Gene Symbol: Pgr
Description: progesterone receptor
Alias: 9930019P03Rik, BB114106, NR3C3, PR-A, PR-B, progesterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Pgr

Top Publications

  1. Jeong J, Lee H, Lee K, White L, Broaddus R, Zhang Y, et al. Mig-6 modulates uterine steroid hormone responsiveness and exhibits altered expression in endometrial disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8677-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) as a downstream target of progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC-1) action in the uterus...
  2. Brisken C, Park S, Vass T, Lydon J, O Malley B, Weinberg R. A paracrine role for the epithelial progesterone receptor in mammary gland development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5076-81 pubmed
    Recently generated progesterone receptor (PR)-negative (PR-/-) mice provide an excellent model for dissecting the role of progesterone in the development of the mammary gland during puberty and pregnancy...
  3. Rubel C, Lanz R, Kommagani R, Franco H, Lydon J, DeMayo F. Research resource: Genome-wide profiling of progesterone receptor binding in the mouse uterus. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1428-42 pubmed publisher
    Progesterone (P4) signaling through its nuclear transcription factor, the progesterone receptor (PR), is essential for normal uterine function...
  4. Sleiter N, Pang Y, Park C, Horton T, Dong J, Thomas P, et al. Progesterone receptor A (PRA) and PRB-independent effects of progesterone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone release. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that negative feedback actions of P4 include rapid PR(A/B)-independent effects on GnRH release that may in part be mediated by mPRs. ..
  5. Boonyaratanakornkit V, Bi Y, Rudd M, Edwards D. The role and mechanism of progesterone receptor activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways in regulating gene transcription and cell cycle progression. Steroids. 2008;73:922-8 pubmed publisher
    Human progesterone receptor (PR) contains a polyproline motif in the amino-terminal domain that interacts with the SH3 domain of Src and mediates rapid activation of c-Src and downstream MAPK (Erk-1/-2) independent of the transcriptional ..
  6. Li Q, Kannan A, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Cooke P, Yamagishi H, et al. The antiproliferative action of progesterone in uterine epithelium is mediated by Hand2. Science. 2011;331:912-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hand2 is a critical regulator of the uterine stromal-epithelial communication that directs proper steroid regulation conducive for the establishment of pregnancy. ..
  7. Schneider J, Stone M, Wynne Edwards K, Horton T, Lydon J, O MALLEY B, et al. Progesterone receptors mediate male aggression toward infants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2951-6 pubmed
    ..We have found that male progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice exhibit no infanticidal behavior and little aggression toward young...
  8. Reddy D, O Malley B, Rogawski M. Anxiolytic activity of progesterone in progesterone receptor knockout mice. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:14-24 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct evidence that the anxiolytic action of progesterone does not require PRs. However, PR activation by progesterone may influence the anxiolytic response since PRKO mice were more sensitive to progesterone. ..
  9. Mani S, Reyna A, Chen J, Mulac Jericevic B, Conneely O. Differential response of progesterone receptor isoforms in hormone-dependent and -independent facilitation of female sexual receptivity. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1322-32 pubmed
    ..The data reveal the selective contributions of individual isoforms to the signaling pathways mediating female reproductive behavior. ..

More Information


  1. Mukherjee A, Soyal S, Fernandez Valdivia R, Gehin M, Chambon P, DeMayo F, et al. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 is critical for progesterone-dependent uterine function and mammary morphogenesis in the mouse. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6571-83 pubmed
    Although the essential involvement of the progesterone receptor (PR) in female reproductive tissues is firmly established, the coregulators preferentially enlisted by PR to mediate its physiological effects have yet to be fully ..
  2. Beguelin W, Díaz Flaqué M, Proietti C, Cayrol F, Rivas M, Tkach M, et al. Progesterone receptor induces ErbB-2 nuclear translocation to promote breast cancer growth via a novel transcriptional effect: ErbB-2 function as a coactivator of Stat3. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5456-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Progesterone receptor (PR) and ErbB-2 bidirectional cross talk participates in breast cancer development...
  3. Laws M, Taylor R, Sidell N, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Gutstein D, et al. Gap junction communication between uterine stromal cells plays a critical role in pregnancy-associated neovascularization and embryo survival. Development. 2008;135:2659-68 pubmed publisher
  4. Kurihara I, Lee D, Petit F, Jeong J, Lee K, Lydon J, et al. COUP-TFII mediates progesterone regulation of uterine implantation by controlling ER activity. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e102 pubmed
  5. Clementi C, Tripurani S, Large M, Edson M, Creighton C, Hawkins S, et al. Activin-like kinase 2 functions in peri-implantation uterine signaling in mice and humans. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003863 pubmed publisher
    ..a distinct regulatory sequence in the 3' UTR of this gene; CEBPB, in turn, regulates the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR)...
  6. Nagashima T, Li Q, Clementi C, Lydon J, DeMayo F, Matzuk M. BMPR2 is required for postimplantation uterine function and pregnancy maintenance. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2539-50 pubmed publisher
  7. Xie H, Wang H, Tranguch S, Iwamoto R, Mekada E, DeMayo F, et al. Maternal heparin-binding-EGF deficiency limits pregnancy success in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18315-20 pubmed
    ..Our study provides genetic evidence that HB-EGF is critical for normal implantation. This finding has high clinical relevance, because HB-EGF signaling is known to be important for human implantation. ..
  8. Daikoku T, Hirota Y, Tranguch S, Joshi A, DeMayo F, Lydon J, et al. Conditional loss of uterine Pten unfailingly and rapidly induces endometrial cancer in mice. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These mouse models have the added advantage because they mimic several features of human EMC. ..
  9. Lydon J, DeMayo F, Conneely O, O Malley B. Reproductive phenotpes of the progesterone receptor null mutant mouse. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;56:67-77 pubmed
    ..exerts its effects are unclear; however, the progesterone signal is known to be mediated initially by the progesterone receptor (PR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors...
  10. Mantena S, Kannan A, Cheon Y, Li Q, Johnson P, Bagchi I, et al. C/EBPbeta is a critical mediator of steroid hormone-regulated cell proliferation and differentiation in the uterine epithelium and stroma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1870-5 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our studies established that C/EBPbeta is a key mediator of steroid responsiveness of the epithelium and stroma in the mouse uterus. ..
  11. Schneider J, Burgess C, Sleiter N, Doncarlos L, Lydon J, O MALLEY B, et al. Enhanced sexual behaviors and androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the male progesterone receptor knockout mouse. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4340-8 pubmed
    ..Basal hormone levels were measured in male progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice and compared to wild-type (WT) counterparts...
  12. Aupperlee M, Haslam S. Differential hormonal regulation and function of progesterone receptor isoforms in normal adult mouse mammary gland. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2290-300 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate different hormonal regulation of PRA and PRB levels in vivo and suggest that P can induce proliferation through either PRA or PRB via direct and paracrine mechanisms. ..
  13. Franco H, Lee K, Broaddus R, White L, Lanske B, Lydon J, et al. Ablation of Indian hedgehog in the murine uterus results in decreased cell cycle progression, aberrant epidermal growth factor signaling, and increased estrogen signaling. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Ihh regulates embryo implantation by having an impact on the cell cycle, EGF signaling, and E2 signaling. ..
  14. Lydon J, DeMayo F, Funk C, Mani S, Hughes A, Montgomery C, et al. Mice lacking progesterone receptor exhibit pleiotropic reproductive abnormalities. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2266-78 pubmed
    ..The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the progesterone receptor (PR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors...
  15. Picard F, Wanatabe M, Schoonjans K, Lydon J, O Malley B, Auwerx J. Progesterone receptor knockout mice have an improved glucose homeostasis secondary to beta -cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15644-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, RU486, an antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), reduces blood glucose levels in both female WT and dbdb mice...
  16. Gava N, Clarke C, Byth K, Arnett Mansfield R, deFazio A. Expression of progesterone receptors A and B in the mouse ovary during the estrous cycle. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3487-94 pubmed
    Progesterone plays a central role in the regulation of ovarian function. The progesterone receptor (PR) has been shown to be essential for ovulation because mice lacking PR fail to ovulate and are infertile...
  17. Chappell P, Lydon J, Conneely O, O Malley B, Levine J. Endocrine defects in mice carrying a null mutation for the progesterone receptor gene. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4147-52 pubmed
    Mice carrying a null mutation of the progesterone receptor gene exhibit several reproductive abnormalities, including anovulation, attenuated lordotic behavior, uterine hyperplasia, and lack of mammary gland development...
  18. Franco H, Rubel C, Large M, Wetendorf M, Fernandez Valdivia R, Jeong J, et al. Epithelial progesterone receptor exhibits pleiotropic roles in uterine development and function. FASEB J. 2012;26:1218-27 pubmed publisher
    The ovarian steroid progesterone, acting through the progesterone receptor (PR), coordinates endometrial epithelial-stromal cell communication, which is critical for its development and function...
  19. Proietti C, Rosemblit C, Beguelin W, Rivas M, Díaz Flaqué M, Charreau E, et al. Activation of Stat3 by heregulin/ErbB-2 through the co-option of progesterone receptor signaling drives breast cancer growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1249-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings unravel a novel potential therapeutic intervention in PR- and ErbB-2-positive breast tumors, involving the specific blockage of PR signaling activity. ..
  20. Lee K, Jeong J, Kwak I, Yu C, Lanske B, Soegiarto D, et al. Indian hedgehog is a major mediator of progesterone signaling in the mouse uterus. Nat Genet. 2006;38:1204-9 pubmed
    ..Using new experimental approaches that ablate Ihh specifically in Pgr-positive uterine cells of the mouse, we demonstrate that Ihh is an essential mediator of Pgr action in the uterus, ..
  21. Mulac Jericevic B, Lydon J, DeMayo F, Conneely O. Defective mammary gland morphogenesis in mice lacking the progesterone receptor B isoform. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9744-9 pubmed
  22. Jeong J, Kwak I, Lee K, Kim T, Large M, Stewart C, et al. Foxa2 is essential for mouse endometrial gland development and fertility. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..conditionally ablated in the mouse uterus by crossing mice with floxed Foxa2 alleles, Foxa2(loxP/loxP), with the Pgr(cre) mouse model. Pgr(cre/+) Foxa2(loxP/loxP) mice showed significantly reduced fertility...
  23. Chappell P, Schneider J, Kim P, Xu M, Lydon J, O Malley B, et al. Absence of gonadotropin surges and gonadotropin-releasing hormone self-priming in ovariectomized (OVX), estrogen (E2)-treated, progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3653-8 pubmed
    ..In the present experiments, the progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice were used to assess the role of PR activation in the positive feedback actions of E2 ..
  24. Jeong J, Lee H, Franco H, Broaddus R, Taketo M, Tsai S, et al. beta-catenin mediates glandular formation and dysregulation of beta-catenin induces hyperplasia formation in the murine uterus. Oncogene. 2009;28:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we have demonstrated that correct regulation of beta-catenin is important for uterine function as well as in the regulation of endometrial epithelial differentiation. ..
  25. Diao H, Paria B, Xiao S, Ye X. Temporal expression pattern of progesterone receptor in the uterine luminal epithelium suggests its requirement during early events of implantation. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2087-93 pubmed publisher
    To determine the precise timing of progesterone receptor (PR) disappearing from the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) to help understand the significance of the dynamic PR expression in the LE during embryo implantation...
  26. Tibbetts T, Conneely O, O Malley B. Progesterone via its receptor antagonizes the pro-inflammatory activity of estrogen in the mouse uterus. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:1158-65 pubmed
    ..Using progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice, we show that this effect is dependent on progesterone receptors (PR)...
  27. Aupperlee M, Smith K, Kariagina A, Haslam S. Progesterone receptor isoforms A and B: temporal and spatial differences in expression during murine mammary gland development. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3577-88 pubmed
    ..Based on studies using cells and animals engineered to express progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms A or B, PRA and PRB are believed to have different functions...
  28. Fan H, Liu Z, Paquet M, Wang J, Lydon J, DeMayo F, et al. Cell type-specific targeted mutations of Kras and Pten document proliferation arrest in granulosa cells versus oncogenic insult to ovarian surface epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We also analyzed KrasG12D;Cyp19-Cre and KrasG12;Pgr-Cre mutant mouse models that express Cre prior to or after the initiation of granulosa cell differentiation, ..
  29. Blois S, Ilarregui J, Tometten M, Garcia M, Orsal A, Cordo Russo R, et al. A pivotal role for galectin-1 in fetomaternal tolerance. Nat Med. 2007;13:1450-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gal-1 is a pivotal regulator of fetomaternal tolerance that has potential therapeutic implications in threatened pregnancies. ..
  30. Ismail P, Li J, DeMayo F, O Malley B, Lydon J. A novel LacZ reporter mouse reveals complex regulation of the progesterone receptor promoter during mammary gland development. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2475-89 pubmed
    ..progesterone (P) as an endocrine mammogen, a PR(lacz) knockin mouse was generated in which the endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) promoter directly regulated lacZ reporter expression...
  31. Teilmann S, Clement C, Thorup J, Byskov A, Christensen S. Expression and localization of the progesterone receptor in mouse and human reproductive organs. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:525-35 pubmed
    The effects of gonadotropins on progesterone receptor (PR) expression and localization in the mouse oviduct, uterus, and ovary was examined...
  32. Ismail P, Amato P, Soyal S, DeMayo F, Conneely O, O Malley B, et al. Progesterone involvement in breast development and tumorigenesis--as revealed by progesterone receptor "knockout" and "knockin" mouse models. Steroids. 2003;68:779-87 pubmed
    ..Towards this end, the progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mouse demonstrated that progesterone is essential for pregnancy-associated mammary gland ..
  33. Li Q, Cheon Y, Kannan A, Shanker S, Bagchi I, Bagchi M. A novel pathway involving progesterone receptor, 12/15-lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates implantation in mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11570-81 pubmed
    ..Our previous studies, using high density oligonucleotide microarrays, suggested a novel link between progesterone receptor (PR) signaling and 12/15-LOX-mediated fatty acid metabolism in preimplantation mouse uterus...
  34. Soyal S, Mukherjee A, Lee K, Li J, Li H, DeMayo F, et al. Cre-mediated recombination in cell lineages that express the progesterone receptor. Genesis. 2005;41:58-66 pubmed
    Using gene-targeting methods, a progesterone receptor Cre knockin (PR-Cre) mouse was generated in which Cre recombinase was inserted into exon 1 of the PR gene...
  35. Rickard D, Iwaniec U, Evans G, Hefferan T, Hunter J, Waters K, et al. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2383-90 pubmed publisher
    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial...
  36. Bruno R, Boulanger C, Rosenfield S, Anderson L, Lydon J, Smith G. Paracrine-rescued lobulogenesis in chimeric outgrowths comprising progesterone-receptor-null mammary epithelium and redirected wild-type testicular cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested the hypothesis that paracrine signals from mammary epithelial cells expressing progesterone receptor (PR) are dispensable for redirection of testicular cells, and that re-directed wild-type testicular-..
  37. Convissar S, Bennett J, Baumgarten S, Lydon J, DeMayo F, Stocco C. GATA4 and GATA6 Knockdown During Luteinization Inhibits Progesterone Production and Gonadotropin Responsiveness in the Corpus Luteum of Female Mice. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:133 pubmed publisher crossing mice carrying Gata4 and Gata6 floxed genes with mice carrying Cre recombinase fused to the progesterone receptor. This receptor is expressed exclusively in granulosa cells after the luteinizing hormone surge, leading to ..
  38. Guimarães Young A, Neff T, Dupuy A, Goodheart M. Conditional deletion of Sox17 reveals complex effects on uterine adenogenesis and function. Dev Biol. 2016;414:219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, these findings are the first to implicate Sox17 in endometrial gland formation and reproductive success. The data presented herein underscore the importance of studying Sox17 in uterine homeostasis and function. ..
  39. Daikoku T, Jackson L, Besnard V, Whitsett J, Ellenson L, Dey S. Cell-specific conditional deletion of Pten in the uterus results in differential phenotypes. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122:424-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Shroff A, Sequeira R, Patel V, Reddy K. Knockout of autophagy gene, ATG5 in mice vaginal cells abrogates cytokine response and pathogen clearance during vaginal infection of Candida albicans. Cell Immunol. 2018;324:59-73 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans by affecting anti-Candida cytokine levels in the vaginal lavage resulting in reduction of pathogen clearance rate. ..
  41. Arnett Mansfield R, Graham J, Hanson A, Mote P, Gompel A, Scurr L, et al. Focal subnuclear distribution of progesterone receptor is ligand dependent and associated with transcriptional activity. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:14-29 pubmed
    The progesterone receptor (PR) is a critical mediator of progesterone action in the female reproductive system...
  42. Cheon Y, DeMayo F, Bagchi M, Bagchi I. Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2beta, a cysteine protease inhibitor in decidua: a potential regulator of embryo implantation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10357-63 pubmed markedly altered in pregnant uterus in response to RU486, a well characterized antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR)...
  43. Zhou R, Yao X, Xu X, Wang G, Zhu Z, Chen J, et al. Blockage of progesterone receptor effectively protects pancreatic islet beta cell viability. Steroids. 2013;78:987-95 pubmed publisher
    The progesterone receptor (PR), a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, is closely associated with gestational, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure...
  44. Hagihara K, Wu Peng X, Funabashi T, Kato J, Pfaff D. Nucleic acid sequence and DNase hypersensitive sites of the 5' region of the mouse progesterone receptor gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;205:1093-101 pubmed
    To allow study of the control of the promoter of the mouse progesterone receptor gene and its specific elements, we have isolated nine individual clones and selectively sequenced the 5' region, which includes 5' promoter sequence and the ..
  45. Clark N, Pru C, Yee S, Lydon J, Peluso J, Pru J. Conditional Ablation of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 2 Causes Female Premature Reproductive Senescence. Endocrinology. 2017;158:640-651 pubmed publisher
    The nonclassical progesterone receptors progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and PGRMC2 have been implicated in regulating cell survival of endometrial and ovarian cells in vitro and are abundantly expressed in these cell ..
  46. Blaisdell A, Crequer A, Columbus D, Daikoku T, Mittal K, Dey S, et al. Neutrophils Oppose Uterine Epithelial Carcinogenesis via Debridement of Hypoxic Tumor Cells. Cancer Cell. 2015;28:785-799 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into tumor-associated PMNs and reveal a context-specific capacity for PMNs to directly combat tumorigenesis. ..
  47. Sun X, Jackson L, Dey S, Daikoku T. In pursuit of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5 regulation and function in the uterus. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5065-73 pubmed publisher estrogen and progesterone via their cognate nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha and progesterone receptor, respectively...
  48. Wakitani S, Hondo E, Phichitraslip T, Stewart C, Kiso Y. Upregulation of Indian hedgehog gene in the uterine epithelium by leukemia inhibitory factor during mouse implantation. J Reprod Dev. 2008;54:113-6 pubmed
    ..Expression of Ihh mRNA reached its peak on the forth day of pregnancy, and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA decreased on the fifth day of pregnancy in wildtype mice...
  49. Montero Girard G, Vanzulli S, Cerliani J, Bottino M, Bolado J, Vela J, et al. Association of estrogen receptor-alpha and progesterone receptor A expression with hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: role of the host microenvironment. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R22 pubmed
    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induces estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive ductal invasive mammary carcinomas in BALB/c mice...
  50. Woolley S, O MALLEY B, Lydon J, Crews D. Genotype differences in behavior and tyrosine hydroxylase expression between wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006;167:197-204 pubmed
    b>Progesterone receptor (PR) activation can modulate the expression of male sexual behavior, both acutely in adulthood as well as during development, through long lasting effects on neural differentiation...
  51. Shyamala G, Yang X, Silberstein G, Barcellos Hoff M, Dale E. Transgenic mice carrying an imbalance in the native ratio of A to B forms of progesterone receptor exhibit developmental abnormalities in mammary glands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:696-701 pubmed
    In this report we document the creation of transgenic mice in which the native ratio of A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) has been altered by the introduction of additional A form as transgene...
  52. Lee H, Gallego Ortega D, Ledger A, Schramek D, Joshi P, Szwarc M, et al. Progesterone drives mammary secretory differentiation via RankL-mediated induction of Elf5 in luminal progenitor cells. Development. 2013;140:1397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The progesterone receptor and Elf5 are expressed in a mutually exclusive pattern, and we identify RankL as the paracrine mediator of ..
  53. Zhang X, Zhang D, Michel F, Blum J, Simmen F, Simmen R. Selective interactions of Kruppel-like factor 9/basic transcription element-binding protein with progesterone receptor isoforms A and B determine transcriptional activity of progesterone-responsive genes in endometrial epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21474-82 pubmed
    ..for the steroid hormone progesterone in endometrial epithelial cells by its selective interaction with the progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, PR-A and PR-B...
  54. Pawar S, Laws M, Bagchi I, Bagchi M. Uterine Epithelial Estrogen Receptor-α Controls Decidualization via a Paracrine Mechanism. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1362-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our results provide unique insights into the paracrine mechanisms by which ESR1 directs epithelial-stromal dialogue during pregnancy establishment. ..
  55. Giulianelli S, Vaque J, Soldati R, Wargon V, Vanzulli S, Martins R, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha mediates progestin-induced mammary tumor growth by interacting with progesterone receptors at the cyclin D1/MYC promoters. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it remains unclear whether cytoplasmic interactions between the progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) are required for PR activation...
  56. Vazquez F, Rodriguez Manzaneque J, Lydon J, Edwards D, O Malley B, Iruela Arispe M. Progesterone regulates proliferation of endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:2185-92 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide direct evidence for the presence of functional nuclear progesterone receptor in endothelial cells and demonstrate that physiological levels of progesterone inhibit proliferation ..
  57. Chou Y, Uehara N, Lowry J, Shyamala G. Mammary epithelial cells of PR-A transgenic mice exhibit distinct alterations in gene expression and growth potential associated with transformation. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:403-9 pubmed
    Expression of the 'A' and 'B' forms of progesterone receptor (PR), in an appropriate ratio is critical for normal mammary development...
  58. Stodden G, Lindberg M, King M, Paquet M, MacLean J, Mann J, et al. Loss of Cdh1 and Trp53 in the uterus induces chronic inflammation with modification of tumor microenvironment. Oncogene. 2015;34:2471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that absence of CDH1 and TP53 in endometrial cells initiates chronic inflammation, promotes tumor microenvironment development following the recruitment of macrophages and promotes aggressive ECs. ..
  59. Goddard L, Murphy T, Org T, Enciso J, HASHIMOTO PARTYKA M, Warren C, et al. Progesterone receptor in the vascular endothelium triggers physiological uterine permeability preimplantation. Cell. 2014;156:549-62 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the physiological vascular permeability that precedes implantation is directly controlled by progesterone receptor (PR) and is independent of VEGF...
  60. Ramamoorthy S, Dhananjayan S, DeMayo F, Nawaz Z. Isoform-specific degradation of PR-B by E6-AP is critical for normal mammary gland development. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:2099-113 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism appears to regulate normal mammogenesis, and dysregulation of this process may be an important contributor to mammary cancer development and progression. ..
  61. Li R, Diao H, Zhao F, Xiao S, El Zowalaty A, Dudley E, et al. Olfactomedin 1 Deficiency Leads to Defective Olfaction and Impaired Female Fertility. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3344-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that defective fertility in Olfm1(-/-) females is most likely a secondary effect of defective olfaction. ..
  62. Large M, Wetendorf M, Lanz R, Hartig S, Creighton C, Mancini M, et al. The epidermal growth factor receptor critically regulates endometrial function during early pregnancy. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004451 pubmed publisher
  63. Krebs C, Jarvis E, Chan J, Lydon J, Ogawa S, Pfaff D. A membrane-associated progesterone-binding protein, 25-Dx, is regulated by progesterone in brain regions involved in female reproductive behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:12816-21 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a mechanism in which the activation of nuclear P receptor represses expression of a membrane P receptor, 25-Dx, during lordosis facilitation. ..
  64. Friis Hansen L. Achlorhydria is associated with gastric microbial overgrowth and development of cancer: lessons learned from the gastrin knockout mouse. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2006;66:607-21 pubmed
    ..Study of these mice helps our understanding of how dysregulation of gastrin secretion may be implicated in human disease. ..
  65. Nallasamy S, Li Q, Bagchi M, Bagchi I. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002500 pubmed publisher
  66. Bershtein L, Alimova I, Tsyrlina E, Anisimov V. Mammary tumors in HER-2/NEU mice are characterized by low content of estrogen receptors-alpha and absence of progesterone receptors. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003;135:580-1 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we distinguish two subtypes of HER-2/neu-adenocarcinomas in mice: ER+,PR- and ER-,PR-, which can be used for the development of new approaches to the treatment of receptor-negative mammary gland tumors. ..
  67. Williams K, Renthal N, Condon J, Gerard R, Mendelson C. MicroRNA-200a serves a key role in the decline of progesterone receptor function leading to term and preterm labor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7529-34 pubmed publisher
    During pregnancy, uterine quiescence is maintained by increased progesterone receptor (PR) activity, but labor is facilitated by a series of events that impair PR function...
  68. Zhu X, Fréchou M, Liere P, Zhang S, Pianos A, Fernandez N, et al. A Role of Endogenous Progesterone in Stroke Cerebroprotection Revealed by the Neural-Specific Deletion of Its Intracellular Receptors. J Neurosci. 2017;37:10998-11020 pubmed publisher
    ..progesterone is mainly metabolized via 5?-reduction leading to 5?-dihydroprogesterone (5?-DHP), also a progesterone receptor (PR) agonist ligand in neural cells, then to 3?,5?-tetrahydroprogesterone (3?,5?-THP)...
  69. Teasley H, Chang H, Kim T, Ku B, Jeong J. Expression of PIK3IP1 in the murine uterus during early pregnancy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:2553-2558 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of PIK3IP1 was remarkably reduced in the Pgrcre/+Arid1af/f mice and progesterone receptor knock-out (PRKO) mice. During early pregnancy, PIK3IP1 expression was strong at day 2.5 of gestation (GD 2...
  70. Dunlap K, Filant J, Hayashi K, Rucker E, Song G, Deng J, et al. Postnatal deletion of Wnt7a inhibits uterine gland morphogenesis and compromises adult fertility in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..generated loxP-flanked exon 2 mice and conditionally deleted Wnt7a after birth in the uterus by crossing them with Pgr(Cre) mice. Morphological examination revealed no obvious differences in the vagina, cervix, oviduct, or ovary...