Pitx1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pitx1
Description: paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1
Alias: Bft, P-OTX, Potx, Ptx1, pituitary homeobox 1, hindlimb-expressed homeobox protein backfoot, homeobox protein P-OTX, homeobox protein PITX1, pituitary OTX-related factor
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc Tbx1 regulates progenitor cell proliferation in the dental epithelium by modulating Pitx2 activation of p21
    Huojun Cao
    Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 347:289-300. 2010
  2. ncbi The pan-pituitary activator of transcription, Ptx1 (pituitary homeobox 1), acts in synergy with SF-1 and Pit1 and is an upstream regulator of the Lim-homeodomain gene Lim3/Lhx3
    J J Tremblay
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Endocrinol 12:428-41. 1998
  3. ncbi Pitx1 and Pitx2 are required for development of hindlimb buds
    Alexandre Marcil
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, QC H2W 1R7, Canada
    Development 130:45-55. 2003
  4. pmc Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia
    Juhee Jeong
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 18:937-51. 2004
  5. pmc Islet1-mediated activation of the β-catenin pathway is necessary for hindlimb initiation in mice
    Yasuhiko Kawakami
    Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 138:4465-73. 2011
  6. ncbi Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism
    M W Sornson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Nature 384:327-33. 1996
  7. ncbi The bicoid-related homeoprotein Ptx1 defines the most anterior domain of the embryo and differentiates posterior from anterior lateral mesoderm
    C Lanctot
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Development 124:2807-17. 1997
  8. ncbi Endothelin-1 regulates the dorsoventral branchial arch patterning in mice
    Hidenori Ozeki
    Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Mech Dev 121:387-95. 2004
  9. pmc P-OTX: a PIT-1-interacting homeodomain factor expressed during anterior pituitary gland development
    D P Szeto
    Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego 92093 0648, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7706-10. 1996
  10. ncbi Otlx2, an Otx-related homeobox gene expressed in the pituitary gland and in a restricted pattern in the forebrain
    M L Muccielli
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille, CNRS Inserm Université de la Méditerranée, France
    Mol Cell Neurosci 8:258-71. 1996

Scientific Experts

  • Yasuhiko Kawakami
  • D M Juriloff
  • Kyeong Hoon Jeong
  • I Bach
  • Michael Melnick
  • Thimios A Mitsiadis
  • Anna L Keyte
  • Dorothy E Pazin
  • Kunio Kitamura
  • E V Semina
  • Juhee Jeong
  • Sally A Camper
  • Jacques Drouin
  • Hiroki Kurihara
  • Giovanni Levi
  • Yangu Zhao
  • Philip J Gage
  • Maryline Minoux
  • Takahiro Sato
  • Yukiko Kurihara
  • Wei Liu
  • C Lanctot
  • Rita Aires
  • M G Rosenfeld
  • Shannon W Davis
  • Taro Kitazawa
  • Renée K Edlund
  • Eric W Brunskill
  • Daisuke Matsumaru
  • Michael J Depew
  • Carlos R Infante
  • John N Griffin
  • Thantrira Porntaveetus
  • Filippo M Rijli
  • Carlos Garrido-Allepuz
  • Emanuela Repetto
  • Yasunobu Uchijima
  • Yumiko Kawamura
  • C Kioussi
  • Tomonori Nakamura
  • Veronique Duboc
  • F Castinetti
  • David M Alvarado
  • Francie Barron
  • Dong Lai Qi
  • Benoit G Bruneau
  • Amanda L Zacharias
  • Terence D Capellini
  • S A Camper
  • Huojun Cao
  • Vimla S Aggarwal
  • Maxence Vieux-Rochas
  • Tomoko Yamaguchi
  • Hoonkyo Suh
  • Moises Mallo
  • Alexandre Marcil
  • Tara M Smith
  • Ramkumar Sambasivan
  • Anamaria Balic
  • Xianling Zhao
  • Makoto Matsuyama
  • Eglantine Heude
  • J Drouin
  • Paul T Sharpe
  • Denis Duboule
  • Pankaj Lamba
  • Stijn P De Langhe
  • Heiner Westphal
  • Shigetoshi Yokoyama
  • Joaquim Vives
  • Edit Hermesz
  • Xiaoyan Liao
  • Buffy S Ellsworth
  • Hung Ping Shih
  • Giovanna Zacchetti
  • Ju Suk Nam
  • Malcolm P O Logan
  • Michelle L Brinkmeier
  • April DeLaurier
  • Gergana Dobreva
  • Giorgio R Merlo
  • Kazuo Tonami
  • Ottavia Barbieri
  • Stefano Mantero
  • Kazuko Koshiba-Takeuchi
  • Byeong Moo Kim
  • Amanda L Evans
  • Carolina Minguillon
  • Michael A Charles
  • Rudolf Grosschedl

Detail Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Tbx1 regulates progenitor cell proliferation in the dental epithelium by modulating Pitx2 activation of p21
    Huojun Cao
    Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 347:289-300. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate new functional mechanisms for Tbx1 in tooth morphogenesis and provide a molecular basis for craniofacial defects in DiGeorge syndrome patients...
  2. ncbi The pan-pituitary activator of transcription, Ptx1 (pituitary homeobox 1), acts in synergy with SF-1 and Pit1 and is an upstream regulator of the Lim-homeodomain gene Lim3/Lhx3
    J J Tremblay
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Endocrinol 12:428-41. 1998
    The Ptx1 (pituitary homeobox 1) homeobox transcription factor was isolated as a transcription factor of the pituitary POMC gene...
  3. ncbi Pitx1 and Pitx2 are required for development of hindlimb buds
    Alexandre Marcil
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, QC H2W 1R7, Canada
    Development 130:45-55. 2003
    Two closely related homeobox transcription factors, Pitx1 and Pitx2, have been implicated in patterning of lateral plate mesoderm derivatives: Pitx1 for specification of hindlimb identity and Pitx2 for determination of laterality...
  4. pmc Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia
    Juhee Jeong
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 18:937-51. 2004
    ..Further, our analysis of Shh-Fox gene regulatory interactions leads us to propose that Fox genes mediate the action of Shh in facial development...
  5. pmc Islet1-mediated activation of the β-catenin pathway is necessary for hindlimb initiation in mice
    Yasuhiko Kawakami
    Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 138:4465-73. 2011
    ..Our study identifies Islet1 as a hindlimb-specific transcriptional regulator of initiation, and clarifies the controversy regarding the requirement of β-catenin for limb initiation...
  6. ncbi Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism
    M W Sornson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Nature 384:327-33. 1996
    ..These results imply that a cascade of tissue-specific regulators is responsible for the determination and differentiation of specific cell lineages in pituitary organogenesis...
  7. ncbi The bicoid-related homeoprotein Ptx1 defines the most anterior domain of the embryo and differentiates posterior from anterior lateral mesoderm
    C Lanctot
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Development 124:2807-17. 1997
    b>Ptx1 is a member of the small bicoid family of homeobox-containing genes; it was isolated as a tissue-restricted transcription factor of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene...
  8. ncbi Endothelin-1 regulates the dorsoventral branchial arch patterning in mice
    Hidenori Ozeki
    Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Mech Dev 121:387-95. 2004
    ..genes determining the ventral identity of the anterior branchial arches, and of the mandibular marker gene Pitx1 is significantly downregulated in the ET-1(-/-) mutant, whereas the expression of Dlx2 and the maxillary marker ..
  9. pmc P-OTX: a PIT-1-interacting homeodomain factor expressed during anterior pituitary gland development
    D P Szeto
    Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego 92093 0648, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7706-10. 1996
    ..Therefore, P-OTX may subserve functions in generating both precursor and specific cell phenotypes in the anterior pituitary gland and in several other organs...
  10. ncbi Otlx2, an Otx-related homeobox gene expressed in the pituitary gland and in a restricted pattern in the forebrain
    M L Muccielli
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille, CNRS Inserm Université de la Méditerranée, France
    Mol Cell Neurosci 8:258-71. 1996
    ..Finally, Otlx2 is expressed from the earliest morphogenetic events in the Rathke's pouch, the anlage of the adenohypophysis, an expression site shared by a very close homologue, Otlx1/Ptx1/P-Otx.
  11. ncbi Pituitary homeobox 1 (Ptx1) is differentially expressed during pituitary development
    C Lanctot
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, and Département de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Endocrinology 140:1416-22. 1999
    b>Pituitary homeobox 1 (Ptx1) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor acting on transcription of all pituitary hormone genes...
  12. ncbi RLIM inhibits functional activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors via recruitment of the histone deacetylase complex
    I Bach
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Eukaryotic Regulatory Biology Program, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla 92093 0648, USA
    Nat Genet 22:394-9. 1999
    ..We conclude that Rlim is a novel corepressor that recruits histone deacetylase-containing complexes to the LIM domain...
  13. ncbi Antagonistic signals between BMP4 and FGF8 define the expression of Pitx1 and Pitx2 in mouse tooth-forming anlage
    T R St Amand
    Department of Cell Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70118, USA
    Dev Biol 217:323-32. 2000
    ..In this study, we examined the expression and regulation of Pitx1 and Pitx2 during mouse tooth development...
  14. ncbi Lhx4 and Prop1 are required for cell survival and expansion of the pituitary primordia
    Lori T Raetzman
    Department of Human Genetics and Graduate Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0638, USA
    Development 129:4229-39. 2002
    ..Thus, Lhx4 and Prop1 have critical, but mechanistically different roles in specification and expansion of specialized anterior pituitary cells...
  15. pmc Nuclear factor Y and steroidogenic factor 1 physically and functionally interact to contribute to cell-specific expression of the mouse Follicle-stimulating hormone-beta gene
    Suzanne B R Jacobs
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0674, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 17:1470-83. 2003
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of basal FSH beta protein in L beta T2 cells and to identify specific elements within the FSH beta promoter that contribute to basal and cell-specific expression of the gene...
  16. pmc Essential role of the homeodomain for pituitary homeobox 1 activation of mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene expression through interactions with c-Jun and DNA
    Kyeong Hoon Jeong
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:6127-39. 2004
    ..b>Pituitary homeobox 1 (Pitx-1) has been shown to activate pituitary-specific gene expression by direct DNA binding and/or protein-..
  17. pmc Paired-like homeodomain transcription factors 1 and 2 regulate follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit transcription through a conserved cis-element
    Pankaj Lamba
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, McIntyre Medical Sciences Building, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
    Endocrinology 149:3095-108. 2008
    ..We observed that endogenous PITX1 and PITX2 isoforms from murine LbetaT2 gonadotrope cells could bind a highly conserved proximal cis-element...
  18. pmc An endothelin-1 switch specifies maxillomandibular identity
    Takahiro Sato
    Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18806-11. 2008
    ..Also, we show that, within PA1, CNCCs are competent to form both mandibular and maxillary structures and that an Edn1 switch is responsible for the choice of either morphogenetic program...
  19. pmc BMPs and FGFs target Notch signalling via jagged 2 to regulate tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation
    Thimios A Mitsiadis
    Institute of Oral Biology, ZZMK, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
    Development 137:3025-35. 2010
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that Notch signalling mediated by Jag2 is indispensable for normal tooth development...
  20. pmc Identification of PITX1 as a TERT suppressor gene located on human chromosome 5
    Dong Lai Qi
    Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Tottori University, 86 Nishicho, Yonago 683 8503, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 31:1624-36. 2011
    ..Here, we report the identification of PITX1, whose expression leads to the downregulation of mouse tert (mtert) transcription, as a TERT suppressor gene...
  21. pmc Control of pelvic girdle development by genes of the Pbx family and Emx2
    Terence D Capellini
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA
    Dev Dyn 240:1173-89. 2011
    ..Lastly, we identify potential Pbx1-Emx2-regulated enhancers for Tbx15, Prrx1, and Pax1, using bioinformatics analyses...
  22. pmc Wnt signaling in the murine diastema
    Thantrira Porntaveetus
    Department of Craniofacial Development, Dental Institute, King s College London, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    Eur J Orthod 34:518-24. 2012
    ..Wnt signaling is thus usually attenuated in the diastema by these secreted and membrane bound Wnt inhibitors...
  23. pmc Downregulation of Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression by Hand2 is essential for initiation of tongue morphogenesis
    Francie Barron
    Department of Craniofacial Biology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Development 138:2249-59. 2011
    ..Hand2 thus appears to establish a distal mandibular arch domain that is conducive for lower jaw development, including the initiation of tongue mesenchyme morphogenesis...
  24. pmc Sirenomelia phenotype in bmp7;shh compound mutants: a novel experimental model for studies of caudal body malformations
    Carlos Garrido-Allepuz
    Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria IBBTEC, CSIC SODERCAN Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain
    PLoS ONE 7:e44962. 2012
    ..Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia...
  25. pmc Genetic analysis of the role of Alx4 in the coordination of lower body and external genitalia formation
    Daisuke Matsumaru
    1 Department of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Advanced Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan 2 Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    Eur J Hum Genet 22:350-7. 2014
    ..Moreover, Hh gain-of-function mutants phenocopied some of these phenotypes. These observations reveal novel information regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of syndromic lower ventral body malformations, which are largely unknown...
  26. pmc Foxi transcription factors promote pharyngeal arch development by regulating formation of FGF signaling centers
    Renée K Edlund
    Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, BCM295, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 390:1-13. 2014
    ..Our results suggest that Foxi3 may play a role in the establishment of signaling centers in the branchial arches that are required for neural crest survival, patterning and the subsequent development of branchial arch derivatives. ..
  27. pmc A gene expression atlas of early craniofacial development
    Eric W Brunskill
    Cincinnati Children s Medical Center, Division of Developmental Biology, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Dev Biol 391:133-46. 2014
    ....
  28. doi Distinct effects of Hoxa2 overexpression in cranial neural crest populations reveal that the mammalian hyomandibular-ceratohyal boundary maps within the styloid process
    Taro Kitazawa
    Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency JST, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102 0076, Japan
    Dev Biol 402:162-74. 2015
    ..The present findings suggest context-dependent function of Hoxa2 in CNCC regional specification and morphogenesis, and provide novel insights into the evolution of taxa-specific patterning of PA-derived structures. ..
  29. doi Oct4 Is a Key Regulator of Vertebrate Trunk Length Diversity
    Rita Aires
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Rua da Quinta Grande 6, 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    Dev Cell 38:262-74. 2016
    ....
  30. pmc Essential roles of ECAT15-2/Dppa2 in functional lung development
    Tomonori Nakamura
    Center for iPS Cell Research and Application CiRA, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Mol Cell Biol 31:4366-78. 2011
    ..These data suggest that ECAT15-2 has important roles in lung development, where it is no longer expressed, by leaving epigenetic marks from earlier developmental stages...
  31. pmc PITX2 AND PITX1 regulate thyrotroph function and response to hypothyroidism
    F Castinetti
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 25:1950-60. 2011
    ..The pituitary levels of Pitx1 transcripts are significantly increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism...
  32. pmc Pitx1 is necessary for normal initiation of hindlimb outgrowth through regulation of Tbx4 expression and shapes hindlimb morphologies via targeted growth control
    Veronique Duboc
    Division of Developmental Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, London, UK
    Development 138:5301-9. 2011
    The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are morphologically distinct. Pitx1, expressed in the hindlimb bud mesenchyme, is required for the formation of hindlimb characteristics and produces hindlimb-like morphologies when misexpressed ..
  33. pmc Let-7b/c enhance the stability of a tissue-specific mRNA during mammalian organogenesis as part of a feedback loop involving KSRP
    Emanuela Repetto
    INSERM U1065, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire C3M, Team 10 Control of Gene Expression, Nice, France
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002823. 2012
    ..Our study unveils a functional crosstalk between miRNA- and AMD-dependent gene regulation during mammalian organogenesis events...
  34. doi Molecular profiling of synovial joints: use of microarray analysis to identify factors that direct the development of the knee and elbow
    Dorothy E Pazin
    Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Dyn 241:1816-26. 2012
    ..Here, we use microarray analysis to compare knee and elbow formation to identify factors involved in the development of specific joints...
  35. pmc Pitx1 broadly associates with limb enhancers and is enriched on hindlimb cis-regulatory elements
    Carlos R Infante
    Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Coverdell Building, Room 250A, 500 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Dev Biol 374:234-44. 2013
    Extensive functional analyses have demonstrated that the pituitary homeodomain transcription factor Pitx1 plays a critical role in specifying hindlimb morphology in vertebrates...
  36. pmc Fgf8 dosage determines midfacial integration and polarity within the nasal and optic capsules
    John N Griffin
    Dept of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Floor 27, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Dev Biol 374:185-97. 2013
    ..Taken together, our data highlight Fgf8 signaling in craniofacial development as a plausible target for evolutionary selective pressures...
  37. ncbi Ptx1, a bicoid-related homeo box transcription factor involved in transcription of the pro-opiomelanocortin gene
    T Lamonerie
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de Recherches Cliniquesde Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Genes Dev 10:1284-95. 1996
    ..This factor, Ptx1 (pituitary homeo box 1), contains a homeo box related to those of the anterior-specific genes bicoid and ..
  38. ncbi Backfoot, a novel homeobox gene, maps to human chromosome 5 (BFT) and mouse chromosome 13 (Bft)
    J Shang
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA
    Genomics 40:108-13. 1997
    ..Here we report the chromosomal mapping of the Backfoot locus in human (BFT) and mouse (Bft)...
  39. ncbi Backfoot is a novel homeobox gene expressed in the mesenchyme of developing hind limb
    J Shang
    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USA
    Dev Dyn 209:242-53. 1997
    ..Bft is likely identical to a mouse gene, Ptx1, that was recently isolated by Lamonerie et al. ([1996] Genes Dev...
  40. ncbi A family of LIM domain-associated cofactors confer transcriptional synergism between LIM and Otx homeodomain proteins
    I Bach
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Eukaryotic Regulatory Biology Program, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla 92093 0648, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1370-80. 1997
    ..Our results link LIM homeodomain proteins and members of the Otx class of transcription factors in gene activation events during embryogenesis via the actions of specific cofactors...
  41. ncbi Indomethacin is a potent inhibitor of pristane and plastic disc induced plasmacytomagenesis in a hypersusceptible BALB/c congenic strain
    M Potter
    Laboratory of Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4255, USA
    Blood 90:260-9. 1997
    ....
  42. ncbi Human and murine PTX1/Ptx1 gene maps to the region for Treacher Collins syndrome
    M J Crawford
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, Quebec, Canada
    Mamm Genome 8:841-5. 1997
    b>Ptx1 belongs to an expanding family of bicoid-related vertebrate homeobox genes. These genes, like their Drosophila homolog, seem to play a role in the development of anterior structures and, in particular, the brain and facies...
  43. pmc Identification and characterization of LMO4, an LMO gene with a novel pattern of expression during embryogenesis
    D A Kenny
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0650, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11257-62. 1998
    ..Mesenchymal and thymic blast cell expression patterns of LMO4 and LMO2 are consistent with the suggestion that LMO genes inhibit differentiation...
  44. ncbi Formation of Rathke's pouch requires dual induction from the diencephalon
    N Takuma
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 125:4835-40. 1998
    ..This study provides firm molecular genetic evidence that morphogenesis of the pituitary primordium is induced in vivo by signals from the adjacent diencephalon...
  45. ncbi The bicoid-related Pitx gene family in development
    P J Gage
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0638, USA
    Mamm Genome 10:197-200. 1999
  46. pmc Pax6 is essential for establishing ventral-dorsal cell boundaries in pituitary gland development
    C Kioussi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, School, Department of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Room 345, La Jolla, CA 92093 0648, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:14378-82. 1999
    ..We suggest that the transient dorsal expression of Pax6 is essential for establishing a sharp boundary between dorsal and ventral cell types, based on the inhibition of Shh ventral signals...
  47. pmc Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch
    A Trumpp
    G W Hooper Foundation, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143 0552, USA
    Genes Dev 13:3136-48. 1999
    ..Because the mutant mice resemble humans with first arch syndromes that include agnathia, our results raise the possibility that some of these syndromes are caused by mutations that affect FGF8 signaling in BA1 ectoderm...
  48. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates growth and morphogenesis of the tooth
    H R Dassule
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 127:4775-85. 2000
    ..These studies demonstrate that Shh regulates growth and determines the shape of the tooth. However, Shh signaling is not essential for differentiation of ameloblasts or odontoblasts...
  49. ncbi Molecular basis of pituitary dysfunction in mouse and human
    L J Cushman
    Department of Human Genetics, 4301 MSRBIII, 1500 W Medical Center Drive, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0638, USA
    Mamm Genome 12:485-94. 2001
  50. pmc Tbx19, a tissue-selective regulator of POMC gene expression
    J Liu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, School and Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Cellular and Molecular Medicine West, Room 345, La Jolla, CA 92093 0648, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:8674-9. 2001
    ..It is suggested that Tbx19, depending on the presence of synergizing transcription factors, can activate POMC gene expression and repress the alpha glycoprotein subunit and thyroid-stimulating hormone beta promoters...
  51. ncbi Genomic organization, chromosome location, and expression analysis of mouse beta-synuclein, a candidate for involvement in neurodegeneration
    B L Sopher
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Room NW 120, Seattle, WA 98995 7110, USA
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 93:117-23. 2001
    ..Knowledge of the genomic organization and expression pattern of Sncb will allow functional studies of its potential role in neurodegeneration to commence in the mouse...
  52. ncbi Multifactorial genetics of exencephaly in SELH/Bc mice
    D M Juriloff
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Teratology 64:189-200. 2001
    ..The SELH/Bc mouse strain has 10-30% exencephaly and is an animal model for human neural tube closure defects. This study examined the number of causative genes, their dominance relationships, and linkage map positions...
  53. ncbi Pitx2 is required at multiple stages of pituitary organogenesis: pituitary primordium formation and cell specification
    Hoonkyo Suh
    Neuroscience Program, Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0638, USA
    Development 129:329-37. 2002
    ..The related Pitx1 gene has a role in hormone gene transcription, and it is important late in ontogeny for the final expansion of the ..
  54. ncbi A novel, brain-specific mouse drebrin: cDNA cloning, chromosomal mapping, genomic structure, expression, and functional characterization
    Minghao Jin
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Gunma University School of Medicine, 3 39 22 Showamachi, Maebashi, 371 8511, Japan
    Genomics 79:686-92. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that s-drebrin A has a role in spine morphogenesis, possibly by competing the actin-binding activity with drebrin A...
  55. ncbi Jaw transformation with gain of symmetry after Dlx5/Dlx6 inactivation: mirror of the past?
    Annemiek Beverdam
    Laboratory of Molecular Morphogenesis, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genova, Italy
    Genesis 34:221-7. 2002
    ..Our finding supports the notion that Dlx genes are homeotic genes associated with morphological novelty in the vertebrate lineage...
  56. ncbi Tbx5 is essential for forelimb bud initiation following patterning of the limb field in the mouse embryo
    Pooja Agarwal
    Programmes in Cardiovascular Research and Developmental Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 130:623-33. 2003
    ..These data suggest common pathways for the differentiation and growth of embryonic structures downstream of T-box genes...
  57. ncbi Loss of Tbx4 blocks hindlimb development and affects vascularization and fusion of the allantois
    L A Naiche
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 701 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Development 130:2681-93. 2003
    ....
  58. ncbi Tbx5 is required for forelimb bud formation and continued outgrowth
    Charalampos Rallis
    Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 130:2741-51. 2003
    ..Moreover, our results also demonstrate that limb bud outgrowth and specification of limb identity are linked by a requirement for Tbx5...
  59. ncbi Mesenchymal patterning by Hoxa2 requires blocking Fgf-dependent activation of Ptx1
    Nicoletta Bobola
    Department of Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Freiburg, Germany
    Development 130:3403-14. 2003
    ..Using a subtraction approach, we found that Ptx1 was upregulated in the second arch mesenchyme of Hoxa2 mutants...
  60. ncbi Pitx genes during cardiovascular development
    C Kioussi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 67:81-7. 2002
  61. ncbi Pitx1 in vivo promoter activity and mechanisms of positive autoregulation
    Cynthia G Goodyer
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal IRCM, 110 West Pine Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    Neuroendocrinology 78:129-37. 2003
    During early mouse embryogenesis, Pitx1 (pituitary homeobox 1), a member of the bicoid subgroup of PAIRED homeobox-containing transcription factors, marks the stomodeum, oral ectoderm, pituitary and first branchial arch in the anterior ..
  62. ncbi Genetic dissection of Pitx2 in craniofacial development uncovers new functions in branchial arch morphogenesis, late aspects of tooth morphogenesis and cell migration
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, 2121 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Development 130:6375-85. 2003
    ..Moreover, our results uncover a new function of Pitx2 in regulation of cell motility in craniofacial development...
  63. ncbi Tbx5 and Tbx4 are not sufficient to determine limb-specific morphologies but have common roles in initiating limb outgrowth
    Carolina Minguillon
    Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Dev Cell 8:75-84. 2005
    ..between forelimbs and hindlimbs are thought to be regulated by Tbx5 expressed in the forelimb and Tbx4 and Pitx1 expressed in the hindlimb...
  64. ncbi Expression of the homeobox gene Pitx2 in neural crest is required for optic stalk and ocular anterior segment development
    Amanda L Evans
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 14:3347-59. 2005
    ..We propose a revised model of optic nerve development and new mechanisms that may underlie the etiology of glaucoma in Axenfeld-Rieger patients...
  65. ncbi Cooperative and antagonistic interactions between Sall4 and Tbx5 pattern the mouse limb and heart
    Kazuko Koshiba-Takeuchi
    Programs in Cardiovascular Research, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Nat Genet 38:175-83. 2006
    ..Thus, a positive and negative feed-forward circuit between Tbx5 and Sall4 ensures precise patterning of embryonic limb and heart and provides a unifying mechanism for heart/hand syndromes...
  66. ncbi SATB2 is a multifunctional determinant of craniofacial patterning and osteoblast differentiation
    Gergana Dobreva
    Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Cell 125:971-86. 2006
    ..Thus, SATB2 acts as a molecular node in a transcriptional network regulating skeletal development and osteoblast differentiation...
  67. ncbi Reduced expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx3 impairs growth and differentiation of Rathke's pouch and increases cell apoptosis during mouse pituitary development
    Yangu Zhao
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mech Dev 123:605-13. 2006
    ..Rathke's pouch has been described in mutant mice impaired in the function of the bicoid-like homeodomain proteins Pitx1 and Pitx2. In those mutants, the expression of Lhx3 is absent...
  68. ncbi Pitx1 determines the morphology of muscle, tendon, and bones of the hindlimb
    April DeLaurier
    Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, UK
    Dev Biol 299:22-34. 2006
    ..which are expressed in the forelimb and hindlimb, respectively, and a paired-type homeodomain transcription factor Pitx1, expressed in the hindlimb...
  69. pmc Noggin regulates Bmp4 activity during pituitary induction
    Shannon W Davis
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, 4909 Buhl Building, 1241 E Catherine St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0618, USA
    Dev Biol 305:145-60. 2007
    ..This work demonstrates the importance of attenuating the activity of Bmp signaling during pituitary induction in order to maintain the proper balance of signaling factors necessary for pituitary organogenesis...
  70. pmc Cranial muscle defects of Pitx2 mutants result from specification defects in the first branchial arch
    Hung Ping Shih
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, College of Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5907-12. 2007
    ..5. The diminutive first branchial arch of mutants could not be explained by loss of mesoderm alone, suggesting that Pitx2 contributes to the earliest specification of jaw itself...
  71. pmc Mouse R-spondin2 is required for apical ectodermal ridge maintenance in the hindlimb
    Ju Suk Nam
    Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074, USA
    Dev Biol 311:124-35. 2007
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that Rspo2 expression in the AER is required for AER maintenance likely by regulating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling...
  72. pmc TCF4 deficiency expands ventral diencephalon signaling and increases induction of pituitary progenitors
    Michelle L Brinkmeier
    University of Michigan, Department of Human Genetics, 4909 Buhl Building, 1241 E Catherine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0618, USA
    Dev Biol 311:396-407. 2007
    ..Thus, TCF4 is necessary both intrinsically and extrinsically to Rathke's pouch to ensure the proper growth of the pituitary gland...
  73. ncbi Hox gene function in vertebrate gut morphogenesis: the case of the caecum
    Giovanna Zacchetti
    National Research Centre Frontiers in Genetics, Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Sciences III, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Development 134:3967-73. 2007
    ..This effect is concurrent with a dramatic reduction of both Fgf10 and Pitx1 expression...
  74. pmc Mechanisms underlying pituitary hypoplasia and failed cell specification in Lhx3-deficient mice
    Buffy S Ellsworth
    Department of Human Genetics, The University of Michigan, Medical School, 4909 Buhl Bldg, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0618, USA
    Dev Biol 313:118-29. 2008
    ....
  75. pmc Dynamic gene expression of Lin-28 during embryonic development in mouse and chicken
    Shigetoshi Yokoyama
    Department of Systems Biomedicine, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 2 10 1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
    Gene Expr Patterns 8:155-60. 2008
    ....
  76. ncbi Deletion of the Pitx1 genomic locus affects mandibular tooth morphogenesis and expression of the Barx1 and Tbx1 genes
    Thimios A Mitsiadis
    Department of Structural and Orofacial Development, Institute of Oral Biology, ZZMK, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
    Dev Biol 313:887-96. 2008
    b>Pitx1 is a bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the developing hindlimb, mandible, pituitary gland and teeth...
  77. pmc Formation and differentiation of multiple mesenchymal lineages during lung development is regulated by beta-catenin signaling
    Stijn P De Langhe
    Developmental Biology Program, Department of Surgery, Saban Research Institute of Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1516. 2008
    ..The role of ss-catenin signaling in mesodermal lineage formation and differentiation has been elusive...
  78. doi A mouse model for tracking nigrostriatal dopamine neuron axon growth
    Joaquim Vives
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, United Kingdom
    Genesis 46:125-31. 2008
    ....
  79. pmc Retinoic acid promotes limb induction through effects on body axis extension but is unnecessary for limb patterning
    Xianling Zhao
    Development and Aging Program, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1050-7. 2009
    ....
  80. doi Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates
    Ramkumar Sambasivan
    Institut Pasteur, Stem Cells and Development, CNRS URA 2578, Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Marseille, France
    Dev Cell 16:810-21. 2009
    ..These findings identify novel genetic networks that may provide insights into myopathies which often affect only subsets of muscles...
  81. doi Hoxa2 plays a direct role in murine palate development
    Tara M Smith
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    Dev Dyn 238:2364-73. 2009
    ..Hoxa2 also repressed the expression of its downstream targets Msx1, Bmp4, Barx1, and Ptx1 within the palate...
  82. pmc Prx1 and Prx2 cooperatively regulate the morphogenesis of the medial region of the mandibular process
    Anamaria Balic
    Department of Craniofacial Sciences, Division of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA
    Dev Dyn 238:2599-613. 2009
    ..These observations together show that, during mandibular morphogenesis, Prx gene products play multiple roles including the cell survival, the region-specific terminal differentiation of Meckelian chondrocytes and osteogenesis...
  83. pmc A role of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in the regulation of pituitary development
    Yangu Zhao
    Laboratory of Mammalian Genes and Development, Program on Genomics of Development, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Dev Biol 337:313-23. 2010
    ....
  84. doi Spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression of the Edn1-Dlx5/6 pathway during development of the lower jaw
    Maxence Vieux-Rochas
    CNRS UMR, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    Genesis 48:262-373. 2010
    ..More in general, our findings emphasize the importance of quantitative gene expression in the fine control of morphogenetic events...
  85. pmc Mesodermal Tbx1 is required for patterning the proximal mandible in mice
    Vimla S Aggarwal
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 344:669-81. 2010
    ..5. This occurs without significant changes in cell proliferation or apoptosis at the same stage. Our results elucidate a new function for the non-neural crest core mesoderm and specifically, mesodermal Tbx1, in shaping the lower jaw...
  86. doi The c-Abl tyrosine kinase stabilizes Pitx1 in the apoptotic response to DNA damage
    Tomoko Yamaguchi
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo ku, Japan
    Apoptosis 15:927-35. 2010
    ..Here we demonstrate that the expression of human pituitary homeobox 1 (Pitx1) transcription factor is increased after DNA damage...
  87. pmc Pitx2 is an upstream activator of extraocular myogenesis and survival
    Amanda L Zacharias
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Dev Biol 349:395-405. 2011
    ..Thus, Pitx2 is the first demonstrated upstream activator of myogenesis in the extraocular muscles...
  88. doi Developmental origins of precocial forelimbs in marsupial neonates
    Anna L Keyte
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Development 137:4283-94. 2010
    ..Our results show a surprising evolutionary flexibility in the early limb development program of amniotes and rule out the induction of the limb fields by mature structures such as the somites or mesonephros...
  89. pmc Pitx1 haploinsufficiency causes clubfoot in humans and a clubfoot-like phenotype in mice
    David M Alvarado
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 20:3943-52. 2011
    ..We recently identified a missense mutation in the PITX1 bicoid homeodomain transcription factor in a family with a spectrum of lower extremity abnormalities, including ..
  90. ncbi Expression patterns of Brx1 (Rieg gene), Sonic hedgehog, Nkx2.2, Dlx1 and Arx during zona limitans intrathalamica and embryonic ventral lateral geniculate nuclear formation
    K Kitamura
    Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Mech Dev 67:83-96. 1997
    ..Each homeobox gene was also expressed regionally in the nucleus, suggesting that the nucleus is comprised of subdivisions...
  91. ncbi Deletion in the promoter region and altered expression of Pitx3 homeobox gene in aphakia mice
    E V Semina
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 9:1575-85. 2000
    ..These lines of evidence suggest that the abnormal ocular development in the aphakia mouse is due to the deletion upstream of the Pitx3 gene...
  92. ncbi Unravelling the complex genetics of cleft lip in the mouse model
    D M Juriloff
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, 6174 University Boulevard, Vancouver, B C, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Mamm Genome 12:426-35. 2001
    ..Human homologs of clf1 and clf2 are expected to be on 17q and 5q/9q...
  93. ncbi Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes
    Michael J Depew
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, 401 Parnassus Avenue, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Science 298:381-5. 2002
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression...
  94. ncbi Interaction, cooperative promoter modulation, and renal colocalization of GCMa and Pitx2
    Steffen W Schubert
    Institut fur Biochemie, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Fahrstrasse 17, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:50358-65. 2004
    ..This is the first description of a regulatory cross-talk between a transcription factor of the GCM family and a homeodomain protein...
  95. ncbi PITX genes are required for cell survival and Lhx3 activation
    Michael A Charles
    4301 MSRB III, 1500 West Medical Center Drive, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0638, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 19:1893-903. 2005
    The PITX family of transcription factors regulate the development of many organs. Pitx1 mutants have a mild pituitary phenotype, but Pitx2 is necessary for the development of Rathke's pouch, expression of essential transcription factors ..
  96. pmc Embryonic salivary gland dysmorphogenesis in Twisted gastrulation deficient mice
    Michael Melnick
    Laboratory for Developmental Genetics, University of Southern California, 925 W 34th Street, DEN 4266, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0641, USA
    Arch Oral Biol 51:433-8. 2006
    ..We addressed the proposition that normal Twsg1 expression is critical to normal SMG ontogenesis...
  97. pmc Dlx genes pattern mammalian jaw primordium by regulating both lower jaw-specific and upper jaw-specific genetic programs
    Juhee Jeong
    Department of Psychiatry, Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Development 135:2905-16. 2008
    ..We propose a new model for Dlx-mediated mammalian jaw patterning...
  98. pmc Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epithelium
    Makoto Matsuyama
    Vertebrate Body Plan, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Minatojima Minami, Kobe, Japan
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000427. 2009
    ..We propose that Sfrp regulation of Wnt5a signaling controls oriented cell division and apicobasal polarity in the epithelium of developing gut...
  99. pmc Multistep signaling requirements for pituitary organogenesis in vivo
    M Treier
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, School and Department of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093 0648 USA
    Genes Dev 12:1691-704. 1998
    ....
  100. ncbi The stomach mesenchymal transcription factor Barx1 specifies gastric epithelial identity through inhibition of transient Wnt signaling
    Byeong Moo Kim
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 8:611-22. 2005
    ..These results define a transcriptional and signaling pathway of inductive cell interactions in vertebrate organogenesis...
  101. ncbi Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 283:282-93. 2005
    ..Lastly, we provide evidence that Prx homeobox genes repress expression of an Msx2 transgene, previously shown to be Bmp4-responsive, revealing a mechanism for differential regulation of Msx1 and Msx2 by Bmp signaling...