Piwil2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Piwil2
Description: piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 2
Alias: Piwil1l, mili, piwi-like protein 2, Miwi like, Miwi likw, piwi-like homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Piwil2

Top Publications

  1. Shoji M, Tanaka T, Hosokawa M, Reuter M, Stark A, Kato Y, et al. The TDRD9-MIWI2 complex is essential for piRNA-mediated retrotransposon silencing in the mouse male germline. Dev Cell. 2009;17:775-87 pubmed publisher
    ..MIWI2 with distinct compartmentalization in processing bodies, and this TDRD9-MIWI2 localization is regulated by MILI and TDRD1 residing at intermitochondrial cement...
  2. Watanabe T, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kaneda M, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Obata Y, et al. Endogenous siRNAs from naturally formed dsRNAs regulate transcripts in mouse oocytes. Nature. 2008;453:539-43 pubmed publisher
    ..piRNAs are bound to Mili and have a role in the regulation of retrotransposons...
  3. Aravin A, Sachidanandam R, Bourc his D, Schaefer C, Pezic D, Toth K, et al. A piRNA pathway primed by individual transposons is linked to de novo DNA methylation in mice. Mol Cell. 2008;31:785-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We find robust expression of two Piwi family proteins, MIWI2 and MILI. Their associated piRNA profiles reveal differences from Drosophila wherein large piRNA clusters act as master ..
  4. Watanabe T, Chuma S, Yamamoto Y, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, et al. MITOPLD is a mitochondrial protein essential for nuage formation and piRNA biogenesis in the mouse germline. Dev Cell. 2011;20:364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a conserved role for MITOPLD/Zuc in the piRNA pathway and link mitochondrial membrane metabolism/signaling to small RNA biogenesis. ..
  5. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Watanabe T, Gotoh K, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Ikawa M, et al. DNA methylation of retrotransposon genes is regulated by Piwi family members MILI and MIWI2 in murine fetal testes. Genes Dev. 2008;22:908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of MILI (miwi-like) and MIWI2 (mouse piwi 2), two mouse homologs of Drosophila Piwi, activates retrotransposon gene ..
  6. Vasileva A, Tiedau D, Firooznia A, MULLER REICHERT T, Jessberger R. Tdrd6 is required for spermiogenesis, chromatoid body architecture, and regulation of miRNA expression. Curr Biol. 2009;19:630-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CB components include Mili, Miwi, and Tudor domain proteins such as Tdrd6, whose contribution to CB structure and function is elusive...
  7. Zheng K, Xiol J, Reuter M, Eckardt S, Leu N, McLaughlin K, et al. Mouse MOV10L1 associates with Piwi proteins and is an essential component of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic disruption of the MOV10L1 RNA helicase domain in mice renders both MILI and MIWI2 devoid of piRNAs...
  8. Xiol J, Cora E, Koglgruber R, Chuma S, Subramanian S, Hosokawa M, et al. A role for Fkbp6 and the chaperone machinery in piRNA amplification and transposon silencing. Mol Cell. 2012;47:970-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the chaperone machinery normally ejects these inhibitory RNAs, allowing turnover of Piwi complexes for their continued participation in piRNA amplification...
  9. Vourekas A, Zheng Q, Alexiou P, Maragkakis M, Kirino Y, Gregory B, et al. Mili and Miwi target RNA repertoire reveals piRNA biogenesis and function of Miwi in spermiogenesis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:773-81 pubmed publisher
    ..HITS-CLIP) coupled with RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the genome-wide target RNA repertoire of Mili (Piwil2) and Miwi (Piwil1), two Piwi proteins expressed in mouse postnatal testis...

More Information

Publications59

  1. Carmell M, Girard A, van de Kant H, Bourc his D, Bestor T, de Rooij D, et al. MIWI2 is essential for spermatogenesis and repression of transposons in the mouse male germline. Dev Cell. 2007;12:503-14 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes may be linked to an inappropriate activation of transposable elements detected in Miwi2 mutants. Our observations suggest a conserved function for Piwi-clade proteins in the control of transposons in the germline. ..
  2. Reuter M, Chuma S, Tanaka T, Franz T, Stark A, Pillai R. Loss of the Mili-interacting Tudor domain-containing protein-1 activates transposons and alters the Mili-associated small RNA profile. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated Mili-containing complexes from adult mouse testes and identified Tudor domain-containing protein-1 (Tdrd1) as a factor ..
  3. Aravin A, Gaidatzis D, Pfeffer S, Lagos Quintana M, Landgraf P, Iovino N, et al. A novel class of small RNAs bind to MILI protein in mouse testes. Nature. 2006;442:203-7 pubmed
    ..as the 'Piwi family'--is required for germ- and stem-cell development in invertebrates, and two Piwi members--MILI and MIWI--are essential for spermatogenesis in mouse...
  4. Aravin A, van der Heijden G, Castañeda J, Vagin V, Hannon G, Bortvin A. Cytoplasmic compartmentalization of the fetal piRNA pathway in mice. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000764 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that principal components of the fetal piRNA pathway, MILI and MIWI2 proteins, localize to two distinct types of germinal cytoplasmic granules and exhibit differential ..
  5. Sasaki T, Shiohama A, Minoshima S, Shimizu N. Identification of eight members of the Argonaute family in the human genome. Genomics. 2003;82:323-30 pubmed
    ..eight members of the Argonaute family were classified into two subfamilies: the PIWI subfamily (PIWIL1/HIWI, PIWIL2/HILI, PIWIL3, and PIWIL4/HIWI2) and the eIF2C/AGO subfamily (EIF2C1/hAGO1, EIF2C2/hAGO2, EIF2C3/hAGO3, and EIF2C4/..
  6. Pandey R, Tokuzawa Y, Yang Z, Hayashi E, Ichisaka T, Kajita S, et al. Tudor domain containing 12 (TDRD12) is essential for secondary PIWI interacting RNA biogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TDRD12 is detected in complexes containing Piwi protein MILI (PIWIL2), its associated primary piRNAs, and TDRD1, all of which are already implicated in secondary piRNA biogenesis...
  7. Ma L, Buchold G, Greenbaum M, Roy A, Burns K, Zhu H, et al. GASZ is essential for male meiosis and suppression of retrotransposon expression in the male germline. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000635 pubmed publisher
    ..e., MILI, MIWI2, and MIWI)...
  8. Lee J, Engel W, Nayernia K. Stem cell protein Piwil2 modulates expression of murine spermatogonial stem cell expressed genes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:173-9 pubmed
    ..b>Piwil2, known also as Mili gene, is one of three mouse homologues of piwi...
  9. Costa Y, Speed R, Gautier P, Semple C, Maratou K, Turner J, et al. Mouse MAELSTROM: the link between meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and microRNA pathway?. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2324-34 pubmed
    ..the nuage, MAEL is present in a complex with germ cell specific MVH, an RNA helicase and Argonaute family members, MILI and MIWI...
  10. Nolde M, Cheng E, Guo S, Lin H. Piwi genes are dispensable for normal hematopoiesis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71950 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with a global deletion of all three piwi genes, Miwi, Mili, and Miwi2, are able to maintain long-term hematopoiesis with no observable effect on the homeostatic HSC ..
  11. Wang J, Saxe J, Tanaka T, Chuma S, Lin H. Mili interacts with tudor domain-containing protein 1 in regulating spermatogenesis. Curr Biol. 2009;19:640-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian Piwi proteins such as Mili are localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogenic cells, where they are associated with a germline-specific organelle ..
  12. Vagin V, Wohlschlegel J, Qu J, Jonsson Z, Huang X, Chuma S, et al. Proteomic analysis of murine Piwi proteins reveals a role for arginine methylation in specifying interaction with Tudor family members. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We purified the three murine Piwi family proteins, MILI, MIWI, and MIWI2, from mouse germ cells and characterized their interacting protein partners...
  13. De Fazio S, Bartonicek N, Di Giacomo M, Abreu Goodger C, Sankar A, Funaya C, et al. The endonuclease activity of Mili fuels piRNA amplification that silences LINE1 elements. Nature. 2011;480:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine Piwi proteins Mili and Miwi2 (also called Piwil2 and Piwil4, respectively) direct epigenetic LINE1 and intracisternal A particle transposon silencing during genome ..
  14. Aravin A, Sachidanandam R, Girard A, Fejes Toth K, Hannon G. Developmentally regulated piRNA clusters implicate MILI in transposon control. Science. 2007;316:744-7 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, Piwi proteins exert control over transposons. However, mammalian Piwi proteins, MIWI and MILI, partner with Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are depleted of repeat sequences, which raises questions about a ..
  15. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Kimura T, Yomogida K, Kuroiwa A, Tadokoro Y, Fujita Y, et al. Two mouse piwi-related genes: miwi and mili. Mech Dev. 2001;108:121-33 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequences of mouse homologues MIWI and MILI showed that each contains a well-conserved C-terminal PIWI domain and that each shares significant homology with ..
  16. Unhavaithaya Y, Hao Y, Beyret E, Yin H, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Nakano T, et al. MILI, a PIWI-interacting RNA-binding protein, is required for germ line stem cell self-renewal and appears to positively regulate translation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6507-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that MILI, a murine PIWI protein, is expressed in the cytoplasm of testicular germ line stem cells, spermatogonia, and early ..
  17. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Watanabe T, Gotoh K, Takamatsu K, Chuma S, Kojima Kita K, et al. MVH in piRNA processing and gene silencing of retrotransposons. Genes Dev. 2010;24:887-92 pubmed publisher
    VASA is an evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase essential for germ cell development. The mouse PIWI family proteins MILI and MIWI2 are involved in production of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in fetal male germ cells through a ping-pong ..
  18. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Kimura T, Ijiri T, Isobe T, Asada N, Fujita Y, et al. Mili, a mammalian member of piwi family gene, is essential for spermatogenesis. Development. 2004;131:839-49 pubmed
    ..reveal the function of the mammalian homolog of piwi, we produced and analyzed mice with targeted mutations in the Mili gene, which is one of three mouse homologs of piwi...
  19. Frost R, Hamra F, Richardson J, Qi X, Bassel Duby R, Olson E. MOV10L1 is necessary for protection of spermatocytes against retrotransposons by Piwi-interacting RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11847-52 pubmed publisher
    ..MOV10L1 interacts with the Piwi proteins MILI and MIWI...
  20. Kojima K, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Chuma S, Tanaka T, Nakatsuji N, Kimura T, et al. Associations between PIWI proteins and TDRD1/MTR-1 are critical for integrated subcellular localization in murine male germ cells. Genes Cells. 2009;14:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    The mouse Piwi family proteins (MILI, MIWI and MIWI2) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis through transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation...
  21. Saxe J, Chen M, Zhao H, Lin H. Tdrkh is essential for spermatogenesis and participates in primary piRNA biogenesis in the germline. EMBO J. 2013;32:1869-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed light on mechanisms underlying primary piRNA biogenesis, an area in which information is conspicuously absent. ..
  22. Beyret E, Lin H. Pinpointing the expression of piRNAs and function of the PIWI protein subfamily during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2011;355:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..the cytological characterization of piRNAs in the adult mouse testis and the phenotypic analysis of Miwi(-/-); Mili(-/-) mice...
  23. Fu Q, Pandey R, Leu N, Pillai R, Wang P. Mutations in the MOV10L1 ATP Hydrolysis Motif Cause piRNA Biogenesis Failure and Male Sterility in Mice. Biol Reprod. 2016;95:103 pubmed
    ..The Mov10l1 mutant mice exhibit meiotic arrest and male sterility. Our results show that mutation of the MOV10L1 ATP hydrolysis site perturbs piRNA biogenesis. ..
  24. Yamamoto Y, Watanabe T, Hoki Y, Shirane K, Li Y, Ichiiyanagi K, et al. Targeted gene silencing in mouse germ cells by insertion of a homologous DNA into a piRNA generating locus. Genome Res. 2013;23:292-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Di Giacomo M, Comazzetto S, Saini H, De Fazio S, Carrieri C, Morgan M, et al. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms and the piRNA pathway enforce LINE1 silencing during adult spermatogenesis. Mol Cell. 2013;50:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the Piwi protein Mili and the piRNA pathway are required to posttranscriptionally silence L1 in meiotic pachytene cells even in the ..
  26. Yin D, Wang Q, Chen L, Liu M, Han C, Yan Q, et al. Germline stem cell gene PIWIL2 mediates DNA repair through relaxation of chromatin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27154 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we have reported that ectopic expression of germline stem cell gene PIWIL2 is associated with tumor stem cell development, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown...
  27. Lim A, Lorthongpanich C, Chew T, Tan C, Shue Y, Balu S, et al. The nuage mediates retrotransposon silencing in mouse primordial ovarian follicles. Development. 2013;140:3819-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse vasa homolog (MVH), Piwi-like 2 (PIWIL2/MILI) and tudor domain-containing 9 (TDRD9) are present in these structures, whereas aggregates of germ cell ..
  28. Barau J, Teissandier A, Zamudio N, Roy S, Nalesso V, Herault Y, et al. The DNA methyltransferase DNMT3C protects male germ cells from transposon activity. Science. 2016;354:909-912 pubmed
    ..DNMT3C reveals the plasticity of the mammalian DNA methylation system and expands the scope of the mechanisms involved in the epigenetic control of retrotransposons. ..
  29. Kabayama Y, Toh H, Katanaya A, Sakurai T, Chuma S, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, et al. Roles of MIWI, MILI and PLD6 in small RNA regulation in mouse growing oocytes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:5387-5398 pubmed publisher
    ..When MILI (or PIWIL2), a PIWI family member, was depleted by gene knockout, almost all piRNAs disappeared...
  30. Rybak A, Fuchs H, Hadian K, Smirnova L, Wulczyn E, Michel G, et al. The let-7 target gene mouse lin-41 is a stem cell specific E3 ubiquitin ligase for the miRNA pathway protein Ago2. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, mLin41 cooperated with the pluripotency factor Lin-28 in suppressing let-7 activity, revealing a dual control mechanism regulating let-7 in stem cells. ..
  31. Wu Q, Ma Q, Shehadeh L, Wilson A, Xia L, Yu H, et al. Expression of the Argonaute protein PiwiL2 and piRNAs in adult mouse mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine homologue of PiwiL2, also known as Mili is selectively expressed in the testes, and mice bearing targeted mutations of the PiwiL2 gene ..
  32. Shiromoto Y, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Daiba A, Chuma S, Katanaya A, Katsumata A, et al. GPAT2, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, in piRNA biogenesis in germline stem cells. RNA. 2013;19:803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>MILI (mouse Piwi-like), one of the three mouse PIWI family members, is indispensable for piRNA production, DNA ..
  33. Cheng E, Kang D, Wang Z, Lin H. PIWI proteins are dispensable for mouse somatic development and reprogramming of fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97821 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that all three mouse Piwi genes, Miwi, Mili, and Miwi2, are expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) at higher levels than in fibroblasts, with Mili being the ..
  34. Tan C, Lee T, Weeraratne S, Korzh V, Lim T, Gong Z. Ziwi, the zebrafish homologue of the Drosophila piwi: co-localization with vasa at the embryonic genital ridge and gonad-specific expression in the adults. Mech Dev. 2002;119 Suppl 1:S221-4 pubmed
    ..During neurogenesis and organogenesis, its expression was detected in the CNS and fin buds. Starting from 24 hpf and later on, ziwi transcripts were found in the genital ridge. ..
  35. Wenda J, Homolka D, Yang Z, Spinelli P, Sachidanandam R, Pandey R, et al. Distinct Roles of RNA Helicases MVH and TDRD9 in PIWI Slicing-Triggered Mammalian piRNA Biogenesis and Function. Dev Cell. 2017;41:623-637.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..A poorly understood adaptive pathway links cytoplasmic slicing of target RNA by the PIWI protein MILI to loading of target-derived piRNAs into nuclear MIWI2...
  36. Yoshimura T, Toyoda S, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Miyazaki T, Miyazaki S, Tashiro F, et al. Gtsf1/Cue110, a gene encoding a protein with two copies of a CHHC Zn-finger motif, is involved in spermatogenesis and retrotransposon suppression in murine testes. Dev Biol. 2009;335:216-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that Gtsf1/Cue110 is required for spermatogenesis and involved in retrotransposon suppression in male germ cells. ..
  37. Hussain S, Tuorto F, Menon S, Blanco S, Cox C, Flores J, et al. The mouse cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase NSun2 is a component of the chromatoid body and required for testis differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific NSun2- and Dnmt2-methylated tRNAs decreased in abundance when both methyltransferases were deleted, suggesting that RNA methylation pathways play an essential role in male germ cell differentiation. ..
  38. Wang W, Yoshikawa M, Han B, Izumi N, Tomari Y, Weng Z, et al. The initial uridine of primary piRNAs does not create the tenth adenine that Is the hallmark of secondary piRNAs. Mol Cell. 2014;56:708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that 10A is not caused by 1U. Instead, fly Aubergine as well as its homologs, Siwi in silkmoth and MILI in mice, have an intrinsic preference for adenine at the t1 position of their target RNAs; during Ping-Pong ..
  39. Yang Z, Chen K, Pandey R, Homolka D, Reuter M, Janeiro B, et al. PIWI Slicing and EXD1 Drive Biogenesis of Nuclear piRNAs from Cytosolic Targets of the Mouse piRNA Pathway. Mol Cell. 2016;61:138-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that endonucleolytic slicing of a transcript by the cytosolic mouse PIWI protein MILI acts as a trigger to initiate its further 5'→3' processing into non-overlapping fragments...
  40. Pan Y, Hu M, Liang H, Wang J, Tang L. The expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;350:177-81 pubmed publisher
    PIWI family members miwi and mili as a constituent part of the piRNA pathway play a crucial role in germline maintenance, differentiation and meiosis conserved in mammals...
  41. Hu J, Wang F, Zhu X, Yuan Y, Ding M, Gao S. Mouse ZAR1-like (XM_359149) colocalizes with mRNA processing components and its dominant-negative mutant caused two-cell-stage embryonic arrest. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:407-24 pubmed publisher
    ..and H3K9me2/3, and marked down-regulation of a group of chromatin modification factors including Dppa2, Dppa4, and Piwil2. When ectopically expressed in somatic cells, ZAR1L colocalized with P-body components including EIF2C1(AGO1), ..
  42. Han D, Tapia N, Joo J, Greber B, Arauzo Bravo M, Bernemann C, et al. Epiblast stem cell subpopulations represent mouse embryos of distinct pregastrulation stages. Cell. 2010;143:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast. ..
  43. Vourekas A, Zheng K, Fu Q, Maragkakis M, Alexiou P, Ma J, et al. The RNA helicase MOV10L1 binds piRNA precursors to initiate piRNA processing. Genes Dev. 2015;29:617-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which MOV10L1 RNA helicase activity promotes unwinding and funneling of the single-stranded piRNA precursor transcripts to the endonuclease that catalyzes the first cleavage step of piRNA processing. ..
  44. Manakov S, Pezic D, Marinov G, Pastor W, Sachidanandam R, Aravin A. MIWI2 and MILI Have Differential Effects on piRNA Biogenesis and DNA Methylation. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1234-43 pubmed publisher
    In developing male germ cells, prospermatogonia, two Piwi proteins, MILI and MIWI2, use Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) guides to repress transposable element (TE) expression and ensure genome stability and proper gametogenesis...
  45. Reichmann J, Reddington J, Best D, Read D, Ollinger R, Meehan R, et al. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:1791-806 pubmed publisher
  46. Wang X, Jiang C, Fu B, Zhu R, Diao F, Xu N, et al. MILI, a PIWI family protein, inhibits melanoma cell migration through methylation of LINE1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;457:514-9 pubmed publisher
    b>MILI, a member of the PIWI/AGO gene family, has been well documented to maintain genome integrity by transposon silencing in animal germ cells...
  47. Watanabe T, Tomizawa S, Mitsuya K, Totoki Y, Yamamoto Y, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, et al. Role for piRNAs and noncoding RNA in de novo DNA methylation of the imprinted mouse Rasgrf1 locus. Science. 2011;332:848-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A direct repeat in the DMR, which is required for the methylation and imprinting of Rasgrf1, served as a promoter for this RNA. We propose a model in which piRNAs and a target RNA direct the sequence-specific methylation of Rasgrf1. ..
  48. Tarabay Y, Achour M, Teletin M, Ye T, Teissandier A, Mark M, et al. Tex19 paralogs are new members of the piRNA pathway controlling retrotransposon suppression. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1463-1474 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore identified two new members of the postnatal piRNA pathway. ..
  49. Miles D, Van Den Bergen J, Wakeling S, Anderson R, Sinclair A, Western P. The proto-oncogene Ret is required for male foetal germ cell survival. Dev Biol. 2012;365:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Either way, this study identifies the proto-oncogene RET as a novel component of the foetal male germ cell development pathway. ..
  50. Western P, Ralli R, Wakeling S, Lo C, Van Den Bergen J, Miles D, et al. Mitotic arrest in teratoma susceptible fetal male germ cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20736 pubmed publisher
    ..p15(INK4B), activation of RB, the expression of male germ cell differentiation markers NANOS2, DNMT3L and MILI and repression of the pluripotency network...