Gene Symbol: Per1
Description: period circadian clock 1
Alias: Hftm, Per, m-rigui, mPer1, period circadian protein homolog 1, circadian clock protein PERIOD 1, circadian pacemaker protein Rigui, period homolog 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Per1

Top Publications

  1. Sun Z, Albrecht U, Zhuchenko O, Bailey J, Eichele G, Lee C. RIGUI, a putative mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila period gene. Cell. 1997;90:1003-11 pubmed
    ..Sequence homology and circadian patterns of expression suggest that RIGUI is a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila period gene, raising the possibility that a regulator of circadian clocks is conserved. ..
  2. Pendergast J, Oda G, Niswender K, Yamazaki S. Period determination in the food-entrainable and methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator(s). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that both the MASCO and FEO in Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-)/Per3(-/-) mice are circadian oscillators with unusually short (?21 h) periods...
  3. Burioka N, Koyanagi S, Endo M, Takata M, Fukuoka Y, Miyata M, et al. Clock gene dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) influences clock gene function, the present authors examined Period1 (Per1) mRNA expression in vitro and in vivo...
  4. Akiyama M, Kouzu Y, Takahashi S, Wakamatsu H, Moriya T, Maetani M, et al. Inhibition of light- or glutamate-induced mPer1 expression represses the phase shifts into the mouse circadian locomotor and suprachiasmatic firing rhythms. J Neurosci. 1999;19:1115-21 pubmed
    b>mPer1, a mouse gene, is a homolog of the Drosophila clock gene period and has been shown to be closely associated with the light-induced resetting of a mammalian circadian clock...
  5. Marquez S, Crespo P, Carlini V, Garbarino Pico E, Baler R, Caputto B, et al. The metabolism of phospholipids oscillates rhythmically in cultures of fibroblasts and is regulated by the clock protein PERIOD 1. FASEB J. 2004;18:519-21 pubmed
    ..We examined the biosynthesis of phospholipids as well as the expression of the clock gene period 1 (Per1) and its potential involvement in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in cultured quiescent NIH 3T3 cells ..
  6. Jilg A, Moek J, Weaver D, Korf H, Stehle J, Von Gall C. Rhythms in clock proteins in the mouse pars tuberalis depend on MT1 melatonin receptor signalling. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:2845-54 pubmed
    ..In the hypophyseal pars tuberalis (PT), melatonin is crucial for rhythmic expression of the clock genes mPer1 and mCry1, and melatonin acting in the PT influences prolactin secretion from the pars distalis...
  7. Preitner N, Damiola F, Lopez Molina L, Zakany J, Duboule D, Albrecht U, et al. The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Cell. 2002;110:251-60 pubmed
    ..Bmal1 and Per transcription cycles display nearly opposite phases and are thus governed by different mechanisms...
  8. O Neill J, Maywood E, Chesham J, Takahashi J, Hastings M. cAMP-dependent signaling as a core component of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Science. 2008;320:949-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that daily activation of cAMP signaling, driven by the transcriptional oscillator, in turn sustains progression of transcriptional rhythms. In this way, clock output constitutes an input to subsequent cycles. ..
  9. Duong H, Robles M, Knutti D, Weitz C. A molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. Science. 2011;332:1436-9 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitory complexes and that the PER complex thereby rhythmically delivers histone deacetylases to the Per1 promoter, which repress Per1 transcription...

More Information


  1. Lee C, Weaver D, Reppert S. Direct association between mouse PERIOD and CKIepsilon is critical for a functioning circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:584-94 pubmed
    The mPER1 and mPER2 proteins have important roles in the circadian clock mechanism, whereas mPER3 is expendable...
  2. Takano A, Shimizu K, Kani S, Buijs R, Okada M, Nagai K. Cloning and characterization of rat casein kinase 1epsilon. FEBS Lett. 2000;477:106-12 pubmed
    ..The rCK1epsilon is predominantly expressed in the brain including the SCN, binds and phosphorylates mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in vitro, and translocates mPer1 and mPer3, but not mPer2, to the cell nucleus depending on its ..
  3. Chilov D, Hofer T, Bauer C, Wenger R, Gassmann M. Hypoxia affects expression of circadian genes PER1 and CLOCK in mouse brain. FASEB J. 2001;15:2613-22 pubmed
    ..We found several isoforms of PER1 protein that exhibit tissue-specific size differences...
  4. Dahlberg C, Nguyen E, Goodlett D, Kimelman D. Interactions between Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon) and two substrates from disparate signaling pathways reveal mechanisms for substrate-kinase specificity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4766 pubmed publisher
    ..The biochemical interactions between CKIepsilon and Disheveled, Period, and its own C-terminus lead to models that explain CKIepsilon's specificity and regulation. ..
  5. Gekakis N, Staknis D, Nguyen H, Davis F, Wilsbacher L, King D, et al. Role of the CLOCK protein in the mammalian circadian mechanism. Science. 1998;280:1564-9 pubmed
    ..Potential partners of CLOCK were isolated in a two-hybrid screen, and one, BMAL1, was coexpressed with CLOCK and PER1 at known circadian clock sites in brain and retina...
  6. Liu A, Welsh D, Ko C, Tran H, Zhang E, Priest A, et al. Intercellular coupling confers robustness against mutations in the SCN circadian clock network. Cell. 2007;129:605-16 pubmed
    ..We discovered that Per1 and Cry1 are required for sustained rhythms in peripheral tissues and cells, and in neurons dissociated from the ..
  7. Tischkau S, Mitchell J, Tyan S, Buchanan G, Gillette M. Ca2+/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent activation of Per1 is required for light-induced signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian clock. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:718-23 pubmed
    ..Nocturnal light elevates mRNA of the Period1 (Per1) gene and induces long term state changes, expressed as phase shifts of circadian rhythms...
  8. Lee Y, Lee J, Kwon I, Nakajima Y, Ohmiya Y, Son G, et al. Coactivation of the CLOCK-BMAL1 complex by CBP mediates resetting of the circadian clock. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..2 minutes and mean velocity 0.7 ?m/minute). Concomitantly, BMAL1 rapidly recruited CBP on Per1 promoter E-box, but not p300 (a functional analog of CBP), in the discrete nuclear foci...
  9. Lee H, Chen R, Lee Y, Yoo S, Lee C. Essential roles of CKIdelta and CKIepsilon in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21359-64 pubmed publisher
    Circadian rhythms in mammals are generated by a negative transcriptional feedback loop in which PERIOD (PER) is rate-limiting for feedback inhibition...
  10. Scoma H, Humby M, Yadav G, Zhang Q, Fogerty J, Besharse J. The de-ubiquitinylating enzyme, USP2, is associated with the circadian clockwork and regulates its sensitivity to light. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25382 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhythmic expression of USP2 in the SCN and other tissues offers a new level of control of the clock machinery through de-ubiqutinylation and suggests a role for USP2 during circadian adaptation to environmental day length changes. ..
  11. Von Gall C, Garabette M, Kell C, Frenzel S, Dehghani F, Schumm Draeger P, et al. Rhythmic gene expression in pituitary depends on heterologous sensitization by the neurohormone melatonin. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:234-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings expose a mechanism by which two convergent signals interact within a temporal dimension to establish high-amplitude, precise and robust cycles of gene expression. ..
  12. Kucera N, Schmalen I, Hennig S, Ollinger R, Strauss H, Grudziecki A, et al. Unwinding the differences of the mammalian PERIOD clock proteins from crystal structure to cellular function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3311-6 pubmed publisher
    The three PERIOD homologues mPER1, mPER2, and mPER3 constitute central components of the mammalian circadian clock...
  13. Toh K, Jones C, He Y, Eide E, Hinz W, Virshup D, et al. An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Science. 2001;291:1040-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, a variant in human sleep behavior can be attributed to a missense mutation in a clock component, hPER2, which alters the circadian period. ..
  14. Petrzilka S, Taraborrelli C, Cavadini G, Fontana A, Birchler T. Clock gene modulation by TNF-alpha depends on calcium and p38 MAP kinase signaling. J Biol Rhythms. 2009;24:283-94 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, Dbp; Tyrotroph embryonic factor, Tef ; Hepatic leukemia factor, Hlf; Period homolog to Drosophila 1/2/3, Per1, Per2, and Per3) by yet unknown molecular mechanisms...
  15. Etchegaray J, Machida K, Noton E, Constance C, Dallmann R, Di Napoli M, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta regulates the pace of the mammalian circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3853-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In livers from these mice, daytime levels of nuclear PER proteins, and PER-CRY-CLOCK complexes were elevated...
  16. Yamamoto T, Nakahata Y, Tanaka M, Yoshida M, Soma H, Shinohara K, et al. Acute physical stress elevates mouse period1 mRNA expression in mouse peripheral tissues via a glucocorticoid-responsive element. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42036-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we show by systematic molecular biological analysis that acute physical stress elevated only Period1 (Per1) mRNA expression in mouse peripheral organs...
  17. Pendergast J, Friday R, Yamazaki S. Photic entrainment of period mutant mice is predicted from their phase response curves. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..genes in photic entrainment, we constructed phase response curves (PRC) to light pulses for C57BL/6J wild-type, Per1(-/-), Per2(-/-), and Per3(-/-) mice and tested whether the PRCs accurately predict entrainment to non-24 light-dark ..
  18. Maywood E, O Brien J, Hastings M. Expression of mCLOCK and other circadian clock-relevant proteins in the mouse suprachiasmatic nuclei. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:329-34 pubmed
    ..Negative-feedback actions of the encoded proteins PER and CRY terminate this phase of the cycle...
  19. Husse J, Hintze S, Eichele G, Lehnert H, Oster H. Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52983 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the effects of TSR between wild-type and Per1/2 double mutant mice with the prediction that the absence of a circadian clock in Per1/2 mutants would result in a ..
  20. Resuehr H, Resuehr D, Olcese J. Induction of mPer1 expression by GnRH in pituitary gonadotrope cells involves EGR-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;311:120-5 pubmed publisher
    We reported earlier that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) activates period1 (mPer1) gene expression in immortalized gonadotropes through protein kinase C and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways...
  21. Lee C, Etchegaray J, Cagampang F, Loudon A, Reppert S. Posttranslational mechanisms regulate the mammalian circadian clock. Cell. 2001;107:855-67 pubmed
    We have examined posttranslational regulation of clock proteins in mouse liver in vivo. The mouse PERIOD proteins (mPER1 and mPER2), CLOCK, and BMAL1 undergo robust circadian changes in phosphorylation...
  22. Vielhaber E, Duricka D, Ullman K, Virshup D. Nuclear export of mammalian PERIOD proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45921-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, nuclear entry of mammalian PER1 (mPER1) can be regulated by a phosphorylation-dependent masking of its nuclear localization signal...
  23. Jin X, Shearman L, Weaver D, Zylka M, de Vries G, Reppert S. A molecular mechanism regulating rhythmic output from the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Cell. 1999;96:57-68 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the transcriptional machinery of the core clockwork directly regulates a clock-controlled output rhythm. ..
  24. Pendergast J, Yamazaki S. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice. Chronobiol Int. 2011;28:657-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the ..
  25. Belle M, Diekman C, Forger D, Piggins H. Daily electrical silencing in the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 2009;326:281-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Some SCN neurons express a key clock gene, period 1 (per1)...
  26. Albrecht U, Sun Z, Eichele G, Lee C. A differential response of two putative mammalian circadian regulators, mper1 and mper2, to light. Cell. 1997;91:1055-64 pubmed
    A mouse gene, mper1, having all the properties expected of a circadian clock gene, was reported recently. This gene is expressed in a circadian pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  27. Travnickova Bendova Z, Cermakian N, Reppert S, Sassone Corsi P. Bimodal regulation of mPeriod promoters by CREB-dependent signaling and CLOCK/BMAL1 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7728-33 pubmed
    ..Three Per genes exist in the mouse. Whereas mPer1 and mPer2 are light-inducible in clock neurons of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, mPer3 is not...
  28. Park N, Cheon S, Son G, Cho S, Kim K. Chronic circadian disturbance by a shortened light-dark cycle increases mortality. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1122.e11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we imposed 3 different periods of LD cycle (T) on wild type and functional clock-defective (Per1(-/-)Per2(-/-)) mice...
  29. Oster H, Baeriswyl S, van der Horst G, Albrecht U. Loss of circadian rhythmicity in aging mPer1-/-mCry2-/- mutant mice. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1366-79 pubmed
    The mPer1, mPer2, mCry1, and mCry2 genes play a central role in the molecular mechanism driving the central pacemaker of the mammalian circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus...
  30. Pilorz V, Steinlechner S. Low reproductive success in Per1 and Per2 mutant mouse females due to accelerated ageing?. Reproduction. 2008;135:559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to determine whether two other molecular components of the main clock, namely the period genes, Per1 and Per2, have an effect on the length of the oestrous cycle and the reproductive success, we used Per1- and Per2-..
  31. LeSauter J, Lambert C, Robotham M, Model Z, Silver R, Weaver D. Antibodies for assessing circadian clock proteins in the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35938 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify antibodies against PER1, PER2, BMAL1 and CLOCK that are useful for assessing circadian clock proteins in the SCN by immunocytochemistry.
  32. Mendez Ferrer S, Lucas D, Battista M, Frenette P. Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations. Nature. 2008;452:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that a circadian, neurally driven release of HSC during the animal's resting period may promote the regeneration of the stem cell niche and possibly other tissues. ..
  33. Zheng B, Albrecht U, Kaasik K, Sage M, Lu W, Vaishnav S, et al. Nonredundant roles of the mPer1 and mPer2 genes in the mammalian circadian clock. Cell. 2001;105:683-94 pubmed
    Mice carrying a null mutation in the Period 1 (mPer1) gene were generated using embryonic stem cell technology. Homozygous mPer1 mutants display a shorter circadian period with reduced precision and stability...
  34. Chaves I, Yagita K, Barnhoorn S, Okamura H, van der Horst G, Tamanini F. Functional evolution of the photolyase/cryptochrome protein family: importance of the C terminus of mammalian CRY1 for circadian core oscillator performance. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1743-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, the acquirement of different (species-specific) C termini during evolution not only functionally separated cryptochromes from photolyase but also caused diversity within the cryptochrome family. ..
  35. Cermakian N, Monaco L, Pando M, Dierich A, Sassone Corsi P. Altered behavioral rhythms and clock gene expression in mice with a targeted mutation in the Period1 gene. EMBO J. 2001;20:3967-74 pubmed
    ..Here we present the generation of mice in which the founding member of the family, Per1, has been inactivated by homologous recombination...
  36. Brown S, Ripperger J, Kadener S, Fleury Olela F, Vilbois F, Rosbash M, et al. PERIOD1-associated proteins modulate the negative limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Science. 2005;308:693-6 pubmed
    The clock proteins PERIOD1 (PER1) and PERIOD2 (PER2) play essential roles in a negative transcriptional feedback loop that generates circadian rhythms in mammalian cells...
  37. Ando H, Kumazaki M, Motosugi Y, Ushijima K, Maekawa T, Ishikawa E, et al. Impairment of peripheral circadian clocks precedes metabolic abnormalities in ob/ob mice. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6J mice, the daily mRNA expression profiles of the clock and clock-controlled genes Clock, Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Per2, and Dbp were substantially dampened in the liver and adipose tissue, but not the hypothalamic ..
  38. Shimomura H, Moriya T, Sudo M, Wakamatsu H, Akiyama M, Miyake Y, et al. Differential daily expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNA in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of fetal and early postnatal mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:687-93 pubmed
    ..Daily rhythms of mRNA content were observed in mPer1 but not mPer2 in the fetal SCN...
  39. Reddy T, Gertz J, Crawford G, Garabedian M, Myers R. The hypersensitive glucocorticoid response specifically regulates period 1 and expression of circadian genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3756-67 pubmed publisher
    ..specific at the genomic scale, able to distinctly express a single gene, the circadian rhythm gene for Period 1 (PER1), at concentrations consistent with the nighttime nadir of human cortisol...
  40. Shearman L, Sriram S, Weaver D, Maywood E, Chaves I, Zheng B, et al. Interacting molecular loops in the mammalian circadian clock. Science. 2000;288:1013-9 pubmed
    ..PERIOD2 is a positive regulator of the Bmal1 loop, and CRYPTOCHROMES are the negative regulators of the Period and Cryptochrome cycles. ..
  41. Herzog E, Takahashi J, Block G. Clock controls circadian period in isolated suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:708-13 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Clock gene is required for circadian rhythmicity in individual SCN cells and that a mechanism within the SCN synchronizes neurons and restricts the range of expressed circadian periods. ..
  42. Tei H, Okamura H, Shigeyoshi Y, Fukuhara C, Ozawa R, Hirose M, et al. Circadian oscillation of a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila period gene. Nature. 1997;389:512-6 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, the gene period (per) is required for the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and eclosion behaviour...
  43. Chen R, Schirmer A, Lee Y, Lee H, Kumar V, Yoo S, et al. Rhythmic PER abundance defines a critical nodal point for negative feedback within the circadian clock mechanism. Mol Cell. 2009;36:417-30 pubmed publisher mammals are generated by a transcriptional negative feedback loop that is driven primarily by oscillations of PER and CRY, which inhibit their own transcriptional activators, CLOCK and BMAL1...
  44. Pendergast J, Friday R, Yamazaki S. Endogenous rhythms in Period1 mutant suprachiasmatic nuclei in vitro do not represent circadian behavior. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14681-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the aberrant rhythms of ex vivo SCN lacking functional Period1 (Per1(-/-)) do not represent the behavioral rhythms of the mutant animals...
  45. Maywood E, Drynan L, Chesham J, Edwards M, Dardente H, Fustin J, et al. Analysis of core circadian feedback loop in suprachiasmatic nucleus of mCry1-luc transgenic reporter mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In mPer1/2-null SCN, mCry1-luc bioluminescence was arrhythmic and no longer suppressed by elevation of cAMP...
  46. Siepka S, Yoo S, Park J, Song W, Kumar V, Hu Y, et al. Circadian mutant Overtime reveals F-box protein FBXL3 regulation of cryptochrome and period gene expression. Cell. 2007;129:1011-23 pubmed
    ..In Ovtm mice, expression of the PERIOD proteins PER1 and PER2 is reduced; however, the CRY proteins CRY1 and CRY2 are unchanged...
  47. Etchegaray J, Yang X, Debruyne J, Peters A, Weaver D, Jenuwein T, et al. The polycomb group protein EZH2 is required for mammalian circadian clock function. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21209-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that EZH2 is important for the maintenance of circadian rhythms and extend the activity of the polycomb group proteins to the core clockwork mechanism of mammals. ..
  48. Okamura H, Miyake S, Sumi Y, Yamaguchi S, Yasui A, Muijtjens M, et al. Photic induction of mPer1 and mPer2 in cry-deficient mice lacking a biological clock. Science. 1999;286:2531-4 pubmed
    Mice lacking mCry1 and mCry2 are behaviorally arrhythmic. As shown here, cyclic expression of the clock genes mPer1 and mPer2 (mammalian Period genes 1 and 2) in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues is abolished and mPer1 ..
  49. Fu L, Patel M, Bradley A, Wagner E, Karsenty G. The molecular clock mediates leptin-regulated bone formation. Cell. 2005;122:803-15 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking molecular-clock components (Per and Cry), or lacking Per genes in osteoblasts, display high bone mass, suggesting that bone remodeling may also be ..
  50. Hida A, Koike N, Hirose M, Hattori M, Sakaki Y, Tei H. The human and mouse Period1 genes: five well-conserved E-boxes additively contribute to the enhancement of mPer1 transcription. Genomics. 2000;65:224-33 pubmed
    ..Transient transfection assays using a mPer1-luciferase fusion gene revealed that each of the conserved E-boxes additively functions as an enhancer for the ..
  51. Yan L, Silver R. Resetting the brain clock: time course and localization of mPER1 and mPER2 protein expression in suprachiasmatic nuclei during phase shifts. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:1105-9 pubmed
    ..In a previous study we investigated light-induced expression of mPer1 and mPer2 mRNA in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), with the aim of understanding the relationship between gene ..
  52. Vielhaber E, Eide E, Rivers A, Gao Z, Virshup D. Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4888-99 pubmed
    ..We find that mammalian CKIepsilon binds to and phosphorylates the murine circadian regulator mPER1. Unlike both dPER and mPER2, mPER1 expressed alone in HEK 293 cells is predominantly a nuclear protein...
  53. Wilsbacher L, Yamazaki S, Herzog E, Song E, Radcliffe L, Abe M, et al. Photic and circadian expression of luciferase in mPeriod1-luc transgenic mice invivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:489-94 pubmed
    ..75 kb of the mouse Period1 (mPer1) promoter drives luciferase (luc) expression...
  54. Akashi M, Tsuchiya Y, Yoshino T, Nishida E. Control of intracellular dynamics of mammalian period proteins by casein kinase I epsilon (CKIepsilon) and CKIdelta in cultured cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1693-703 pubmed
    ..The CKI phosphorylation of mPer1 and mPer3 proteins results in their rapid degradation, which is dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
  55. Gumz M, Cheng K, Lynch I, Stow L, Greenlee M, Cain B, et al. Regulation of ?ENaC expression by the circadian clock protein Period 1 in mpkCCD(c14) cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The circadian clock protein Period 1 (Per1) is an aldosterone-induced gene that regulates mRNA expression of the rate-limiting alpha ..
  56. Dibner C, Sage D, Unser M, Bauer C, d Eysmond T, Naef F, et al. Circadian gene expression is resilient to large fluctuations in overall transcription rates. EMBO J. 2009;28:123-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The major and essential loop involves the autorepression of cryptochrome (Cry1, Cry2) and period (Per1, Per2) genes. The rhythm-generating circuitry is functional in most cell types, including cultured fibroblasts...
  57. Lee S, Donehower L, Herron A, Moore D, Fu L. Disrupting circadian homeostasis of sympathetic signaling promotes tumor development in mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10995 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking the circadian genes Period1 and 2 (Per) or Cryptochrome1 and 2 (Cry) are deficient in cell cycle regulation and Per2 mutant mice are cancer-prone...
  58. Takano A, Isojima Y, Nagai K. Identification of mPer1 phosphorylation sites responsible for the nuclear entry. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32578-85 pubmed
    ..In this study, three putative CK1 epsilon phosphorylation motif clusters in mouse Per1 (mPer1) were identified, and the phosphorylation status of serine and threonine residues in these clusters was examined...
  59. Kume K, Zylka M, Sriram S, Shearman L, Weaver D, Jin X, et al. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. Cell. 1999;98:193-205 pubmed
    ..Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially. ..
  60. Naruse Y, Oh hashi K, Iijima N, Naruse M, Yoshioka H, Tanaka M. Circadian and light-induced transcription of clock gene Per1 depends on histone acetylation and deacetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6278-87 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the state of acetylated histones fluctuated in parallel with the rhythm of mouse Per1 (mPer1) or mPer2 expression in fibroblast cells and liver...
  61. Pando M, Morse D, Cermakian N, Sassone Corsi P. Phenotypic rescue of a peripheral clock genetic defect via SCN hierarchical dominance. Cell. 2002;110:107-17 pubmed
    ..MEFs from Per1(-/-) mice have a much shorter period in culture than do tissues in the intact animal...
  62. Sheynzon P, Karolczak M, Dehghani F, Korf H. Diurnal variation in CREB phosphorylation and PER1 protein levels in lactotroph cells of melatonin-proficient C3H and melatonin-deficient C57BL mice: similarities and differences. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;321:211-7 pubmed
    ..on the activity state of these cells, we have investigated the levels of Ser133-phosphorylated (p)CREB and PER1 protein in immunocytochemically identified lactotroph cells of melatonin-proficient C3H and melatonin-deficient ..
  63. Koike N, Yoo S, Huang H, Kumar V, Lee C, Kim T, et al. Transcriptional architecture and chromatin landscape of the core circadian clock in mammals. Science. 2012;338:349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling. ..
  64. Bae K, Jin X, Maywood E, Hastings M, Reppert S, Weaver D. Differential functions of mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in the SCN circadian clock. Neuron. 2001;30:525-36 pubmed
    The role of mPer1 and mPer2 in regulating circadian rhythms was assessed by disrupting these genes...
  65. Schmutz I, Ripperger J, Baeriswyl Aebischer S, Albrecht U. The mammalian clock component PERIOD2 coordinates circadian output by interaction with nuclear receptors. Genes Dev. 2010;24:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The core loop generates rhythms by transcriptional repression via the Period (PER) and Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins, whereas the stabilizing loop establishes roughly antiphasic rhythms via nuclear ..
  66. Ripperger J, Schibler U. Rhythmic CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to multiple E-box motifs drives circadian Dbp transcription and chromatin transitions. Nat Genet. 2006;38:369-74 pubmed
    ..of the transcription factors BMAL1 (also known as MOP3) and CLOCK is rhythmically counterbalanced by Period (PER) and Cryptochrome (CRY) proteins to govern time of day-dependent gene expression...
  67. Dunlap J. Molecular bases for circadian clocks. Cell. 1999;96:271-90 pubmed