relevance of these QTL associations in several different sites of the genome for the immune response, inflammation and tumorigenesis has to be elucidated. ..
  15. Dove W, Cormier R, Gould K, Halberg R, Merritt A, Newton M, et al. The intestinal epithelium and its neoplasms: genetic, cellular and tissue interactions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1998;353:915-23 pubmed
    ..One of these, Mom1, has now been rigorously identified at the molecular level as encoding an active resistance conferred by a ..
  16. Chabot S, Koumanov K, Lambeau G, Gelb M, Balloy V, Chignard M, et al. Inhibitory effects of surfactant protein A on surfactant phospholipid hydrolysis by secreted phospholipases A2. J Immunol. 2003;171:995-1000 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SP-A inhibits sPLA(2) activity, which may play a protective role by maintaining surfactant integrity during lung injury. ..
  17. de Buhr M, Mahler M, Geffers R, Hansen W, Westendorf A, Lauber J, et al. Cd14, Gbp1, and Pla2g2a: three major candidate genes for experimental IBD identified by combining QTL and microarray analyses. Physiol Genomics. 2006;25:426-34 pubmed
    ..Three major candidate genes (Cd14, Gbp1, Pla2g2a) showed prominent expression differences between B6- and C3-Il10(-/-) as well as between B6 and C3 wild-type mice,..
  18. Mounier C, Luchetta P, Lecut C, Koduri R, Faure G, Lambeau G, et al. Basic residues of human group IIA phospholipase A2 are important for binding to factor Xa and prothrombinase inhibition comparison with other mammalian secreted phospholipases A2. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:4960-9 pubmed
    Human secreted group IIA phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) was reported to inhibit prothrombinase activity because of binding to factor Xa...
  19. Bao S, Miller D, Ma Z, Wohltmann M, Eng G, Ramanadham S, et al. Male mice that do not express group VIA phospholipase A2 produce spermatozoa with impaired motility and have greatly reduced fertility. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38194-200 pubmed
  20. Liu L, Zhao R, Bai Y, Stanish L, Evans J, Sanderson M, et al. M1 muscarinic receptors inhibit L-type Ca2+ current and M-current by divergent signal transduction cascades. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11588-98 pubmed
    ..Our findings support a model of M(1)R-meditated channel modulation that broadens rather than restricts the roles of phospholipids and fatty acids in regulating ion channel activity. ..
  21. Engle S, Ormsby I, Pawlowski S, Boivin G, Croft J, Balish E, et al. Elimination of colon cancer in germ-free transforming growth factor beta 1-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6362-6 pubmed
    ..This animal model should provide insight into the protective role of TGF-beta1 in early stages of ulcerative colitis-associated human colon cancer. ..
  22. Ghesquiere S, Gijbels M, Anthonsen M, van Gorp P, van der Made I, Johansen B, et al. Macrophage-specific overexpression of group IIa sPLA2 increases atherosclerosis and enhances collagen deposition. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:201-10 pubmed
    ..Group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IIa) is a key candidate player in the enzymatic modification of low density lipoproteins...
  23. Burton C, Patel S, Mundt S, Hassing H, Zhang D, Hermanowski Vosatka A, et al. Deficiency in sPLA(2) does not affect HDL levels or atherosclerosis in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:88-94 pubmed
    ..Female sPLA(2)(++) and sPLA(2)(--) mice showed no significant differences in any of the measured parameters. These results suggest that the endogenous mouse sPLA(2) gene does not significantly affect HDL or atherosclerosis in mice. ..
  24. Koratkar R, Pequignot E, Hauck W, Siracusa L. The CAST/Ei strain confers significant protection against Apc(Min) intestinal polyps, independent of the resistant modifier of Min 1 (Mom1) locus. Cancer Res. 2002;62:5413-7 pubmed study the effects of a resistant CAST background in the absence of a major modifier locus, Modifier of Min 1 (Mom1(R)). Progeny from a CAST...
  25. Ikeno Y, Konno N, Cheon S, Bolchi A, Ottonello S, Kitamoto K, et al. Secretory phospholipases A2 induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells through lysophosphatidylcholine generation and activation of G2A receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28044-52 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) exhibit neurotrophin-like neuritogenic activity in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12...
  26. Mulherkar R, Kirtane B, Ramchandani A, Mansukhani N, Kannan S, Naresh K. Expression of enhancing factor/phospholipase A2 in skin results in abnormal epidermis and increased sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2003;22:1936-44 pubmed
    b>Enhancing factor (EF), a growth factor modulator, is the mouse homologue of human secretory group II phospholipase A(2)...
  27. Mulherkar R, Rao R, Wagle A, Patki V, Deo M. Enhancing factor, a Paneth cell specific protein from mouse small intestines: predicted amino acid sequence from RT-PCR amplified cDNA and its expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;195:1254-63 pubmed
    b>Enhancing factor (EF), a Paneth cell specific growth factor modulator, has been identified in our laboratory from mouse small intestines. In this paper we describe generation of an EF specific cDNA by RT-PCR and its sequence...
  28. Boudreau L, Duchez A, Cloutier N, Soulet D, Martin N, Bollinger J, et al. Platelets release mitochondria serving as substrate for bactericidal group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 to promote inflammation. Blood. 2014;124:2173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We establish that the mitochondrion is an endogenous substrate of secreted phospholipase A2 IIA (sPLA2-IIA), a phospholipase otherwise specific for bacteria, likely reflecting the ancestral proteobacteria origin of ..
  29. Abi Nahed R, Martinez G, Escoffier J, Yassine S, Karaouzène T, Hograindleur J, et al. Progesterone-induced Acrosome Exocytosis Requires Sequential Involvement of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) and Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3076-89 pubmed publisher
    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been shown to be involved in the sperm acrosome reaction (AR), but the molecular identity of PLA2 isoforms has remained elusive...
  30. Papanikolaou A, Wang Q, Mulherkar R, Bolt A, Rosenberg D. Expression analysis of the group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) in mice with differential susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:133-8 pubmed
  31. Yamada T, Mori Y, Hayashi R, Takada M, Ino Y, Naishiro Y, et al. Suppression of intestinal polyposis in Mdr1-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. Cancer Res. 2003;63:895-901 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein may be included in a novel class of chemopreventive agents against colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  32. von Allmen C, Schmitz N, Bauer M, Hinton H, Kurrer M, Buser R, et al. Secretory phospholipase A2-IID is an effector molecule of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IID is selectively produced by Tregs...
  33. Fijneman R, Peham J, van de Wiel M, Meijer G, Matise I, Velcich A, et al. Expression of Pla2g2a prevents carcinogenesis in Muc2-deficient mice. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:2113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The secretory phospholipase Pla2g2a is a protein that confers resistance to Apc(Min/+)-induced intestinal tumorigenesis...
  34. Ilic D, Bollinger J, Gelb M, Mauro T. sPLA2 and the epidermal barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:416-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Several sPLA2 isoforms are present in the epidermis. We find that two of these isoforms, sPLA2 IIA and sPLA2 IIF, localize to the upper stratum granulosum and increase in response to experimental barrier ..
  35. Song H, Lim H, Paria B, Matsumoto H, Swift L, Morrow J, et al. Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha is crucial [correction of A2alpha deficiency is crucial] for 'on-time' embryo implantation that directs subsequent development. Development. 2002;129:2879-89 pubmed
  36. Fijneman R, Cormier R. The roles of sPLA2-IIA (Pla2g2a) in cancer of the small and large intestine. Front Biosci. 2008;13:4144-74 pubmed
    The mouse secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) gene Pla2g2a has been identified as a susceptibility gene for cancer of the small and large intestine...
  37. Gould K, Dietrich W, Borenstein N, Lander E, Dove W. Mom1 is a semi-dominant modifier of intestinal adenoma size and multiplicity in Min/+ mice. Genetics. 1996;144:1769-76 pubmed
    ..To study the effect of one of these modifiers, Mom1, we have generated a mouse line in which the AKR allele of Mom1 is carried on the sensitive B6 genetic background...
  38. Bingham C, Murakami M, Fujishima H, Hunt J, Austen K, Arm J. A heparin-sensitive phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 are functionally linked in the delayed phase of prostaglandin D2 generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25936-44 pubmed
    ..Both dexamethasone and a type II PLA2 inhibitor, 12-epi-scalaradial, suppressed delayed-phase PGD2 generation at concentrations that did not affect ..
  39. Boilard E, Lai Y, Larabee K, Balestrieri B, Ghomashchi F, Fujioka D, et al. A novel anti-inflammatory role for secretory phospholipase A2 in immune complex-mediated arthritis. EMBO Mol Med. 2010;2:172-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The functions of the secretory PLA2 enzymes (sPLA2), numbering nine members in humans, are poorly understood, though they have been shown to participate in lipid ..
  40. Praml C, Savelyeva L, Le Paslier D, Siracusa L, Buchberg A, Schwab M, et al. Human homologue of a candidate for the Mom1 locus, the secretory type II phospholipase A2 (PLA2S-II), maps to 1p35-36.1/D1S199. Cancer Res. 1995;55:5504-6 pubmed
    ..Quantitative trait loci studies have identified the Mom1 locus (for modifier of Min-1), which is responsible for part of the genetic variability in polyp number found among ..
  41. Roberts R, Min L, Washington M, Olsen S, Settle S, Coffey R, et al. Importance of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in establishment of adenomas and maintenance of carcinomas during intestinal tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1521-6 pubmed
    ..This Egfr effect is potentially synergistic with the actions of the modifier-of-min (Mom1) locus. Surprisingly, the size, expansion, and pathological progression of the polyps appear Egfr-independent...
  42. Han W, Sapirstein A, Hung C, Alessandrini A, Bonventre J. Cross-talk between cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2 alpha) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in hydrogen peroxide-induced arachidonic acid release in murine mesangial cells: sPLA2 regulates cPLA2 alpha activity that is responsible for ara. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:24153-63 pubmed
    ..When sPLA2 and cPLA2alpha are both present, the effect of H2O2 is manifested by preferential release of AA compared with ..
  43. Zeineldin M, Jensen D, Paranjape S, Parelkar N, Jokar I, Vielhauer G, et al. Human cancer xenografts in outbred nude mice can be confounded by polymorphisms in a modifier of tumorigenesis. Genetics. 2014;197:1365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that outbred nude mice carry two different alleles of Pla2g2a, a genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis in mice...
  44. Cormier R, Hong K, Halberg R, Hawkins T, Richardson P, Mulherkar R, et al. Secretory phospholipase Pla2g2a confers resistance to intestinal tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 1997;17:88-91 pubmed
    ..modifier locus, Mom1 (modifier of Min-1), to a 4-cM region on mouse chromosome 4 containing a candidate gene Pla2g2a encoding a secretory phospholipase...
  45. Gould K, Dove W. Analysis of the Mom1 modifier of intestinal neoplasia in mice. Exp Lung Res. 1998;24:437-53 pubmed
    ..The authors also discuss the further testing of one candidate, the phospholipase gene Pla2g2a, by transgenesis...
  46. Markova M, Koratkar R, Silverman K, Sollars V, MacPhee Pellini M, Walters R, et al. Diversity in secreted PLA2-IIA activity among inbred mouse strains that are resistant or susceptible to Apc Min/+ tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2005;24:6450-8 pubmed
    The secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (Pla2g2a) gene was previously identified as a modifier of intestinal adenoma multiplicity in Apc Min/+ mice...
  47. Fijneman R, Vos M, Berkhof J, Demant P, Kraal G. Genetic analysis of macrophage characteristics as a tool to identify tumor susceptibility genes: mapping of three macrophage-associated risk inflammatory factors, marif1, marif2, and marif3. Cancer Res. 2004;64:3458-64 pubmed
    ..These studies provide a novel approach to investigate the genetics of microenvironmental influence on predisposition to tumorigenesis, thereby contributing to development of new strategies that aim to prevent or treat cancer. ..
  48. Mandal A, Zhang Z, Chou J, Zimonjic D, Keck C, Popescu N, et al. Molecular characterization of murine pancreatic phospholipase A(2). DNA Cell Biol. 2001;20:149-57 pubmed
    ..1. Taken together, our results suggest that sPLA(2)IB plays important roles both in the pancreas and in extrapancreatic tissues and that in the mouse, its expression is developmentally regulated. ..
  49. Gould K, Dove W. Localized gene action controlling intestinal neoplasia in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5848-53 pubmed
    ..The secretory phospholipase Pla2g2a is a candidate for Mom1. Here, we investigate the range of action of Apc and Mom1...
  50. Mauchley D, Meng X, Babu A, Gamboni Robertson F, Yang X, Banerjee A, et al. Gastroduodenal reflux induces group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) expression and activity in murine esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2010;23:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of group IIa sPLA(2) as well as sPLA(2) activity is induced by GDR. This novel finding indicates that sPLA(2) may play a role in the development of the histologic changes produced by GDR in esophageal mucosa. ..
  51. Sansom O, Mansergh F, Evans M, Wilkins J, Clarke A. Deficiency of SPARC suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in APCMin/+ mice. Gut. 2007;56:1410-4 pubmed
    ..These data implicate Sparc in both cell migration and tumour formation, and identify Sparc as a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer. ..
  52. Dennis E. Diversity of group types, regulation, and function of phospholipase A2. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:13057-60 pubmed
  53. Wang T, Goldenring J, Dangler C, Ito S, Mueller A, Jeon W, et al. Mice lacking secretory phospholipase A2 show altered apoptosis and differentiation with Helicobacter felis infection. Gastroenterology. 1998;114:675-89 pubmed
    ..Three inbred mouse strains with known secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) genotypes [BALB/c (+/+), C3H/HeJ (+/+), and C57BL/6 (-/-)] were orally infected with H...
  54. Schewe M, Franken P, Sacchetti A, SCHMITT M, Joosten R, Böttcher R, et al. Secreted Phospholipases A2 Are Intestinal Stem Cell Niche Factors with Distinct Roles in Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Cancer. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:38-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that group IIA sPLA2, a known genetic modifier of mouse intestinal tumorigenesis, is expressed by Paneth cells in the small intestine, ..
  55. Elahi E, Suraweera N, Volikos E, Haines J, Brown N, Davidson G, et al. Five quantitative trait loci control radiation-induced adenoma multiplicity in Mom1R Apc Min/+ mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4388 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates use of in silico analysis in candidate gene identification as a way of reducing large-scale backcross breeding programmes. ..
  56. Wheeler F, Fernandez L, Carlson K, Wolf M, Rockman H, Marchuk D. QTL mapping in a mouse model of cardiomyopathy reveals an ancestral modifier allele affecting heart function and survival. Mamm Genome. 2005;16:414-23 pubmed
    ..Identification of the genes at these QTLs in the mouse will provide novel candidate genes that can be evaluated for their role in human heart failure. ..
  57. Valentin E, Ghomashchi F, Gelb M, Lazdunski M, Lambeau G. On the diversity of secreted phospholipases A(2). Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional expression of two novel mouse group II enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31195-202 pubmed
    ..Using COS cell medium as a source of enzymes, pH rate profile and phospholipid headgroup specificity of the novel sPLA(2)s were analyzed and compared with the other mouse sPLA(2)s. ..
  58. Lee G, Bennett L, Carabeo R, Drinkwater N. Identification of hepatocarcinogen-resistance genes in DBA/2 mice. Genetics. 1995;139:387-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is likely that the susceptibility of DBA/2J mice is the consequence of the combined effects of multiple sensitivity loci. ..
  59. Sansom O, Berger J, Bishop S, Hendrich B, Bird A, Clarke A. Deficiency of Mbd2 suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 2003;34:145-7 pubmed
    ..As Mbd2-deficient mice are viable and fertile, their resistance to intestinal cancer may be of therapeutic relevance. ..
  60. Cormier R, Dove W. Dnmt1N/+ reduces the net growth rate and multiplicity of intestinal adenomas in C57BL/6-multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min)/+ mice independently of p53 but demonstrates strong synergy with the modifier of Min 1(AKR) resistance allele. Cancer Res. 2000;60:3965-70 pubmed
    ..This finding may provide an insight into potential combinatorial therapeutic approaches for treating human colon cancer. ..
  61. Nadeau J. Modifier genes in mice and humans. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2:165-74 pubmed
  62. Wooton Kee C, Boyanovsky B, Nasser M, de Villiers W, Webb N. Group V sPLA2 hydrolysis of low-density lipoprotein results in spontaneous particle aggregation and promotes macrophage foam cell formation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:762-7 pubmed
    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes hydrolyze the sn-2 fatty acyl ester bond of phospholipids to produce a free fatty acid and a lysophospholid...
  63. Gibbons E, Murri M, Grabner A, Moss E, Campbell L, Nelson J, et al. Ionomycin causes susceptibility to phospholipase A2 while temperature-induced increases in membrane fluidity fail: possible involvement of actin fragmentation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1838:2607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This apparent connection between membrane hydrolysis and the cytoskeleton was further corroborated by examining the relationship among these events during apoptosis stimulated by thapsigargin. ..
  64. Bhowmick R, Clark S, Bonventre J, Leong J, McCormick B. Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Promotes Pulmonary Inflammation and Systemic Disease during Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that cPLA2α plays a crucial role in eliciting pulmonary inflammation during pneumococcal infection and is required for lethal systemic infection following S. pneumoniae lung challenge. ..
  65. Keshav S, McKnight A, Arora R, Gordon S. Cloning of intestinal phospholipase A2 from intestinal epithelial RNA by differential display PCR. Cell Prolif. 1997;30:369-83 pubmed
    ..and shown to be highly homologous to type II secretory phospholipase A2 genes, and almost identical to the enhancing factor gene and the putative gene for the MOM-1 locus...
  66. Ivandic B, Castellani L, Wang X, Qiao J, Mehrabian M, Navab M, et al. Role of group II secretory phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis: 1. Increased atherogenesis and altered lipoproteins in transgenic mice expressing group IIa phospholipase A2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:1284-90 pubmed
    Some observations have suggested that the extracellular group IIa phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), previously implicated in chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, may contribute to atherosclerosis...
  67. Nikolic D, Gong M, Turk J, Post S. Class A scavenger receptor-mediated macrophage adhesion requires coupling of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) and 12/15-lipoxygenase to Rac and Cdc42 activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33405-11 pubmed
    ..Together, our results identify a novel role for iPLA(2)-catalyzed AA release and its metabolism by 12/15-LOX in coupling SR-A-mediated macrophage adhesion to Rac and Cdc42 activation. ..
  68. Wong D, Kita Y, Uozumi N, Shimizu T. Discrete role for cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha in platelets: studies using single and double mutant mice of cytosolic and group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2). J Exp Med. 2002;196:349-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, cPLA(2)alpha plays a discrete role in the collagen-stimulated production of TX and its inhibition has a therapeutic potential against thromboembolism, with potentially limited bleeding expected. ..
  69. Wei Y, Epstein S, Fukuoka S, Birmingham N, Li X, Asbell P. sPLA2-IIa amplifies ocular surface inflammation in the experimental dry eye (DE) BALB/c mouse model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4780-8 pubmed publisher
    b>sPLA2-IIa is a biomarker for many inflammatory diseases in humans and is found at high levels in human tears. However, its role in ocular surface inflammation remains unclear...
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    ..Other physical properties such as membrane order contribute to the level of membrane susceptibility to the enzyme independent of phosphatidylserine. ..
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    ..These data suggest that BD1 exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of AA cascade enzymes which is of great therapeutic importance. ..
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    ..Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), an acute-phase protein, may play a key role in the pathophysiology of this phenomenon...