Gene Symbol: Penk
Description: preproenkephalin
Alias: AI326464, ENK, PPA, Penk1, proenkephalin-A, preproenkephalin 1, spermatogenic-specific proenkephalin
Species: mouse
Products:     Penk

Top Publications

  1. Zhu Y, Pintar J. Expression of opioid receptors and ligands in pregnant mouse uterus and placenta. Biol Reprod. 1998;59:925-32 pubmed
    ..kappa (kappa), and mu ( micro) opioid receptors as well as the endogenous opioid peptide precursors proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in pregnant mouse uterus and placenta...
  2. Belkai E, Scherrmann J, Noble F, Marie Claire C. Modulation of MDMA-induced behavioral and transcriptional effects by the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole in mice. Addict Biol. 2009;14:245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the consequences of acute and chronic MDMA administration on pro-enkephalin (Penk) and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (..
  3. Huang J, Chen J, Wang W, Wang Y, Wang W, Wei Y, et al. Expression pattern of enkephalinergic neurons in the developing spinal cord revealed by preproenkephalin-green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse and its colocalization with GABA immunoreactivity. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;193:404-16 pubmed publisher
    To gain better insight into the ontogenic function of enkephalin (ENK) in the spinal cord, it is necessary to have a clear picture of the developing pattern of the ENKergic neurons...
  4. Baydyuk M, Russell T, Liao G, Zang K, An J, Reichardt L, et al. TrkB receptor controls striatal formation by regulating the number of newborn striatal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1669-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that neurotrophins can control the size of neuronal populations in the brain by promoting the survival of newborn neurons before they migrate to their final destinations. ..
  5. Konig M, Zimmer A, Steiner H, Holmes P, Crawley J, Brownstein M, et al. Pain responses, anxiety and aggression in mice deficient in pre-proenkephalin. Nature. 1996;383:535-8 pubmed
    ..Mutant enk-/- animals are healthy, fertile, and care for their offspring, but display significant behavioural abnormalities...
  6. Petraschka M, Li S, Gilbert T, Westenbroek R, Bruchas M, Schreiber S, et al. The absence of endogenous beta-endorphin selectively blocks phosphorylation and desensitization of mu opioid receptors following partial sciatic nerve ligation. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1795-807 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that neuropathic pain caused by pSNL in wild-type mice activates the release of the endogenous opioid beta-endorphin, which subsequently induces MOP-R phosphorylation and opiate tolerance. ..
  7. Meilandt W, Yu G, Chin J, Roberson E, Palop J, Wu T, et al. Enkephalin elevations contribute to neuronal and behavioral impairments in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5007-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that enkephalin elevations may contribute to cognitive impairments in hAPP mice and possibly in humans with AD. The therapeutic potential of reducing enkephalin production or signaling merits further exploration. ..
  8. Gieryk A, Ziolkowska B, Solecki W, Kubik J, Przewlocki R. Forebrain PENK and PDYN gene expression levels in three inbred strains of mice and their relationship to genotype-dependent morphine reward sensitivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;208:291-300 pubmed publisher
    ..A body of evidence suggests that endogenous opioid peptide systems may influence rewarding effects of addictive substances, and thus, their individual expression levels may contribute to drug abuse liability...
  9. Seldin M, Gustavson M, Apte S. Mapping of two mouse membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) genes, Mmp15 and Mmp16, to mouse chromosomes 8 and 4, respectively. Genomics. 1998;50:295-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Seitz S, Barvencik F, Gebauer M, Albers J, Schulze J, Streichert T, et al. Preproenkephalin (Penk) is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts, and its deletion in Hyp mice partially rescues their bone mineralization defect. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010;86:282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..a genome-wide expression analysis comparing primary calvarial osteoblasts, we have identified preproenkephalin (Penk) as a gene that is selectively expressed in mineralized cultures...
  2. Giros B, Pohl M, Rochelle J, Seldin M. Chromosomal localization of opioid peptide and receptor genes in the mouse. Life Sci. 1995;56:PL369-75 pubmed
    ..genes encoding mu (Oprm) and kappa (Oprk) receptors, as well as the genes for the opioid propeptides proenkephalin (Penk) and prodynorphin (Pdyn)...
  3. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  4. Hayward M, Hansen S, Pintar J, Low M. Operant self-administration of ethanol in C57BL/6 mice lacking beta-endorphin and enkephalin. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;79:171-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the rewarding effects of ethanol do not require beta-endorphin or enkephalin signaling. ..
  5. Wan Y, Rogers M, Szabo Rogers H. A six-gene expression toolbox for the glands, epithelium and chondrocytes in the mouse nasal cavity. Gene Expr Patterns. 2018;27:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using in situ hybridization expression experiments, we report that Alx1, Ap-2?, Crispld1, Eya4, Moxd1, and Penk have tissue specific expression during murine nasal development. At E11...
  6. Proud C. PKR: a new name and new roles. Trends Biochem Sci. 1995;20:241-6 pubmed
    ..Indeed, it now seems likely that PKR mediates the regulation of selected genes by dsRNA. ..
  7. Xu Y, Lopes C, Qian Y, Liu Y, Cheng L, Goulding M, et al. Tlx1 and Tlx3 coordinate specification of dorsal horn pain-modulatory peptidergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4037-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that Tlx1 and Tlx3 operate high in the regulatory hierarchy that coordinates specification of dorsal horn pain-modulatory peptidergic neurons. ..
  8. Hayward M, Low M. Naloxone's suppression of spontaneous and food-conditioned locomotor activity is diminished in mice lacking either the dopamine D(2) receptor or enkephalin. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;140:91-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the D2 dopamine receptor is necessary for modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity stimulated by the endogenous opioid enkephalin. ..
  9. Valverde O, Maldonado R, Valjent E, Zimmer A, Zimmer A. Cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome is reduced in pre-proenkephalin knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2000;20:9284-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the endogenous enkephalinergic system is involved in the antinociceptive responses of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and participates in the expression of cannabinoid abstinence. ..
  10. Koshimizu Y, Wu S, Unzai T, Hioki H, Sonomura T, Nakamura K, et al. Paucity of enkephalin production in neostriatal striosomal neurons: analysis with preproenkephalin-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:2053-64 pubmed publisher
  11. Mendez I, Ostlund S, Maidment N, Murphy N. Involvement of Endogenous Enkephalins and β-Endorphin in Feeding and Diet-Induced Obesity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:2103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied palatable liquid consumption in proenkephalin knockout (PENK KO) and β-endorphin-deficient (BEND KO) mice, and how the body weight of these mice changed during consumption ..
  12. Martín Ibáñez R, Pardo M, Giralt A, Miguez A, Guardia I, Marion Poll L, et al. Helios expression coordinates the development of a subset of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons. Development. 2017;144:1566-1577 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that He is involved in the correct development of a subset of striatopallidal MSNs and reveal new cellular mechanisms for neuronal development. ..
  13. Lee B, Lee M, Song S, Loi L, Lam D, Yoon J, et al. Specification of neurotransmitter identity by Tal1 in thalamic nuclei. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:749-758 pubmed publisher
    ..Tal1-deficient thalamic neurons lost their GABAergic markers such as Gad1, Npy, and Penk in IGL/vLG. These defects may be associated at least in part with down-regulation of Nkx2...
  14. Hayward M, Low M. The contribution of endogenous opioids to food reward is dependent on sex and background strain. Neuroscience. 2007;144:17-25 pubmed
  15. Vitale M, Vashishtha A, Linzer E, Powell D, Friedman J. Molecular cloning of the mouse CCK gene: expression in different brain regions and during cortical development. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:169-77 pubmed
    ..The appearance of CCK RNA during intestinal development was also measured and found to precede appearance in cortex by several days. ..
  16. Kilpatrick D, Zinn S, Fitzgerald M, Higuchi H, Sabol S, Meyerhardt J. Transcription of the rat and mouse proenkephalin genes is initiated at distinct sites in spermatogenic and somatic cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:3717-26 pubmed
    ..This promoter motif thus may be shared with other genes expressed in male germ cells. ..
  17. Hook S, Camberis M, Prout M, Konig M, Zimmer A, van Heeke G, et al. Preproenkephalin is a Th2 cytokine but is not required for Th2 differentiation in vitro. Immunol Cell Biol. 1999;77:385-90 pubmed
    ..Lymphocytes from these mice could be driven into a Th2 phenotype, suggesting that cultures containing IL-4 do not require PPNK for Th2 differentiation. ..
  18. Colombo E, Collombat P, Colasante G, Bianchi M, Long J, Mansouri A, et al. Inactivation of Arx, the murine ortholog of the X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia gene, leads to severe disorganization of the ventral telencephalon with impaired neuronal migration and differentiation. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4786-98 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results highlight the critical functions of Arx in promoting neural migration and regulating basal ganglia differentiation in mice, consistent with the phenotype of XLAG patients...
  19. Casarosa S, Fode C, Guillemot F. Mash1 regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Development. 1999;126:525-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Mash1 is an important regulator of neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon, where it is required both to specify neuronal precursors and to control the timing of their production. ..
  20. Corbin J, Gaiano N, Machold R, Langston A, Fishell G. The Gsh2 homeodomain gene controls multiple aspects of telencephalic development. Development. 2000;127:5007-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support a model in which Gsh2, in response to sonic hedgehog signaling, plays a crucial role in multiple aspects of telencephalic development. ..
  21. Bupesh M, Abellan A, Medina L. Genetic and experimental evidence supports the continuum of the central extended amygdala and a mutiple embryonic origin of its principal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3507-31 pubmed publisher
  22. Yasothornsrikul S, Greenbaum D, Medzihradszky K, Toneff T, Bundey R, Miller R, et al. Cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a prohormone-processing enzyme for production of the enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9590-5 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a previously uncharacterized biological role for secretory vesicle cathepsin L in the production of [Met]enkephalin, an endogenous peptide neurotransmitter. ..
  23. Hook S, Camberis M, Prout M, Le Gros G. Absence of preproenkephalin increases the threshold for T cell activation. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;140:61-8 pubmed
    ..These data confirm the importance of neuroendocrine hormones such as PPNK in T cell activation and proliferation and provides a potential mechanism for the regulation of T cell responses by PPNK or its peptide derivatives. ..
  24. François A, Low S, Sypek E, Christensen A, Sotoudeh C, BEIER K, et al. A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins. Neuron. 2017;93:822-839.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncover a descending disynaptic inhibitory circuit that facilitates mechanical pain, is engaged during stress, and could be targeted to establish higher pain thresholds. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  25. Hayward M, Pintar J, Low M. Selective reward deficit in mice lacking beta-endorphin and enkephalin. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8251-8 pubmed
    ..Because the attenuation of operant responding was observed only during a nondeprived motivational state, the hedonics of feeding are likely altered rather than energy homeostasis. ..
  26. Bilkei Gorzo A, Otto M, Zimmer A. Environmental modulation of anxiety-related neuronal activity and behaviors. Behav Brain Res. 2008;186:289-92 pubmed
    ..However, we found much stronger anxiety-related behavioral responses and higher c-Fos levels when animals were house in individually ventilated cages, independent of their genetic background. ..
  27. Chen Y, Kong S, Tang X, Fu Y, Wang B, Zhang S, et al. Preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for opioid ligand-receptor signaling. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:4 pubmed publisher
  28. de Bartolomeis A, Koprivica V, Pickar D, Crawley J, Abbott L. Opioidergic and dopaminergic gene expression in the caudate-putamen and accumbens of the mutant mouse, tottering (tg/tg). Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997;46:321-4 pubmed
    ..No differences were observed in the expression of dynorphin and D2 receptor mRNA distribution in brain regions examined in the mutant mice as compared to wild-type controls. ..
  29. Huang J, Wang Y, Wang W, Wei Y, Li Y, Wu S. Preproenkephalin mRNA is expressed in a subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn of the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:1334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the colocalization of enkephalin (ENK) mRNA with GABA in the spinal dorsal horn using the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(67)-green fluorescence ..
  30. Ragnauth A, Schuller A, Morgan M, Chan J, Ogawa S, Pintar J, et al. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1958-63 pubmed
    ..These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. ..
  31. Nitsche J, Schuller A, King M, Zengh M, Pasternak G, Pintar J. Genetic dissociation of opiate tolerance and physical dependence in delta-opioid receptor-1 and preproenkephalin knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10906-13 pubmed
  32. Hook S, Prout M, Camberis M, Konig M, Zimmer A, van Heeke G, et al. Th2-dependent airway eosinophilia is regulated by preproenkephalin. J Neuroimmunol. 2000;107:59-65 pubmed
    ..We conclude from this work that PPNK has a role in enhancing Th2 cell function and that this molecule may be an important target in asthma immunotherapy. ..
  33. Marin O, Anderson S, Rubenstein J. Origin and molecular specification of striatal interneurons. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6063-76 pubmed
    ..Finally, we hypothesize that, within the MGE, radially migrating cells generally become projection neurons, whereas tangentially migrating cells mainly form interneurons of the striatum and cerebral cortex. ..
  34. Mori T, Yuxing Z, Takaki H, Takeuchi M, Iseki K, Hagino S, et al. The LIM homeobox gene, L3/Lhx8, is necessary for proper development of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:3129-41 pubmed
    ..Neurotransmitter phenotypes other than cholinergic in the basal forebrain appeared intact. From these results, we suggested that L3/Lhx8 has a pivotal and specific role in the development and/or maintenance of BFCNs. ..
  35. Funato H, Sato M, Sinton C, Gautron L, Williams S, Skach A, et al. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Gscl(-/-) mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. ..
  36. Taniwaki T, Shinoda H, Kaseda Y, Kato M, Goto I. Increased preproenkephalin mRNA and preprotachykinin mRNA in the striatum of Rolling mouse Nagoya. Brain Res. 1996;714:231-4 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that the site of primary dysfunction in the basal ganglia is in the striatum of RMN. ..
  37. Boggs D, Miller J. Absence of an hypoxic depression of metabolism in preproenkephalin knockout mice. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2006;152:92-9 pubmed
    ..V(O(2)), (54+/-4 versus 78+/-10, P<0.05) and the % change in (.)V/(.)V(O(2), (37+/-9 versus 131+/-28, P<0.01). These data implicate enkephalin as a signaling molecule in the control of hypoxic depression of metabolism in mice. ..
  38. v Agoston D, Santha E, Shieh G, Lala R, Dobi A. Isolation and structural and genetic analysis of the mouse enkephalin gene and its d(AC/TG)n repeats. DNA Seq. 1998;9:217-26 pubmed
    ..enkephalin (mENK) gene, analyzed its regulatory region and compared its structure to the well characterized rat ENK (rENK) gene...
  39. Lu K, Evans S, Hirano S, Liu F. Dual role for Islet-1 in promoting striatonigral and repressing striatopallidal genetic programs to specify striatonigral cell identity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual action of developmental control by Isl1 in promoting appropriate striatonigral but repressing inappropriate striatopallidal genetic profiles may ensure sharpening of the striatonigral identity during development. ..
  40. Huang J, Lin Y, Han R, Chen J, Wang Y, Wang W, et al. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of enkephalinergic neurons in adult and developing retinas of the preproenkephalin-green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;195:563-74 pubmed publisher
    Enkephalin (ENK) peptides are present in the retina of several vertebrate species and play a crucial role in establishing specific circuits during retinal development...
  41. Martin D, Skidmore J, Philips S, Vieira C, Gage P, Condie B, et al. PITX2 is required for normal development of neurons in the mouse subthalamic nucleus and midbrain. Dev Biol. 2004;267:93-108 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a role for Pitx2 in regulating regionally specific terminal neuronal differentiation in the developing ventrolateral thalamus and midbrain. ..
  42. Ehrman L, Mu X, Waclaw R, Yoshida Y, Vorhees C, Klein W, et al. The LIM homeobox gene Isl1 is required for the correct development of the striatonigral pathway in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4026-35 pubmed publisher
  43. Bissonnette S, Vaillancourt M, Hébert S, Drolet G, Samadi P. Striatal pre-enkephalin overexpression improves Huntington's disease symptoms in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75099 pubmed publisher
    The reduction of pre-enkephalin (pENK) mRNA expression might be an early sign of striatal neuronal dysfunction in Huntington's disease (HD), due to mutated huntingtin protein...
  44. Linner K, Quist H, Sharp B. Expression and function of proenkephalin A messenger ribonucleic acid in murine fetal thymocytes. Endocrinology. 1996;137:857-63 pubmed
  45. Holstege J, de Graaff W, Hossaini M, Cardona Cano S, Jaarsma D, van den Akker E, et al. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The data therefore suggest that a lower number of neurons in the upper spinal laminae and neuronal disorganization in the dorsal horn underlie the sensory defects including the excessive grooming of the Hoxb8 mutant. ..
  46. Berrendero F, Mendizabal V, Robledo P, Galeote L, Bilkei Gorzo A, Zimmer A, et al. Nicotine-induced antinociception, rewarding effects, and physical dependence are decreased in mice lacking the preproenkephalin gene. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1103-12 pubmed
  47. Kung J, Chen T, Shyu B, Hsiao S, Huang A. Anxiety- and depressive-like responses and c-fos activity in preproenkephalin knockout mice: oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced posttraumatic stress disorder. J Biomed Sci. 2010;17:29 pubmed publisher
  48. Finotto S, Krieglstein K, Schober A, Deimling F, Lindner K, Brühl B, et al. Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene argues against an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for generating adrenal chromaffin cells. Development. 1999;126:2935-44 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that the dogma of an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for the development of chromaffin cells must be abandoned. ..
  49. Bilkei Gorzo A, Racz I, Michel K, Mauer D, Zimmer A, Klingmuller D, et al. Control of hormonal stress reactivity by the endogenous opioid system. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..level after zero-maze test situation, unlike in wild type animals, failed to reach the level of significance in Penk1(-/-) and Pdyn(-/-) mice...
  50. Kwon B, Weissman S. cDNA sequences of two inducible T-cell genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1963-7 pubmed
    ..Both peptides contain putative leader sequences. The protein encoded by 4-1BB also has a potential membrane anchor segment and other features also seen in known receptor proteins. ..
  51. Skoubis P, Lam H, Shoblock J, Narayanan S, Maidment N. Endogenous enkephalins, not endorphins, modulate basal hedonic state in mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1379-84 pubmed
  52. Zurawski G, Benedik M, Kamb B, Abrams J, Zurawski S, Lee F. Activation of mouse T-helper cells induces abundant preproenkephalin mRNA synthesis. Science. 1986;232:772-5 pubmed
    ..The production by activated T cells of a peptide neurotransmitter identifies a signal that can potentially permit T cells to modulate the nervous system. ..
  53. Rataj Baniowska M, Niewiadomska Cimicka A, Paschaki M, Szyszka Niagolov M, Carramolino L, Torres M, et al. Retinoic Acid Receptor β Controls Development of Striatonigral Projection Neurons through FGF-Dependent and Meis1-Dependent Mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2015;35:14467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data unveil a novel mechanism of development of striatonigral projection neurons involving retinoic acid and FGF, two signals required for positioning the boundaries of Meis1-expressing cells. ..
  54. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Wang C, Xu Z, Liang Q, An L, et al. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Sp9 Is Required for the Development of Striatopallidal Projection Neurons. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1431-1444 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-seq and in situ hybridization reveal that Sp9 promotes expression of Adora2a, P2ry1, Gpr6, and Grik3 in the LGE and striatum. Thus, Sp9 is crucial for the generation, differentiation, and survival of striatopallidal MSNs. ..
  55. Bilkei Gorzo A, Michel K, Noble F, Roques B, Zimmer A. Preproenkephalin knockout mice show no depression-related phenotype. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:2330-7 pubmed
    ..In this study we demonstrate that, surprisingly, animals lacking enkephalin (preproenkephalin, Penk1(-/-)) showed no depression-related phenotype in the Porsolt forced swimming or tail suspension tests...
  56. Kiehl T, Fischer S, Ezzat S, Asa S. Mice lacking the transcription factor Ikaros display behavioral alterations of an anti-depressive phenotype. Exp Neurol. 2008;211:107-14 pubmed publisher
  57. Huang M, Huang T, Xiang Y, Xie Z, Chen Y, Yan R, et al. Ptf1a, Lbx1 and Pax2 coordinate glycinergic and peptidergic transmitter phenotypes in dorsal spinal inhibitory neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;322:394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..a set of peptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), somatostatin (SOM), enkephalin (ENK), dynorphin (DYN) and galanin (GAL)...
  58. Minett M, Pereira V, Sikandar S, Matsuyama A, Lolignier S, Kanellopoulos A, et al. Endogenous opioids contribute to insensitivity to pain in humans and mice lacking sodium channel Nav1.7. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8967 pubmed publisher
    ..7 deletion has profound effects on gene expression, leading to an upregulation of enkephalin precursor Penk mRNA and met-enkephalin protein in sensory neurons. In contrast, Nav1...
  59. Shapiro S, Griffin G, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Welgus H, et al. Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and bacterial expression of a murine macrophage metalloelastase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:4664-71 pubmed
    ..MME is therefore a true metalloproteinase that may be involved in tissue injury and remodeling. ..
  60. Melo I, Drews E, Zimmer A, Bilkei Gorzo A. Enkephalin knockout male mice are resistant to chronic mild stress. Genes Brain Behav. 2014;13:550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies using preproenkephalin knockout (PENK KO) mice showed that these animals exhibit abnormal stress reactivity and show increased anxiety behavior in acute ..
  61. Ziòłkowska B, Hollt V. Fos is not involved in the regulation of the proenkephalin gene by haloperidol in the mouse striatum. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1995;34:351-4 pubmed
    ..of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration. Mice were treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p...
  62. Bäckman C, Malik N, Zhang Y, Shan L, Grinberg A, Hoffer B, et al. Characterization of a mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase from the 3' untranslated region of the dopamine transporter locus. Genesis. 2006;44:383-90 pubmed
    ..This knockin mouse can be used for generating tissue specific knockouts in mice carrying genes flanked by loxP sites, and will facilitate the analysis of gene function in dopaminergic neurons. ..