Gene Symbol: Pgk1
Description: phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Alias: Pgk-1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Pgk1

Top Publications

  1. Pravtcheva D, Wise T. A postimplantation lethal mutation induced by transgene insertion on mouse chromosome 8. Genomics. 1995;30:529-44 pubmed
    We have produced three lines of transgenic mice that contain additional copies of the mouse phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) gene...
  2. Sheardown S, Duthie S, Johnston C, Newall A, Formstone E, Arkell R, et al. Stabilization of Xist RNA mediates initiation of X chromosome inactivation. Cell. 1997;91:99-107 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of models for the initiation of random and imprinted X inactivation. ..
  3. Marahrens Y, Panning B, Dausman J, Strauss W, Jaenisch R. Xist-deficient mice are defective in dosage compensation but not spermatogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997;11:156-66 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the Xist RNA is required for female dosage compensation but plays no role in spermatogenesis. ..
  4. West J, Frels W, Chapman V, Papaioannou V. Preferential expression of the maternally derived X chromosome in the mouse yolk sac. Cell. 1977;12:873-82 pubmed
  5. Kalantry S, Magnuson T. The Polycomb group protein EED is dispensable for the initiation of random X-chromosome inactivation. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e66 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the lineage- and differentiation state-specific requirements for PcGs in XCI and argue against PcG function in the formation of the facultative heterochromatin of the inactive X-chromosome. ..
  6. Hendriks R, Reed V, Boyd Y. Mapping of the agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase gene on the mouse X chromosome with interspecific crosses. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:60-1 pubmed
  7. Pravtcheva D, Adra C, Ruddle F. Timing of paternal Pgk-1 expression in embryos of transgenic mice. Development. 1991;111:1109-20 pubmed
    ..We propose that the late activation of the paternal Pgk-1 locus is a consequence of imprinting targeted at, and centered around, the X chromosome controlling element. ..
  8. Stayton C, Dabovic B, Gulisano M, Gecz J, Broccoli V, Giovanazzi S, et al. Cloning and characterization of a new human Xq13 gene, encoding a putative helicase. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:1957-64 pubmed
    ..The murine homologue maps to the syntenic genetic interval, between Pgk1 and Xist...
  9. West J, Chapman V. Variation for X chromosome expression in mice detected by electrophoresis of phosphoglycerate kinase. Genet Res. 1978;32:91-102 pubmed

More Information


  1. Schipani E, Ryan H, Didrickson S, Kobayashi T, Knight M, Johnson R. Hypoxia in cartilage: HIF-1alpha is essential for chondrocyte growth arrest and survival. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2865-76 pubmed
  2. Geng Y, Derry J, Hendrickx J, Coucke P, Willems P, Barnard P. Mapping of a liver phosphorylase kinase alpha-subunit gene on the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1993;15:191-3 pubmed
    ..This mapping position would suggest a location for the human liver alpha-subunit gene on the proximal short arm of the X chromosome, a region recently implicated in X-linked liver glycogenosis (XLG). ..
  3. Ho M, Tang S, Ng W, Yang W, Leu S, Lin Y, et al. Nucleotide-binding domain of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 reduces tumor growth by suppressing COX-2 expression. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:2411-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) is a multifunctional protein that is involved in the glycolytic pathway and the generation of the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin...
  4. Lallemand Y, Luria V, Haffner Krausz R, Lonai P. Maternally expressed PGK-Cre transgene as a tool for early and uniform activation of the Cre site-specific recombinase. Transgenic Res. 1998;7:105-12 pubmed
  5. Silver D, Lane D. Polygenic control of the immune response to F antigen. Immunogenetics. 1981;12:237-51 pubmed
    ..Such complex genetic control suggests regulation by a number of independently segregating loci whose function it is to limit the autoimmune response to F antigen. ..
  6. Boer P, Potten H, Adra C, Jardine K, Mullhofer G, McBurney M. Polymorphisms in the coding and noncoding regions of murine Pgk-1 alleles. Biochem Genet. 1990;28:299-308 pubmed
    ..A number of other DNA sequence polymorphisms exist between Pgk-1b and Pgk-1a including part of an L1 repeated element unique to Pgk-1a. ..
  7. Mugford J, Yee D, Magnuson T. Failure of extra-embryonic progenitor maintenance in the absence of dosage compensation. Development. 2012;139:2130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, unlike the epiblast, in which XCI is not required for progenitor cell maintenance, we demonstrate that dosage compensation is indispensable for the maintenance of trophoblast progenitors. ..
  8. Rosahl T, Spillane D, Missler M, Herz J, Selig D, Wolff J, et al. Essential functions of synapsins I and II in synaptic vesicle regulation. Nature. 1995;375:488-93 pubmed
  9. Goto M, Masamune Y, Nakanishi Y. A factor stimulating transcription of the testis-specific Pgk-2 gene recognizes a sequence similar to the binding site for a transcription inhibitor of the somatic-type Pgk-1 gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:209-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both TIN-1 and TAP-1, which are presumably involved in transcription regulation of the two Pgk genes, recognize DNA sequences related to the Ets-binding motif. ..
  10. Disteche C, McConnell G, Grant S, Stephenson D, Chapman V, Gandy S, et al. Comparison of the physical and recombination maps of the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1989;5:177-84 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in comparison to the human X-chromosome map. ..
  11. Buzin C, Mann J, Singer Sam J. Quantitative RT-PCR assays show Xist RNA levels are low in mouse female adult tissue, embryos and embryoid bodies. Development. 1994;120:3529-36 pubmed
    ..Our overall conclusion is that the low levels of Xist RNA in female kidney, embryos and differentiating (XX) ES cells are compatible only with models that do not require Xist RNA to cover the entire inactive X chromosome. ..
  12. Ryder Cook A, Sicinski P, Thomas K, Davies K, Worton R, Barnard E, et al. Localization of the mdx mutation within the mouse dystrophin gene. EMBO J. 1988;7:3017-21 pubmed
    ..The mdx mouse becomes important as an animal model for the study of the expression of the DMD gene and its developmental consequences, for transgenic and other corrective manipulations. ..
  13. Derry J, Lan N, Shih J, Barnard E, Barnard P. Localization of monoamine oxidase A and B genes on the mouse X chromosome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:8403 pubmed
  14. Brockdorff N, Kay G, Smith S, Keer J, Hamvas R, Brown S, et al. High-density molecular map of the central span of the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1991;10:17-22 pubmed
  15. Shanmugam V, Chapman V, Sell K, Saha B. A novel Tth111I restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) allows tracing of X-chromosome inactivation in the (Xid) heterozygote. Biochem Genet. 1996;34:17-29 pubmed
    ..These results were further confirmed by direct evaluation of transcription of the Btk gene, the gene mutated both in Xid and in XLA. ..
  16. Collignon J, Sockanathan S, Hacker A, Cohen Tannoudji M, Norris D, Rastan S, et al. A comparison of the properties of Sox-3 with Sry and two related genes, Sox-1 and Sox-2. Development. 1996;122:509-20 pubmed
    ..However our findings imply that if this is true, then Sry has undergone concomitant changes resulting in loss of CNS expression and altered DNA-binding properties. ..
  17. Jung Y, Shiozawa Y, Wang J, Wang J, Wang Z, Pedersen E, et al. Expression of PGK1 by prostate cancer cells induces bone formation. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that overexpression of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) in PCa cell lines enhanced bone formation at the metastatic site in vivo...
  18. Cecchi C, Avner P. Genomic organization of the mottled gene, the mouse homologue of the human Menkes disease gene. Genomics. 1996;37:96-104 pubmed
    ..The high overall conservation of both the Atp7a gene and the direction of transcription of the Atp7a, Pgk1, and Xnp genes between human and mouse is compatible with the evolution of an ancestral gene subject to strong ..
  19. Amar L, Dandolo L, Hanauer A, Cook A, Arnaud D, Mandel J, et al. Conservation and reorganization of loci on the mammalian X chromosome: a molecular framework for the identification of homologous subchromosomal regions in man and mouse. Genomics. 1988;2:220-30 pubmed
  20. Hellstrom M, Gerhardt H, Kalén M, Li X, Eriksson U, Wolburg H, et al. Lack of pericytes leads to endothelial hyperplasia and abnormal vascular morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:543-53 pubmed
  21. Boda E, Pini A, Hoxha E, Parolisi R, Tempia F. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies in mouse brain. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;37:238-53 pubmed publisher
    ..some very common housekeeping genes (such as Gapdh, 18s, and B2m) and of some relatively new control genes (such as Pgk1, Tfrc, and Gusb) during mouse brain maturation...
  22. Campos R, Lee Y, Drucker D. Divergent tissue-specific and developmental expression of receptors for glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 in the mouse. Endocrinology. 1994;134:2156-64 pubmed
  23. Boyd P, Tu W, Shorrock H, Groen E, Carter R, Powis R, et al. Bioenergetic status modulates motor neuron vulnerability and pathogenesis in a zebrafish model of spinal muscular atrophy. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006744 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, targeting of a single bioenergetic protein, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1), was found to modulate motor neuron vulnerability in vivo...
  24. Maes C, Araldi E, Haigh K, Khatri R, Van Looveren R, Giaccia A, et al. VEGF-independent cell-autonomous functions of HIF-1? regulating oxygen consumption in fetal cartilage are critical for chondrocyte survival. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:596-609 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, excessive hypoxia and failure to upregulate phosphoglycerate-kinase 1 (PGK1), a key enzyme of anaerobic glycolytic metabolism, were among the earliest manifestations of HIF-1? deficiency in ..
  25. Potten H, Jendraschak E, Hauck S, Amar L, Avner P, Mullhofer G. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a murine pgk-1 pseudogene family. Gene. 1988;71:461-71 pubmed
    ..The other three genes are flanked by direct repeats localized further inside the target sites. They are truncated and mutated extensively as usually observed with pseudogenes. ..
  26. Chapman V, Kratzer P, Quarantillo B. Electrophoretic variation for X chromosome-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) in wild-derived mice. Genetics. 1983;103:785-95 pubmed
    ..Linkage analysis involving the markers Pgk-1 and Ags indicated a gene order of centromere--Hprt--Pgk-1--Ags in crosses involving both stocks of wild mice. ..
  27. Lay A, Jiang X, Kisker O, Flynn E, Underwood A, Condron R, et al. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase. Nature. 2000;408:869-73 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that phosphoglycerate kinase not only functions in glycolysis but is secreted by tumour cells and participates in the angiogenic process as a disulphide reductase. ..
  28. Kozak L, Quinn P. Evidence for dosage compensation of an X-linked gene in the 6-day embryo of the mouse. Dev Biol. 1975;45:65-73 pubmed
  29. Turner J, Mahadevaiah S, Benavente R, Offenberg H, Heyting C, Burgoyne P. Analysis of male meiotic "sex body" proteins during XY female meiosis provides new insights into their functions. Chromosoma. 2000;109:426-32 pubmed
    ..In contrast to ASY, the previously described sex body protein XY77 proved to be male sex body specific. Potential functions for MSCI and the sex body are discussed together with the possible roles of these two proteins. ..
  30. McMahon A. Oocyte specific regulation of PGK-1 isozyme activity in female germ cells of the mouse. Genet Res. 1983;42:77-89 pubmed
  31. Arsenault P, Song D, Chung Y, Khurana T, Lee F. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2328-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. ..
  32. Huang J, Fan T, Yan Q, Zhu H, Fox S, Issaq H, et al. Lsh, an epigenetic guardian of repetitive elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5019-28 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the repetitive sites are direct targets of Lsh action and that Lsh plays an important role as 'epigenetic guardian' of the genome to protect against deregulation of parasitic retroviral elements. ..
  33. Chapman V, Miller D, Armstrong D, Caskey C. Recovery of induced mutations for X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1292-6 pubmed
    ..These additional mdx mutations expand the value of mouse models of X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy and potentially define additional sites of mutation that impair dystrophin expression. ..
  34. Levinson B, Vulpe C, Elder B, Martin C, Verley F, Packman S, et al. The mottled gene is the mouse homologue of the Menkes disease gene. Nat Genet. 1994;6:369-73 pubmed
    ..These studies prove that the mottled mouse is the murine model for Menkes disease, providing the basis for future biochemical and therapeutic studies. ..
  35. Nomura S, Kaminishi M, Takagi N, Esumi H. Analysis of promoter region of X-linked pgk-1 gene polymorphisms: evidence for polyclonality of adult mouse gastric glands. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:218-23 pubmed
    ..7%) and 3 of 167 pyloric glands (1.8%) were clonally heterotypic. Only 0.6% of colonic crypts were heterotypic. Clonally heterotypic glands with inactive X-specific methylation were present in the adult murine stomach. ..
  36. Chhabra A, Lechner A, Ueno M, Acharya A, Van Handel B, Wang Y, et al. Trophoblasts regulate the placental hematopoietic niche through PDGF-B signaling. Dev Cell. 2012;22:651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide genetic evidence of a signaling pathway that is required to restrict erythroid differentiation to specific anatomical niches during development. ..
  37. Herman G, Berry M, Munro E, Craig I, Levy E. The construction of human somatic cell hybrids containing portions of the mouse X chromosome and their use to generate DNA probes via interspersed repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction. Genomics. 1991;10:961-70 pubmed
    ..1/1. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this method as applied to the mouse genome and the high likelihood of generating useful DNA probes from a targeted region. ..
  38. DiSanto J, Certain S, Wilson A, MacDonald H, Avner P, Fischer A, et al. The murine interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene: organization, chromosomal localization and expression in the adult thymus. Eur J Immunol. 1994;24:3014-8 pubmed
    ..Genomic clones for the murine IL-2R gamma will allow for further studies on the regulation and function of this gene in vivo. ..
  39. Herman G, Faust C, Darlison M, Barnard E. Genetic mapping of the mouse X chromosome in the region homologous to human Xq27-Xq28. Genomics. 1991;9:670-7 pubmed
    ..Synteny with human Xq27-Xq28 is retained, although the relative order of some loci may differ between the two species. ..
  40. Pravtcheva D, Wise T, Ensor N, Ruddle F. Mosaic expression of an Hprt transgene integrated in a region of Y heterochromatin. J Exp Zool. 1994;268:452-68 pubmed
    ..Further studies will determine if the propensity of this Y chromosome to mitotic errors is also observed in vivo. ..
  41. Schneider A, Montague P, Griffiths I, Fanarraga M, Kennedy P, Brophy P, et al. Uncoupling of hypomyelination and glial cell death by a mutation in the proteolipid protein gene. Nature. 1992;358:758-61 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PLP has a vital function in glial cell development, distinct from its later role in myelin assembly, and that this dichotomy of action may explain the clinical spectrum of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease...
  42. Hamvas R, Zinn A, Keer J, Fisher E, Beer Romero P, Brown S, et al. Rps4 maps near the inactivation center on the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1992;12:363-7 pubmed
    ..The gene order Ccg-1-Rps4/Phka-Xist-Pgk-1 is conserved between mouse and human. ..
  43. Semba H, Takeda N, Isagawa T, Sugiura Y, Honda K, Wake M, et al. HIF-1?-PDK1 axis-induced active glycolysis plays an essential role in macrophage migratory capacity. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11635 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus demonstrate that adaptive responses in glucose metabolism contribute to macrophage migratory activity. ..
  44. Hölscher M, Silter M, Krull S, von Ahlen M, Hesse A, Schwartz P, et al. Cardiomyocyte-specific prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain 2 knock out protects from acute myocardial ischemic injury. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This correlated with a decreased number of apoptotic cells in the infarcted myocardium in the cPhd2(-/-) mice and significantly improved cardiac function 3 weeks after myocardial infarction. ..
  45. Tamaru M, Nagao Y, Taira M, Tatibana M, Masamune Y, Nakanishi Y. Selective activation of testis-specific genes in cultured rat spermatogenic cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1049:331-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, this culture system may be useful for studying the molecular mechanism underlying mammalian spermatogenic gene expression. ..
  46. Tang S, Ho M, Cho H, Lin Y, Sun G, Chi K, et al. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1-overexpressing lung cancer cells reduce cyclooxygenase 2 expression and promote anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2840-8 pubmed publisher
    In addition to the known function in the glycolytic pathway, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK-1) promotes reduction of plasmin disulfide bonds leading to angiostatin formation and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis...
  47. Honda J, Kobayashi I, Kiyoshima T, Yamaza H, Xie M, Takahashi K, et al. Glycolytic enzyme Pgk1 is strongly expressed in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:423-32 pubmed publisher
    This study examined detailed in situ expression patterns and possible functional roles of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) gene in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar...
  48. Mori N. Molecular genetic approaches to the genes of longevity, aging and neurodegeneration in mammals. Mech Ageing Dev. 1997;98:223-30 pubmed
  49. Greenberg D, Schatz Y, Levy Z, Pizzo P, Yaffe D, Nudel U. Reduced levels of dystrophin associated proteins in the brains of mice deficient for Dp71. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:1299-303 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Dp71 is important for the formation and/or stabilization of a DAPs complex in brain. ..
  50. Mukherjee K, Ghosh S, Ray M, Ray S. Purification and characterization of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2002;39:332-41 pubmed
    ..Kinetic studies were made on the inhibition of ADP in presence of the substrates ATP and 3-PGA. Attempts to hybridize 3-PGK and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of EAC cells by NAD or glutaraldehyde were unsuccessful. ..
  51. Mori N, Singer Sam J, Lee C, Riggs A. The nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone containing the entire coding region for mouse X-chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase. Gene. 1986;45:275-80 pubmed
    ..Mouse PGK-1 protein contains 416 aa and is 98%, 96% and 64% homologous with human, horse, and yeast enzyme sequences, respectively. ..
  52. Sheardown S, Norris D, Fisher A, Brockdorff N. The mouse Smcx gene exhibits developmental and tissue specific variation in degree of escape from X inactivation. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:1355-60 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of these results with respect to mechanisms of X inactivation and escape. ..
  53. Buckle V, Fujita N, Ryder Cook A, Derry J, Barnard P, Lebo R, et al. Chromosomal localization of GABAA receptor subunit genes: relationship to human genetic disease. Neuron. 1989;3:647-54 pubmed
    ..The combined results locate the human alpha 3 gene within band Xq28, in a location that makes it a candidate gene for the X-linked form of manic depression. ..
  54. Kay G, Ashworth A, Penny G, Dunlop M, Swift S, Brockdorff N, et al. A candidate spermatogenesis gene on the mouse Y chromosome is homologous to ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Nature. 1991;354:486-9 pubmed
    ..These Y-linked genes may form part of a coregulated group of genes which function during spermatogenesis. ..
  55. Herman G, Walton S. Close linkage of the murine locus bare patches to the X-linked visual pigment gene: implications for mapping human X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata. Genomics. 1990;7:307-12 pubmed
    ..3-Xpter, where deletions associated with X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX) have been noted. This strategy should be applicable to the fine mapping of other dominant murine mutations. ..
  56. Sturm K, Lafferty M, Tam P. Pgk1 and Hprt gene activity in the peri-implantation mouse embryo is influenced by the parental origin of the X-chromosome. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43:69-73 pubmed
    The activity of two X-linked genes, Pgk1 and Hprt, that are localized on X-chromosomes of different parental origins in the XX mouse embryo was analyzed by the quantification of allele-specific transcripts...
  57. Yamaza H, Matsuo K, Kiyoshima T, Shigemura N, Kobayashi I, Wada H, et al. Detection of differentially expressed genes in the early developmental stage of the mouse mandible. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:675-80 pubmed
  58. Zerrad L, Merli A, Schröder G, Varga A, Gráczer E, Pernot P, et al. A spring-loaded release mechanism regulates domain movement and catalysis in phosphoglycerate kinase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14040-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The short time PGK spends in the closed conformation and its strong tendency to rest in an open conformation imply a spring-loaded release mechanism to regulate domain movement, catalysis, and efficient product release. ..
  59. Smith L, Milne L, Nelson N, Eddie S, Brown P, Atanassova N, et al. KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002697 pubmed publisher
    ..Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives. ..
  60. Adra C, Ellis N, McBurney M. The family of mouse phosphoglycerate kinase genes and pseudogenes. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1988;14:69-81 pubmed
    ..Our evidence suggests that pgk-1-derived retroposons arose initially more than 100 million years ago and have continued to arise until so recently that some are unique to different mouse strains. ..
  61. Fitzgerald J, Dahl H, Jakobsen I, Easteal S. Evolution of mammalian X-linked and autosomal Pgk and Pdh E1 alpha subunit genes. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:1023-31 pubmed
    ..This may be a result of either directional natural selection or a relaxation of functional constraint at this specific gene. ..
  62. Reed V, Laval S, McCabe V, Willard H, Boyd Y. Mapping of loci and translocation breakpoints in Xq13: isolation of a conserved locus that maps close to CCG1 in human and mouse. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:237-40 pubmed
  63. Borsani G, Tonlorenzi R, Simmler M, Dandolo L, Arnaud D, Capra V, et al. Characterization of a murine gene expressed from the inactive X chromosome. Nature. 1991;351:325-9 pubmed
    ..Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that Xist may be associated with a protein product. The similar map positions and expression patterns for Xist in mouse and man suggest that this gene may have a role in X inactivation. ..
  64. Tommasi S, LeBon J, Riggs A, Singer Sam J. Methylation analysis by genomic sequencing of 5' region of mouse Pgk-1 gene and a cautionary note concerning the method. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1993;19:529-41 pubmed
    ..studies showed that there was very heavy methylation of CpG dinucleotides in the CpG-rich promoter of the human PGK1 gene on the inactive X chromosome (the Xi), but that these same sites were completely unmethylated on the active X ..
  65. McBurney M, Fournier S, Jardine K, Sutherland L. Intragenic regions of the murine Pgk-1 locus enhance integration of transfected DNAs into genomes of embryonal carcinoma cells. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1994;20:515-28 pubmed
    ..The enhanced integration and expression of transfected plasmids required active transcription through an intragenic region of Pgk-1, perhaps resulting in more recombinogenic plasmid DNAs. ..
  66. Covello K, Kehler J, Yu H, Gordan J, Arsham A, Hu C, et al. HIF-2alpha regulates Oct-4: effects of hypoxia on stem cell function, embryonic development, and tumor growth. Genes Dev. 2006;20:557-70 pubmed
  67. Panning B, Dausman J, Jaenisch R. X chromosome inactivation is mediated by Xist RNA stabilization. Cell. 1997;90:907-16 pubmed
  68. Zhang N, Fu Z, Linke S, Chicher J, Gorman J, Visk D, et al. The asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF-1alpha is an essential regulator of metabolism. Cell Metab. 2010;11:364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that FIH acts to a significant degree through the nervous system to regulate metabolism. ..
  69. Goto M, Koji T, Mizuno K, Tamaru M, Koikeda S, Nakane P, et al. Transcription switch of two phosphoglycerate kinase genes during spermatogenesis as determined with mouse testis sections in situ. Exp Cell Res. 1990;186:273-8 pubmed
    ..These findings taken together with previous observations indicate that differential expression of the two PGK genes during mammalian spermatogenesis is regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. ..
  70. Hamvas R, Reik W, Gaunt S, Brown S, Singh P. Mapping of a mouse homolog of a heterochromatin protein gene the X chromosome. Mamm Genome. 1992;2:72-5 pubmed
    ..One of these loci--Cbx-rs1--maps to the X Chromosome (Chr), 1 cM proximal to Amg and outside the X-inactivation center region. ..
  71. McBurney M, Staines W, Boekelheide K, Parry D, Jardine K, Pickavance L. Murine PGK-1 promoter drives widespread but not uniform expression in transgenic mice. Dev Dyn. 1994;200:278-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Pgk-1 promoter drives transgene expression in all tissues but the levels of expression are not uniform in each cell. ..
  72. Mori N, Singer Sam J, Riggs A. Evolutionary conservation of the substrate-binding cleft of phosphoglycerate kinases. FEBS Lett. 1986;204:313-7 pubmed
    ..Trypanosome PGK contains a polypeptide segment in its N-terminal domain that is transposed in comparison with the other species. ..
  73. Saito Y, Doi K, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K, Hatayama T. Screening of Hsp105alpha-binding proteins using yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314:396-402 pubmed
    ..proteins, such as cofilin, dynein light chain 2A, alpha-adducin, ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, and platelet-activating factor acethylhydrolase alpha1-subunit...
  74. Kalantry S, Purushothaman S, Bowen R, Starmer J, Magnuson T. Evidence of Xist RNA-independent initiation of mouse imprinted X-chromosome inactivation. Nature. 2009;460:647-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Xp-linked gene silencing associated with mouse imprinted XCI, therefore, can initiate in the embryo independently of Xist RNA. ..
  75. Brockdorff N, Ashworth A, Kay G, Cooper P, Smith S, McCabe V, et al. Conservation of position and exclusive expression of mouse Xist from the inactive X chromosome. Nature. 1991;351:329-31 pubmed
    ..Conservation between man and mouse of chromosomal position and unique expression exclusively from the inactive X chromosome lends support to the hypothesis that XIST and its mouse homologue are involved in X-chromosome inactivation. ..
  76. Adra C, Boer P, McBurney M. Cloning and expression of the mouse pgk-1 gene and the nucleotide sequence of its promoter. Gene. 1987;60:65-74 pubmed
    ..The promoter of the mouse pgk-1 gene is homologous to the human pgk-1 promoter. A number of conserved motifs in the promoter may indicate a significant role for these sequences in expression of the pgk-1 gene. ..
  77. Vosseller K, Hansen K, Chalkley R, Trinidad J, Wells L, Hart G, et al. Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol. Proteomics. 2005;5:388-98 pubmed
    ..These results demonstate BEMAD is suitable for large-scale quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications. ..
  78. Chapman V, Shows T. Somatic cell genetic evidence for X-chromosome linkage of three enzymes in the mouse. Nature. 1976;259:665-7 pubmed
  79. Nielsen J, Chapman V. Electrophoretic variation for x-chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk-1) in the mouse. Genetics. 1977;87:319-25 pubmed
    ..Pgk-1 showed 29/122 recombinations with Hq, 5/185 with Ta and 0/108 recombinants with Mo. Based on these recombination data, a gene order of Hq-Ta-Pgk-1-Mo is suggested. ..
  80. Voss A, Vanyai H, Collin C, Dixon M, McLennan T, Sheikh B, et al. MOZ regulates the Tbx1 locus, and Moz mutation partially phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome. Dev Cell. 2012;23:652-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a molecular mechanism for a specific chromatin modification of the Tbx1 locus intersecting with an environmental determinant, modeling variability in DiGeorge syndrome. ..