Gene Symbol: Piwil1
Description: piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 1
Alias: MIWI, piwi-like protein 1, piwi-like homolog 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Piwil1

Top Publications

  1. Vourekas A, Zheng Q, Alexiou P, Maragkakis M, Kirino Y, Gregory B, et al. Mili and Miwi target RNA repertoire reveals piRNA biogenesis and function of Miwi in spermiogenesis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:773-81 pubmed publisher
    ..with RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the genome-wide target RNA repertoire of Mili (Piwil2) and Miwi (Piwil1), two Piwi proteins expressed in mouse postnatal testis...
  2. Chen C, Jin J, James D, Adams Cioaba M, Park J, Guo Y, et al. Mouse Piwi interactome identifies binding mechanism of Tdrkh Tudor domain to arginine methylated Miwi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by immunoprecipitation of endogenous murine Piwi proteins (Miwi and Mili) and proteomic analysis of complexes related to the piRNA pathway, we show that the TDRD group of Tudor ..
  3. Deng W, Lin H. miwi, a murine homolog of piwi, encodes a cytoplasmic protein essential for spermatogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;2:819-30 pubmed
    ..However, their function in mammals remains unexplored. Here we report the cloning of a murine piwi gene (miwi) essential for spermatogenesis...
  4. Zheng K, Xiol J, Reuter M, Eckardt S, Leu N, McLaughlin K, et al. Mouse MOV10L1 associates with Piwi proteins and is an essential component of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The Mov10l1 mutant males are sterile owing to complete meiotic arrest. This mouse mutant expresses Piwi proteins but lacks piRNAs, suggesting that MOV10L1 is required for piRNA biogenesis and/or loading to Piwi proteins...
  5. Beyret E, Lin H. Pinpointing the expression of piRNAs and function of the PIWI protein subfamily during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2011;355:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the cytological characterization of piRNAs in the adult mouse testis and the phenotypic analysis of Miwi(-/-); Mili(-/-) mice...
  6. Grivna S, Beyret E, Wang Z, Lin H. A novel class of small RNAs in mouse spermatogenic cells. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1709-14 pubmed
    ..They are expressed during spermatogenesis, mostly in spermatids. piRNAs are associated with MIWI, a spermatogenesis-specific PIWI subfamily member of the Argonaute protein family, and depend on MIWI for their ..
  7. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Kimura T, Ijiri T, Isobe T, Asada N, Fujita Y, et al. Mili, a mammalian member of piwi family gene, is essential for spermatogenesis. Development. 2004;131:839-49 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that MILI is essential for the differentiation of spermatocytes. ..
  8. Frost R, Hamra F, Richardson J, Qi X, Bassel Duby R, Olson E. MOV10L1 is necessary for protection of spermatocytes against retrotransposons by Piwi-interacting RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11847-52 pubmed publisher
    ..MOV10L1 interacts with the Piwi proteins MILI and MIWI. MOV10L1 also interacts with heat shock 70-kDa protein 2 (HSPA2), a testis-enriched chaperone expressed in ..
  9. Vasileva A, Tiedau D, Firooznia A, MULLER REICHERT T, Jessberger R. Tdrd6 is required for spermiogenesis, chromatoid body architecture, and regulation of miRNA expression. Curr Biol. 2009;19:630-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CB components include Mili, Miwi, and Tudor domain proteins such as Tdrd6, whose contribution to CB structure and function is elusive...

More Information


  1. Kojima K, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Chuma S, Tanaka T, Nakatsuji N, Kimura T, et al. Associations between PIWI proteins and TDRD1/MTR-1 are critical for integrated subcellular localization in murine male germ cells. Genes Cells. 2009;14:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    The mouse Piwi family proteins (MILI, MIWI and MIWI2) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis through transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation...
  2. Kuramochi Miyagawa S, Kimura T, Yomogida K, Kuroiwa A, Tadokoro Y, Fujita Y, et al. Two mouse piwi-related genes: miwi and mili. Mech Dev. 2001;108:121-33 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequences of mouse homologues MIWI and MILI showed that each contains a well-conserved C-terminal PIWI domain and that each shares significant ..
  3. Simon B, Kirkpatrick J, Eckhardt S, Reuter M, Rocha E, Andrade Navarro M, et al. Recognition of 2'-O-methylated 3'-end of piRNA by the PAZ domain of a Piwi protein. Structure. 2011;19:172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the solution structure of the PAZ domain from the mouse Piwi protein, MIWI, in complex with an 8-mer piRNA mimic...
  4. Vagin V, Wohlschlegel J, Qu J, Jonsson Z, Huang X, Chuma S, et al. Proteomic analysis of murine Piwi proteins reveals a role for arginine methylation in specifying interaction with Tudor family members. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1749-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We purified the three murine Piwi family proteins, MILI, MIWI, and MIWI2, from mouse germ cells and characterized their interacting protein partners...
  5. Qiao D, Zeeman A, Deng W, Looijenga L, Lin H. Molecular characterization of hiwi, a human member of the piwi gene family whose overexpression is correlated to seminomas. Oncogene. 2002;21:3988-99 pubmed
    ..Thus, hiwi is specifically expressed in both normal and malignant spermatogenic cells in a maturation stage-dependent pattern, in which it might function in germ cell proliferation. ..
  6. Kotaja N, Lin H, Parvinen M, Sassone Corsi P. Interplay of PIWI/Argonaute protein MIWI and kinesin KIF17b in chromatoid bodies of male germ cells. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2819-25 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that KIF17b physically interacts with a testis-specific member of the PIWI/Argonaute family, MIWI, a component of chromatoid bodies implicated in RNA metabolism...
  7. Grivna S, Pyhtila B, Lin H. MIWI associates with translational machinery and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in regulating spermatogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13415-20 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that MIWI, a murine PIWI family member, is required for initiating spermiogenesis, a process that transforms round spermatids ..
  8. Costa Y, Speed R, Gautier P, Semple C, Maratou K, Turner J, et al. Mouse MAELSTROM: the link between meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and microRNA pathway?. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2324-34 pubmed
    ..MAEL is present in a complex with germ cell specific MVH, an RNA helicase and Argonaute family members, MILI and MIWI. The presence of MAEL in these critical compartments of male germ cells and its interactions provide a link ..
  9. Kotaja N, Bhattacharyya S, Jaskiewicz L, Kimmins S, Parvinen M, Filipowicz W, et al. The chromatoid body of male germ cells: similarity with processing bodies and presence of Dicer and microRNA pathway components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2647-52 pubmed
    ..Our findings underscore the importance of posttranscriptional gene regulation and of the microRNA pathway in the control of postmeiotic male germ cell differentiation. ..
  10. Nolde M, Cheng E, Guo S, Lin H. Piwi genes are dispensable for normal hematopoiesis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71950 pubmed publisher
    ..A Human piwi gene (for clarity, the non-italicized "piwi" refers to the gene subfamily), HIWI (PIWIL1), is expressed in CD34? stem/progenitor cells and transient expression of HIWI in a human leukemia cell line ..
  11. Bailey A, Batista P, Gold R, Chen Y, de Rooij D, Chang H, et al. The conserved RNA helicase YTHDC2 regulates the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the germline. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
  12. Kress C, Gautier Courteille C, Osborne H, Babinet C, Paillard L. Inactivation of CUG-BP1/CELF1 causes growth, viability, and spermatogenesis defects in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1146-57 pubmed
    ..In wild-type testes, CUG-BP1 is expressed in germ cells from spermatogonia to round spermatids and also in Sertoli and Leydig cells. These findings demonstrate that CUG-BP1 is required for completion of spermatogenesis. ..
  13. Gou L, Kang J, Dai P, Wang X, Li F, Zhao S, et al. Ubiquitination-Deficient Mutations in Human Piwi Cause Male Infertility by Impairing Histone-to-Protamine Exchange during Spermiogenesis. Cell. 2017;169:1090-1104.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..By modeling such mutations in Piwi (Miwi) knockin mice, we demonstrate that the genetic defects are directly responsible for male infertility...
  14. Tan C, Lee T, Weeraratne S, Korzh V, Lim T, Gong Z. Ziwi, the zebrafish homologue of the Drosophila piwi: co-localization with vasa at the embryonic genital ridge and gonad-specific expression in the adults. Mech Dev. 2002;119 Suppl 1:S221-4 pubmed
    ..During neurogenesis and organogenesis, its expression was detected in the CNS and fin buds. Starting from 24 hpf and later on, ziwi transcripts were found in the genital ridge. ..
  15. Cheng E, Kang D, Wang Z, Lin H. PIWI proteins are dispensable for mouse somatic development and reprogramming of fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97821 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that all three mouse Piwi genes, Miwi, Mili, and Miwi2, are expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) at higher levels than in fibroblasts, with Mili ..
  16. Ma L, Buchold G, Greenbaum M, Roy A, Burns K, Zhu H, et al. GASZ is essential for male meiosis and suppression of retrotransposon expression in the male germline. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000635 pubmed publisher
    ..e., MILI, MIWI2, and MIWI)...
  17. Kirino Y, Mourelatos Z. Mouse Piwi-interacting RNAs are 2'-O-methylated at their 3' termini. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:347-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the 3' termini of piRNAs are 2'-O-methylated; this modification may have important implications for the biogenesis and function of piRNAs. ..
  18. Kabayama Y, Toh H, Katanaya A, Sakurai T, Chuma S, Kuramochi Miyagawa S, et al. Roles of MIWI, MILI and PLD6 in small RNA regulation in mouse growing oocytes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:5387-5398 pubmed publisher
    ..MIWI (or PIWIL1) depletion had a smaller effect...
  19. Peruquetti R, de Mateo S, Sassone Corsi P. Circadian proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 in the chromatoid body, a RNA processing granule of male germ cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42695 pubmed publisher
  20. Zhao P, Yao M, Chang S, Gou L, Liu M, Qiu Z, et al. Novel function of PIWIL1 in neuronal polarization and migration via regulation of microtubule-associated proteins. Mol Brain. 2015;8:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that PIWI-like 1 (PIWIL1), a PIWI family member known to be essential for the transition of round spermatid into elongated spermatid, plays ..
  21. Ding D, Liu J, Midic U, Wu Y, Dong K, Melnick A, et al. TDRD5 binds piRNA precursors and selectively enhances pachytene piRNA processing in mice. Nat Commun. 2018;9:127 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish TDRD5 as a piRNA biogenesis factor and reveal two genetically separable steps at the start of pachytene piRNA processing. ..
  22. Reuter M, Berninger P, Chuma S, Shah H, Hosokawa M, Funaya C, et al. Miwi catalysis is required for piRNA amplification-independent LINE1 transposon silencing. Nature. 2011;480:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A third Piwi family member, Miwi (also known as Piwil1), is expressed in specific postnatal germ cells and associates with a unique set of piRNAs of unknown function...
  23. Chen Z, Che Q, He X, Wang F, Wang H, Zhu M, et al. Stem cell protein Piwil1 endowed endometrial cancer cells with stem-like properties via inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:811 pubmed publisher
    Stem cell protein Piwil1 functions as an oncogene in various tumor types. However, the exact function and mechanism of Piwil1 in endometrial cancer remains unclear...
  24. Li X, Roy C, Dong X, Bolcun Filas E, Wang J, Han B, et al. An ancient transcription factor initiates the burst of piRNA production during early meiosis in mouse testes. Mol Cell. 2013;50:67-81 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription of both pachytene piRNA precursor RNAs and the mRNAs for core piRNA biogenesis factors including MIWI, the protein through which pachytene piRNAs function...
  25. Xu K, Yang L, Zhao D, Wu Y, Qi H. AKAP3 synthesis is mediated by RNA binding proteins and PKA signaling during mouse spermiogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2014;90:119 pubmed publisher
    ..Nascent AKAP3 was found to form protein complex with PKA and RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including PIWIL1, PABPC1, and NONO, as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation and protein mass spectrometry...
  26. Liu K, Chen C, Guo Y, Lam R, Bian C, Xu C, et al. Structural basis for recognition of arginine methylated Piwi proteins by the extended Tudor domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..the ancestral staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing 1 (SND1) polypeptide is expressed and associates with PIWIL1/Miwi in germ cells...
  27. Hou Y, Yuan J, Zhou X, Fu X, Cheng H, Zhou R. DNA demethylation and USF regulate the meiosis-specific expression of the mouse Miwi. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002716 pubmed publisher
    b>Miwi, a member of the Argonaute family, is required for initiating spermiogenesis; however, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of the Miwi gene remain unknown...
  28. Tarabay Y, Achour M, Teletin M, Ye T, Teissandier A, Mark M, et al. Tex19 paralogs are new members of the piRNA pathway controlling retrotransposon suppression. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1463-1474 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore identified two new members of the postnatal piRNA pathway. ..
  29. Hu J, Wang F, Zhu X, Yuan Y, Ding M, Gao S. Mouse ZAR1-like (XM_359149) colocalizes with mRNA processing components and its dominant-negative mutant caused two-cell-stage embryonic arrest. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:407-24 pubmed publisher
    ..including EIF2C1(AGO1), EIF2C2(AGO2), DDX6 and LSM14A, and germline-specific chromatoid body components including PIWIL1, PIWIL2, and LIN28. ZAR1L colocalized with ZAR1 and interacted with human LIN28...
  30. Saxe J, Chen M, Zhao H, Lin H. Tdrkh is essential for spermatogenesis and participates in primary piRNA biogenesis in the germline. EMBO J. 2013;32:1869-85 pubmed publisher
    ..k.a. Tdrd2), is required for spermatogenesis and involved in piRNA biogenesis. Tdrkh partners with Miwi and Miwi2 via symmetrically dimethylated arginine residues in Miwi and Miwi2...
  31. Vourekas A, Zheng K, Fu Q, Maragkakis M, Alexiou P, Ma J, et al. The RNA helicase MOV10L1 binds piRNA precursors to initiate piRNA processing. Genes Dev. 2015;29:617-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model in which MOV10L1 RNA helicase activity promotes unwinding and funneling of the single-stranded piRNA precursor transcripts to the endonuclease that catalyzes the first cleavage step of piRNA processing. ..
  32. Yang Z, Chen K, Pandey R, Homolka D, Reuter M, Janeiro B, et al. PIWI Slicing and EXD1 Drive Biogenesis of Nuclear piRNAs from Cytosolic Targets of the Mouse piRNA Pathway. Mol Cell. 2016;61:138-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, piRNA biogenesis triggered by PIWI slicing, and promoted by EXD1, ensures that the same guides instruct PIWI proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm. ..
  33. Pan Y, Hu M, Liang H, Wang J, Tang L. The expression of the PIWI family members miwi and mili in mice testis is negatively affected by estrogen. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;350:177-81 pubmed publisher
    PIWI family members miwi and mili as a constituent part of the piRNA pathway play a crucial role in germline maintenance, differentiation and meiosis conserved in mammals...
  34. Liu W, Gao Q, Chen K, Xue X, Li M, Chen Q, et al. Hiwi facilitates chemoresistance as a cancer stem cell marker in cervical cancer. Oncol Rep. 2014;32:1853-60 pubmed publisher
    Hiwi, also named PiwiL1, is a human homologue of the Piwi family which is associated with stem cells and is overexpressed in several types of cancers...
  35. Wasik K, Tam O, Knott S, Falciatori I, Hammell M, Vagin V, et al. RNF17 blocks promiscuous activity of PIWI proteins in mouse testes. Genes Dev. 2015;29:1403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the sterility of Rnf17 mutants may be a manifestation of a small RNA-based autoimmune reaction. ..
  36. Zhang H, Wang G, Liu L, Liang X, Lin Y, Lin Y, et al. KH-type splicing regulatory protein is a new component of chromatoid body. Reproduction. 2017;154:723-733 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found abnormal expressions of CB component in testes of Ksrp-knockout mice and of patients with hypospermatogenesis. Thus, our results provide mechanistic insight into the role of KSRP in spermatogenesis. ..
  37. Bao J, Wang L, Lei J, Hu Y, Liu Y, Shen H, et al. STK31(TDRD8) is dynamically regulated throughout mouse spermatogenesis and interacts with MIWI protein. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation assay in vivo and in vitro confirmed MIWI is a bona fide partner of STK31 in mice testes, in combination with LC/MS identification...
  38. Zhao S, Gou L, Zhang M, Zu L, Hua M, Hua Y, et al. piRNA-triggered MIWI ubiquitination and removal by APC/C in late spermatogenesis. Dev Cell. 2013;24:13-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that murine PIWI (MIWI) is degraded through the APC/C-26S proteasome pathway and that piRNAs play an indispensable role in this process by ..
  39. Hussain S, Tuorto F, Menon S, Blanco S, Cox C, Flores J, et al. The mouse cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase NSun2 is a component of the chromatoid body and required for testis differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In NSun2-depleted testes, genes encoding Ddx4, Miwi, and Tudor domain-containing (Tdr) proteins are repressed, indicating that RNA-processing and posttranscriptional ..
  40. Ohara T, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T, Ueda H, Miyauchi K, Suzuki T. The 3' termini of mouse Piwi-interacting RNAs are 2'-O-methylated. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:349-50 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometric analysis reveals that the piRNAs tested are fully modified by 2'-O-methylation at their 3' termini. This observation may provide a clue to the biogenesis and function of piRNAs in spermatogenesis. ..
  41. Xu M, Medvedev S, Yang J, Hecht N. MIWI-independent small RNAs (MSY-RNAs) bind to the RNA-binding protein, MSY2, in male germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..MSY-RNA levels do not decrease in Miwi or Msy2 null mice...
  42. Ding X, Guan H, Li H. Characterization of a piRNA binding protein Miwi in mouse oocytes. Theriogenology. 2013;79:610-5.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies did not detect mRNA of Miwi, a murine homologue of Piwi proteins, in total RNA of mouse ovary tissue...