Pkm

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pkm
Description: pyruvate kinase, muscle
Alias: AA414905, AL024370, AL024424, Pk-2, Pk-3, Pk3, Pkm2, pyruvate kinase PKM, pyruvate kinase 3, pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme
Species: mouse
Products:     Pkm

Top Publications

  1. Christofk H, Vander Heiden M, Harris M, Ramanathan A, Gerszten R, Wei R, et al. The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is important for cancer metabolism and tumour growth. Nature. 2008;452:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that M2 expression is necessary for aerobic glycolysis and that this metabolic phenotype provides a selective growth advantage for tumour cells in vivo. ..
  2. Panasyuk G, Espeillac C, Chauvin C, Pradelli L, Horie Y, Suzuki A, et al. PPAR? contributes to PKM2 and HK2 expression in fatty liver. Nat Commun. 2012;3:672 pubmed publisher
  3. Christofk H, Vander Heiden M, Wu N, Asara J, Cantley L. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein. Nature. 2008;452:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides...
  4. Xu Y, Chu L, Yuan S, Yang Y, Yang Y, Xu B, et al. RGD-modified oncolytic adenovirus-harboring shPKM2 exhibits a potent cytotoxic effect in pancreatic cancer via autophagy inhibition and apoptosis promotion. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2835 pubmed publisher
    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) is a key driver of glycolysis in cancer cells and has critical 'non-metabolic' functions in some cancers; however, the role of PKM2 in pancreatic cancer remains unclear...
  5. Lee J, Kim H, Han Y, Kim J. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1043-54 pubmed publisher
    ..MS (mass spectrometry) and isolated a novel Oct-4-interacting protein, pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2 or M2-PK)...
  6. Mann M, Latham K, Varmuza S. Identification of genes showing altered expression in preimplantation and early postimplantation parthenogenetic embryos. Dev Genet. 1995;17:223-32 pubmed
  7. Parkinson S, Le Good J, Whelan R, Whitehead P, Parker P. Identification of PKCzetaII: an endogenous inhibitor of cell polarity. EMBO J. 2004;23:77-88 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate a regulatory role for PKCzetaII in the maintenance of cell transformation and the development of cell polarity. ..
  8. Lalley P, Minna J, Francke U. Conservation of autosomal gene synteny groups in mouse and man. Nature. 1978;274:160-3 pubmed
  9. Su C, Hung K, Hung S, Tarn W. RBM4 Regulates Neuronal Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Modulating Alternative Splicing of Pyruvate Kinase M. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the splice isoform change of the metabolic enzyme pyruvate kinase M (PKM) from PKM2 to PKM1 occurs during brain development and is impaired in RBM4-deficient brains...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Shibasaki T, Tokunaga A, Sakamoto R, Sagara H, Noguchi S, Sasaoka T, et al. PTB deficiency causes the loss of adherens junctions in the dorsal telencephalon and leads to lethal hydrocephalus. Cereb Cortex. 2013;23:1824-35 pubmed publisher
    ..5. These findings demonstrated that PTB depletion in the dorsal telencephalon is causally involved in the development of HC and that PTB is important for the maintenance of AJs in the NSCs of the dorsal telencephalon. ..
  2. Vander Heiden M, Locasale J, Swanson K, Sharfi H, Heffron G, Amador Noguez D, et al. Evidence for an alternative glycolytic pathway in rapidly proliferating cells. Science. 2010;329:1492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) promotes the metabolism of glucose by aerobic glycolysis and contributes to anabolic metabolism...
  3. Roche E, Assimacopoulos Jeannet F, Witters L, Perruchoud B, Yaney G, Corkey B, et al. Induction by glucose of genes coding for glycolytic enzymes in a pancreatic beta-cell line (INS-1). J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3091-8 pubmed
  4. Hitosugi T, Kang S, Vander Heiden M, Chung T, Elf S, Lythgoe K, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation inhibits PKM2 to promote the Warburg effect and tumor growth. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra73 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that oncogenic forms of fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 inhibit the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform by direct phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y(105))...
  5. Wang Y, Israelsen W, Lee D, Yu V, Jeanson N, Clish C, et al. Cell-state-specific metabolic dependency in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. Cell. 2014;158:1309-1323 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that a deficiency in the M2 pyruvate kinase isoform (PKM2) reduces the levels of metabolic intermediates important for biosynthesis and impairs progenitor function without ..
  6. Deng J, Lü S, Liu H, Liu B, Jiang C, Xu Q, et al. Homocysteine Activates B Cells via Regulating PKM2-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming. J Immunol. 2017;198:170-183 pubmed
    ..Mechanistically, Hcy increased both the protein expression and glycolytic enzyme activity of the pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) in B cells, whereas the PKM2 inhibitor shikonin restored Hcy-induced metabolic changes, as ..
  7. Xie J, Dai C, Hu X. Evidence That Does Not Support Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2)-catalyzed Reaction as a Rate-limiting Step in Cancer Cell Glycolysis. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:8987-99 pubmed publisher
    It has been recognized that the rate-limiting function of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in glycolysis plays an important role in distributing glycolytic intermediates for anabolic and catabolic purposes in cancer cells...
  8. Asai Y, Yamada K, Watanabe T, Keng V, Noguchi T. Insulin stimulates expression of the pyruvate kinase M gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:1272-7 pubmed
    M2-type pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) mRNA is produced from the PKM gene by an alternative RNA splicing in adipocytes. We found that insulin increased the level of M2-PK mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in both time- and dose-dependent manners...
  9. Krisfalusi M, Miki K, Magyar P, O Brien D. Multiple glycolytic enzymes are tightly bound to the fibrous sheath of mouse spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:270-8 pubmed
    ..These data support a role for the fibrous sheath as a scaffold for anchoring multiple glycolytic enzymes along the length of the flagellum to provide a localized source of ATP that is essential for sperm motility. ..
  10. López Alañón D, del Mazo J. Cloning and characterization of genes expressed during gametogenesis of female and male mice. J Reprod Fertil. 1995;103:323-9 pubmed
    ..Additional specific, gametic transcripts were also detected. ..
  11. Dayton T, Gocheva V, Miller K, Israelsen W, Bhutkar A, Clish C, et al. Germline loss of PKM2 promotes metabolic distress and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1020-33 pubmed publisher
    Alternative splicing of the Pkm gene product generates the PKM1 and PKM2 isoforms of pyruvate kinase (PK), and PKM2 expression is closely linked to embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer...
  12. Tech K, Tikunov A, Farooq H, Morrissy A, Meidinger J, Fish T, et al. Pyruvate Kinase Inhibits Proliferation during Postnatal Cerebellar Neurogenesis and Suppresses Medulloblastoma Formation. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3217-3230 pubmed publisher
    ..active PKM1 isoform, while neural progenitors and medulloblastomas exclusively expressed the less active PKM2. Isoform-specific Pkm2 deletion in CGNPs blocked all Pkm expression...
  13. Gao Z, Cooper T. Reexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 in type 1 myofibers correlates with altered glucose metabolism in myotonic dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the embryonic M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), a key enzyme contributing to the Warburg effect in cancer, is significantly induced in DM1 tissue and mouse ..
  14. Hoshino A, Hirst J, Fujii H. Regulation of cell proliferation by interleukin-3-induced nuclear translocation of pyruvate kinase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17706-11 pubmed
  15. Lin J, Lu Y, Liu Y, Lin Y. RBM4a-regulated splicing cascade modulates the differentiation and metabolic activities of brown adipocytes. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20665 pubmed publisher
    ..diminished the influence of PTBP2 in adipogenic development by reprogramming the splicing profiles of the FGFR2 and PKM genes...
  16. Lv L, Xu Y, Zhao D, Li F, Wang W, Sasaki N, et al. Mitogenic and oncogenic stimulation of K433 acetylation promotes PKM2 protein kinase activity and nuclear localization. Mol Cell. 2013;52:340-52 pubmed publisher
    Alternative splicing of the PKM2 gene produces two isoforms, M1 and M2, which are preferentially expressed in adult and embryonic tissues, respectively...
  17. Lowther K, Favero F, Yang C, Taylor H, Seli E. Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein is required at the preantral stage of mouse folliculogenesis for oocyte-somatic communication. Biol Reprod. 2017;96:341-351 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results demonstrate that EPAB is important for oocyte–somatic communication by maintaining TZPs and gap junctions at the preantral stage of folliculogenesis. ..
  18. Peters J, Nash H, Eicher E, Bulfield G. Polymorphism of kidney pyruvate kinase in the mouse is determined by a gene, Pk-3, on chromosome 9. Biochem Genet. 1981;19:757-69 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results indicate that the muscle (M1) and kidney (M2) pyruvate kinase isozymes share at least one genetic determinant and may in fact be determined by the same structural gene. ..
  19. Bravo Adame M, Vera Estrella R, Barkla B, Martínez Campos C, Flores Alcantar A, Ocelotl Oviedo J, et al. An alternative mode of CD43 signal transduction activates pro-survival pathways of T lymphocytes. Immunology. 2017;150:87-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of changes in protein abundance allowed us to identify pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2), an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, as an element potentially participating in the signalling cascade resulting ..
  20. Zafar S, Asif A, Ramljak S, Tahir W, Schmitz M, Zerr I. Anchorless 23-230 PrPC interactomics for elucidation of PrPC protective role. Mol Neurobiol. 2014;49:1385-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Out of the 23 proteins, one novel protein, pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM2), exhibited a potential interaction with the anchorless ?23-230 form of PrPC...
  21. Casson R, Wood J, Han G, Kittipassorn T, Peet D, Chidlow G. M-Type Pyruvate Kinase Isoforms and Lactate Dehydrogenase A in the Mammalian Retina: Metabolic Implications. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:66-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular switch controlling glycolytic flow is thought to be an isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase (PKM2)...
  22. Sun Q, Chen X, Ma J, Peng H, Wang F, Zha X, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin up-regulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 is critical for aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..For a largely unknown regulatory mechanism, a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform is exclusively expressed in embryonic, proliferating, and tumor cells, and plays an essential role in ..
  23. Hosios A, Fiske B, Gui D, Vander Heiden M. Lack of Evidence for PKM2 Protein Kinase Activity. Mol Cell. 2015;59:850-7 pubmed publisher
    The role of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in cell proliferation is controversial...
  24. Qi W, Keenan H, Li Q, Ishikado A, Kannt A, Sadowski T, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 activation may protect against the progression of diabetic glomerular pathology and mitochondrial dysfunction. Nat Med. 2017;23:753-762 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression and activity were upregulated...
  25. Tang Q, Ji Q, Xia W, Li L, Bai J, Ni R, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60:393-404 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a key glycolytic enzyme, is involved in multiple cellular processes including apoptosis...
  26. Zhang Y, Li L, Liu Y, Liu Z. PKM2 released by neutrophils at wound site facilitates early wound healing by promoting angiogenesis. Wound Repair Regen. 2016;24:328-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that infiltrated/activated neutrophils at wound site release pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) by its secretive mechanisms during early stages of wound repair...
  27. Chinchore Y, Begaj T, Wu D, DROKHLYANSKY E, Cepko C. Glycolytic reliance promotes anabolism in photoreceptors. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
  28. Ryu J, Kim H, Lee S, Chang E, Kim H, Kim H. Proteomic identification of the TRAF6 regulation of vacuolar ATPase for osteoclast function. Proteomics. 2005;5:4152-60 pubmed
    ..Our study identified V-ATPase as a TRAF6-binding protein using a proteomics strategy and proved a direct link between these two important molecules for osteoclast function. ..
  29. Spoden G, Rostek U, Lechner S, Mitterberger M, Mazurek S, Zwerschke W. Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 is a glycolytic sensor differentially regulating cell proliferation, cell size and apoptotic cell death dependent on glucose supply. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2765-74 pubmed publisher
    The glycolytic key regulator pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK or PKM2) can switch between a highly active tetrameric and an inactive dimeric form. The transition between the two conformations regulates the glycolytic flux in tumor cells...
  30. Iqbal M, Siddiqui F, Chaman N, Gupta V, Kumar B, Gopinath P, et al. Missense mutations in pyruvate kinase M2 promote cancer metabolism, oxidative endurance, anchorage independence, and tumor growth in a dominant negative manner. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:8098-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells stably expressing exogenous wild-type or mutant PKM2 (K422R or H391Y) or co-expressing both wild type and mutant (PKM2-K422R or PKM2-H391Y) were assessed for cancer ..
  31. Subbaramaiah K, Brown K, Zahid H, Balmus G, Weiss R, Herbert B, et al. Hsp90 and PKM2 Drive the Expression of Aromatase in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Breast Adipose Stromal Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16011-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparison with wild-type stromal cells, increased levels of the Hsp90 client proteins, HIF-1?, and PKM2 were found in LFS stromal cells...
  32. Lalley P, Francke U, Minna J. The genes coding for pyruvate kinase (M2) and mannosephosphate isomerase are linked in man and mouse. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1978;22:581-4 pubmed
  33. Sajic T, Hainard A, Scherl A, Wohlwend A, Negro F, Sanchez J, et al. STAT6 promotes bi-directional modulation of PKM2 in liver and adipose inflammatory cells in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2350 pubmed publisher
    ..we compared liver proteomes of RSG-treated wild type and STAT6-deficient mice and we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a glycolysis and proliferation-regulating enzyme that displayed STAT6-dependent expression...
  34. Wu X, Zhou Y, Zhang K, Liu Q, Guo D. Isoform-specific interaction of pyruvate kinase with hepatitis C virus NS5B. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore shRNA which specifically down-regulated M2PK expression could inhibit the replication of HCV in HCV replicon 9B cells...
  35. Ishihara K, Kanai S, Sago H, Yamakawa K, Akiba S. Comparative proteomic profiling reveals aberrant cell proliferation in the brain of embryonic Ts1Cje, a mouse model of Down syndrome. Neuroscience. 2014;281:1-15 pubmed publisher
  36. Kumar A, Thakur M. Analysis of Presenilin 1 and 2 interacting proteins in mouse cerebral cortex during development. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2014;38:138-46 pubmed publisher
  37. Hamabe A, Konno M, Tanuma N, Shima H, Tsunekuni K, Kawamoto K, et al. Role of pyruvate kinase M2 in transcriptional regulation leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:15526-31 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is an alternatively spliced variant of the pyruvate kinase gene that is preferentially expressed during embryonic development and in cancer cells...
  38. Palsson McDermott E, Curtis A, Goel G, Lauterbach M, Sheedy F, Gleeson L, et al. Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates Hif-1? activity and IL-1? induction and is a critical determinant of the warburg effect in LPS-activated macrophages. Cell Metab. 2015;21:65-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We here show that LPS induces expression of the key metabolic regulator Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2)...
  39. Yu J, Farjo R, MacNee S, Baehr W, Stambolian D, Swaroop A. Annotation and analysis of 10,000 expressed sequence tags from developing mouse eye and adult retina. Genome Biol. 2003;4:R65 pubmed
    ..Our studies present a large number of potentially interesting genes for biological investigation, and the annotated EST set provides a useful resource for microarray and functional genomic studies. ..
  40. Lunt S, Muralidhar V, Hosios A, Israelsen W, Gui D, Newhouse L, et al. Pyruvate kinase isoform expression alters nucleotide synthesis to impact cell proliferation. Mol Cell. 2015;57:95-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of pyruvate kinase isoforms on tumor cells has been extensively studied, but whether PKM2 is required for normal cell proliferation is unknown...
  41. Xie M, Yu Y, Kang R, Zhu S, Yang L, Zeng L, et al. PKM2-dependent glycolysis promotes NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13280 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that aerobic glycolysis contributes to sepsis by modulating inflammasome activation in macrophages. PKM2-mediated glycolysis promotes inflammasome activation by modulating EIF2AK2 phosphorylation in macrophages...
  42. Merrins M, Van Dyke A, Mapp A, Rizzo M, Satin L. Direct measurements of oscillatory glycolysis in pancreatic islet ?-cells using novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors for pyruvate kinase M2 activity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:33312-22 pubmed publisher
    ..in mitochondrial redox potential stimulated by 10 mm glucose are in phase with glycolytic efflux through PKM2, measured simultaneously from neighboring islet ?-cells expressing PKAR...
  43. Wang S, Yang Z, Gao Y, Li Q, Su Y, Wang Y, et al. Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 promotes proliferation and insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells via activating Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:14441-8 pubmed
    ..Pyruvate kinase, muscle isoform 2 (PKM2) is a potential modulator of insulin secretion in β-cells...
  44. Faria T, LaRosa G, Wilen E, Liao J, Gudas L. Characterization of genes which exhibit reduced expression during the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells: involvement of cyclin D3 in RA-mediated growth arrest. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;143:155-66 pubmed
  45. Boeckel J, Derlet A, Glaser S, Luczak A, Lucas T, Heumüller A, et al. JMJD8 Regulates Angiogenic Sprouting and Cellular Metabolism by Interacting With Pyruvate Kinase M2 in Endothelial Cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Jmjd8 is upregulated during endothelial differentiation and regulates endothelial sprouting and metabolism by interacting with pyruvate kinase M2. ..
  46. Hilander T, Zhou X, Konovalova S, Zhang F, Euro L, Chilov D, et al. Editing activity for eliminating mischarged tRNAs is essential in mammalian mitochondria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018;46:849-860 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that tRNA proofreading is essential in mammalian mitochondria, and cannot be overcome by other quality control mechanisms. ..
  47. Izumi S, Manabe A, Tomoyasu A, Kihara Negishi F, Ariga H. Molecular cloning of the complementary DNA for the mouse pyruvate kinase M-2 gene whose expression is dependent upon cell differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1267:135-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of the pyruvate kinase in mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells altered according to differentiation stages; high at undifferentiated and low at differentiated stages. ..
  48. Joo J, Correia G, Li J, Lopez M, Baker H, Sugrue S. Transcriptomic analysis of PNN- and ESRP1-regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing in human corneal epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that ESRP1 and PNN modulate alternative splicing of a specific subset of target genes, but not general splicing events, in HCET cells to maintain or enhance epithelial characteristics. ..
  49. Johnson F, Chasalow F, Anderson G, Macdougal P, Hendren R, Lewis S. A variation in mouse kidney pyruvate kinase activity determined by a mutant gene on chromosome 9. Genet Res. 1981;37:123-31 pubmed
  50. Rees M, Subramaniam J, Li Y, Hamilton D, Frazier O, Taegtmeyer H. A PKM2 signature in the failing heart. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;459:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we observed a shift in the enzyme pyruvate kinase from the adult M1 (PKM1) isoform to the fetal M2 (PKM2) isoform, a hallmark of the Warburg Effect...
  51. Lindsay K, Du J, Sloat S, Contreras L, Linton J, Turner S, et al. Pyruvate kinase and aspartate-glutamate carrier distributions reveal key metabolic links between neurons and glia in retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:15579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Müller glia compensate for their unique metabolic adaptations by using lactate and aspartate from neurons as surrogates for their missing PK and AGC1. ..
  52. Clower C, Chatterjee D, Wang Z, Cantley L, Vander Heiden M, Krainer A. The alternative splicing repressors hnRNP A1/A2 and PTB influence pyruvate kinase isoform expression and cell metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend the links between alternative splicing and cancer, and begin to define some of the factors responsible for the switch to aerobic glycolysis. ..
  53. de Luis O, del Mazo J. Gene expression of mouse M1 and M2 pyruvate kinase isoenzymes correlates with differential poly[A] tract extension of their mRNAs during the development of spermatogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1396:294-305 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that changes in the length of the poly[A] tail of transcripts are associated with differential expression of both regulated isoenzymes during testicular development. ..
  54. O Brien S, Nash W. Genetic mapping in mammals: chromosome map of domestic cat. Science. 1982;216:257-65 pubmed
    ..Many of these same linkage groups have not been conserved in the murine genome. The genetic and evolutionary implications of comparative mapping analysis among mammalian species are discussed. ..
  55. Peters J, Andrews S. The Pk-3 gene determines both the heart, M1, and the kidney, M2, pyruvate kinase isozymes in the mouse; and a simple electrophoretic method for separating phosphoglucomutase-3. Biochem Genet. 1984;22:1047-63 pubmed
    ..We also report a simple method for separating phosphoglucomutase-3 (PGM-3) by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate plates. ..
  56. McKnight S. Please keep me 2uned to PKM2. Mol Cell. 2014;53:683-4 pubmed publisher
    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Keller et al. (2014) found that binding of the metabolite SAICAR to PKM2 induces the protein kinase activity of an enzyme normally designed to terminate the glycolytic pathway.
  57. Israelsen W, Dayton T, Davidson S, Fiske B, Hosios A, Bellinger G, et al. PKM2 isoform-specific deletion reveals a differential requirement for pyruvate kinase in tumor cells. Cell. 2013;155:397-409 pubmed publisher
    The pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) is expressed in cancer and plays a role in regulating anabolic metabolism...
  58. Cheng Y, Feng Y, Xia Z, Li X, Rong J. ?-Alkynyl arachidonic acid promotes anti-inflammatory macrophage M2 polarization against acute myocardial infarction via regulating the cross-talk between PKM2, HIF-1? and iNOS. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:1595-1605 pubmed publisher
    ..that ?-alkynyl arachidonic acid suppressed the overexpression and nuclear translocation of glycolytic enzyme PKM2 in LPS-stimulated macrophages...