Gene Symbol: Pdyn
Description: prodynorphin
Alias: Dyn, proenkephalin-B, alpha-neoendorphin, beta-neoendorphin, beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin, big dynorphin, dynorphin A(1-13), dynorphin A(1-17), dynorphin A(1-8), leu-enkephalin, leumorphin, preprodynorphin, rimorphin
Species: mouse
Products:     Pdyn

Top Publications

  1. Proud C. PKR: a new name and new roles. Trends Biochem Sci. 1995;20:241-6 pubmed
    ..Indeed, it now seems likely that PKR mediates the regulation of selected genes by dsRNA. ..
  2. Loacker S, Sayyah M, Wittmann W, Herzog H, Schwarzer C. Endogenous dynorphin in epileptogenesis and epilepsy: anticonvulsant net effect via kappa opioid receptors. Brain. 2007;130:1017-28 pubmed
  3. Wittmann W, Schunk E, Rosskothen I, Gaburro S, Singewald N, Herzog H, et al. Prodynorphin-derived peptides are critical modulators of anxiety and regulate neurochemistry and corticosterone. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:775-85 pubmed publisher
  4. Bruchas M, Land B, Lemos J, Chavkin C. CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid system in the mouse basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behavior. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8528 pubmed publisher
  5. Bröhl D, Strehle M, Wende H, Hori K, Bormuth I, Nave K, et al. A transcriptional network coordinately determines transmitter and peptidergic fate in the dorsal spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2008;322:381-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a transcriptional network operates in maturing dorsal horn neurons that coordinately determines transmitter and peptidergic fate. ..
  6. Clarke S, Zimmer A, Zimmer A, Hill R, Kitchen I. Region selective up-regulation of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors but not opioid receptor-like 1 receptors in the brains of enkephalin and dynorphin knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2003;122:479-89 pubmed
    ..Prodynorphin peptides appear to regulate mostly the kappa-receptor but they are also modulators of micro- and delta-receptors. ..
  7. McLaughlin J, Marton Popovici M, Chavkin C. Kappa opioid receptor antagonism and prodynorphin gene disruption block stress-induced behavioral responses. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5674-83 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that chronic swim stress may activate the kappa opioid system to produce analgesia, immobility, and potentiation of the acute rewarding properties of cocaine in C57Bl/6 mice. ..
  8. Shin E, Jang C, Bing G, Park D, Oh C, Koo K, et al. Prodynorphin gene deficiency potentiates nalbuphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal syndrome in mice. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;104:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..involvement of the dynorphin gene in nalbuphine-mediated behavioral responses was examined using prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene knock-out (-/-) mice...
  9. Sharifi N, Diehl N, Yaswen L, Brennan M, Hochgeschwender U. Generation of dynorphin knockout mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;86:70-5 pubmed
    ..Dynorphin knockout mice constitute a valuable tool for many research areas, among them research into pain, substance abuse, and epilepsy. ..

More Information


  1. Nguyen X, Liu M, Kim H, Bing G. Effects of prodynorphin deletion on striatal dopamine in mice during normal aging and in response to MPTP. Exp Neurol. 2009;219:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..and related amines was performed on striatal homogenates of wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene at varying ages...
  2. Carey A, Lyons A, Shay C, Dunton O, McLaughlin J. Endogenous kappa opioid activation mediates stress-induced deficits in learning and memory. J Neurosci. 2009;29:4293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..of FSS on NOR performance was further examined in mice lacking the gene for the endogenous KOR agonist dynorphin (Dyn). Dyn gene-disrupted mice exposed to FSS did not show the subsequent learning and memory deficits (RI=66.8+/-3...
  3. Land B, Bruchas M, Lemos J, Xu M, Melief E, Chavkin C. The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin kappa-opioid system. J Neurosci. 2008;28:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The convergence of stress-induced aversive inputs on the dynorphin system was unexpected, implicates dynorphin as a key mediator of dysphoria, and emphasizes kappa-receptor antagonists as promising therapeutics. ..
  4. Bilkei Gorzo A, Racz I, Michel K, Mauer D, Zimmer A, Klingmuller D, et al. Control of hormonal stress reactivity by the endogenous opioid system. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..zero-maze test situation, unlike in wild type animals, failed to reach the level of significance in Penk1(-/-) and Pdyn(-/-) mice. Corticosterone plasma levels rapidly increased in all strains, with a lower peak response in knockouts...
  5. Szklarczyk K, Korostynski M, Golda S, Solecki W, Przewlocki R. Genotype-dependent consequences of traumatic stress in four inbred mouse strains. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas, SWR/J mice displayed increase only in Pdyn expression in the amygdala and had the lowest conditioned fear...
  6. Mazzuca M, Heurteaux C, Alloui A, Diochot S, Baron A, Voilley N, et al. A tarantula peptide against pain via ASIC1a channels and opioid mechanisms. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:943-5 pubmed
    ..The analgesic properties of the peptide are suppressed by antagonists of the mu and delta-opioid receptors and are lost in Penk1-/- mice. ..
  7. Smith J, Schindler A, Martinelli E, Gustin R, Bruchas M, Chavkin C. Stress-induced activation of the dynorphin/?-opioid receptor system in the amygdala potentiates nicotine conditioned place preference. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data implicate the amygdala as a key region modulating the appetitive properties of nicotine, and suggest that ?-opioid antagonists may be useful therapeutic tools to reduce stress-induced nicotine craving. ..
  8. Nagle D, McGrail S, Vitale J, Woolf E, Dussault B, DiRocco L, et al. The mahogany protein is a receptor involved in suppression of obesity. Nature. 1999;398:148-52 pubmed
  9. Nguyen A, Slack K, Schwarzer C, Lee N, Boey D, Macia L, et al. Double deletion of orexigenic neuropeptide Y and dynorphin results in paradoxical obesity in mice. Neuropeptides. 2014;48:143-51 pubmed publisher
    Orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dynorphin (DYN) regulate energy homeostasis. Single NPY or dynorphin deletion reduces food intake or increases fat loss. Future developments of obesity therapeutics involve targeting multiple pathways...
  10. Gulya K, Orpana A, Sikela J, Hoffman P. Prodynorphin and vasopressin mRNA levels are differentially affected by chronic ethanol ingestion in the mouse. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1993;20:1-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that hypothalamic vasopressin and prodynorphin mRNA can be differentially regulated in certain situations. ..
  11. Josefsen K, Buschard K, Sørensen L, Wøllike M, Ekman R, Birkenbach M. Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cell lines induces expression and secretion of dynorphin. Endocrinology. 1998;139:4329-36 pubmed
  12. Xu Y, Lopes C, Qian Y, Liu Y, Cheng L, Goulding M, et al. Tlx1 and Tlx3 coordinate specification of dorsal horn pain-modulatory peptidergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4037-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that Tlx1 and Tlx3 operate high in the regulatory hierarchy that coordinates specification of dorsal horn pain-modulatory peptidergic neurons. ..
  13. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  14. Erwin V, Markel P, Johnson T, Gehle V, Jones B. Common quantitative trait loci for alcohol-related behaviors and central nervous system neurotensin measures: hypnotic and hypothermic effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;280:911-8 pubmed
    ..Common QTL indicate that genes regulating NT receptor and/or NT-ir expression may be the same as those regulating sensitivity to ethanol. ..
  15. Henry A, Hohmann J. High-resolution gene expression atlases for adult and developing mouse brain and spinal cord. Mamm Genome. 2012;23:539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..All data and tools are freely available via the Allen Brain Atlas portal (www.brain-map.org). ..
  16. Giros B, Pohl M, Rochelle J, Seldin M. Chromosomal localization of opioid peptide and receptor genes in the mouse. Life Sci. 1995;56:PL369-75 pubmed
    ..and kappa (Oprk) receptors, as well as the genes for the opioid propeptides proenkephalin (Penk) and prodynorphin (Pdyn)...
  17. Krashes M, Shah B, Madara J, Olson D, Strochlic D, Garfield A, et al. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger. Nature. 2014;507:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated. ..
  18. Edwards N, Tejeda H, Pignatelli M, Zhang S, McDevitt R, Wu J, et al. Circuit specificity in the inhibitory architecture of the VTA regulates cocaine-induced behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:438-448 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings demonstrate notable selectivity in the inhibitory architecture of the VTA and suggest that long-range GABAergic inputs to dopamine neurons fundamentally regulate behavioral responses to cocaine. ..
  19. Lin S, Boey D, Lee N, Schwarzer C, Sainsbury A, Herzog H. Distribution of prodynorphin mRNA and its interaction with the NPY system in the mouse brain. Neuropeptides. 2006;40:115-23 pubmed
  20. Nilsson A, Fälth M, Zhang X, Kultima K, Sköld K, Svenningsson P, et al. Striatal alterations of secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin peptides in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson disease. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:1094-104 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that neuropeptides take part in mediating the central nervous system failure associated with Parkinson disease. ..
  21. Yamamizu K, Furuta S, Katayama S, Narita M, Kuzumaki N, Imai S, et al. The ? opioid system regulates endothelial cell differentiation and pathfinding in vascular development. Blood. 2011;118:775-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The opioid system is, thus, a new regulator of vascular development that simultaneously modifies 2 distinct vascular properties, EC differentiation and vascular pathfinding. ..
  22. Chefer V, Shippenberg T. Paradoxical effects of prodynorphin gene deletion on basal and cocaine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:229-38 pubmed
    ..were decreased, while the DA extraction fraction, an indirect measure of DA uptake, was unchanged in dynorphin (DYN) knockout (KO) mice. The ability of cocaine to increase NAc DA levels was reduced in KO...
  23. Kuzmin A, Madjid N, Terenius L, Ogren S, Bakalkin G. Big dynorphin, a prodynorphin-derived peptide produces NMDA receptor-mediated effects on memory, anxiolytic-like and locomotor behavior in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:1928-37 pubmed
    Effects of big dynorphin (Big Dyn), a prodynorphin-derived peptide consisting of dynorphin A (Dyn A) and dynorphin B (Dyn B) on memory function, anxiety, and locomotor activity were studied in mice and compared to those of Dyn A and Dyn ..
  24. Yang J, Yasrebi A, Snyder M, Roepke T. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17?-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;437:35-50 pubmed publisher
    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17?-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis...
  25. Sharifi N, Ament M, Brennan M, Hochgeschwender U. Isolation and characterization of the mouse homolog of the preprodynorphin (Pdyn) gene. Neuropeptides. 1999;33:236-8 pubmed
    We have isolated and sequenced the mouse preprodynorphin gene (Pdyn). The Pdyn gene can encode for six biologically active dynorphin peptides...
  26. Femenía T, Manzanares J. Increased ethanol intake in prodynorphin knockout mice is associated to changes in opioid receptor function and dopamine transmission. Addict Biol. 2012;17:322-37 pubmed publisher
    ..S(35) ]- guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding autoradiography were studied in prodynorphin knockout (PDYN KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
  27. Gac L, Butterick T, Duffy C, Teske J, Perez Leighton C. Role of the non-opioid dynorphin peptide des-Tyr-dynorphin (DYN-A(2-17)) in food intake and physical activity, and its interaction with orexin-A. Peptides. 2016;76:14-8 pubmed publisher
    Food intake and physical activity are regulated by multiple neuropeptides, including orexin and dynorphin (DYN)...
  28. Nguyen X, Masse J, Kumar A, Vijitruth R, Kulik C, Liu M, et al. Prodynorphin knockout mice demonstrate diminished age-associated impairment in spatial water maze performance. Behav Brain Res. 2005;161:254-62 pubmed
    ..learning and memory, knockout mice lacking the coding exons of the gene encoding its precursor prodynorphin (Pdyn) were tested in a water maze task...
  29. Zhu Y, Pintar J. Expression of opioid receptors and ligands in pregnant mouse uterus and placenta. Biol Reprod. 1998;59:925-32 pubmed
    ..micro) opioid receptors as well as the endogenous opioid peptide precursors proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in pregnant mouse uterus and placenta...
  30. Chen Y, Kong S, Tang X, Fu Y, Wang B, Zhang S, et al. Preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for opioid ligand-receptor signaling. Biol Reprod. 2014;91:4 pubmed publisher
  31. Ruka K, Burger L, Moenter S. Regulation of arcuate neurons coexpressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin by modulators of neurokinin 3 and ?-opioid receptors in adult male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2761-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations support the hypotheses that activation of NK3R and KOR, respectively, excites and inhibits KNDy neurons and that gonadal steroids modulate these effects. ..
  32. Lemos J, Roth C, Messinger D, Gill H, Phillips P, Chavkin C. Repeated stress dysregulates ?-opioid receptor signaling in the dorsal raphe through a p38? MAPK-dependent mechanism. J Neurosci. 2012;32:12325-36 pubmed publisher
  33. Baldock P, Driessler F, Lin S, Wong I, Shi Y, Yulyaningsih E, et al. The endogenous opioid dynorphin is required for normal bone homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides. 2012;46:383-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that lack of dynorphin, an endogenous opioid, in mice (Dyn-/-), resulted in a significantly elevated cancellous bone volume associated with greater mineral apposition rate ..
  34. Walwyn W, Chen W, Kim H, Minasyan A, Ennes H, McRoberts J, et al. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity. J Neurosci. 2016;36:204-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that the activation of μ-opioid receptors is not due to the release of endogenous opioids, but rather to its ligand-independent constitutive activity. ..
  35. Navarro V, Gottsch M, Chavkin C, Okamura H, Clifton D, Steiner R. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion by kisspeptin/dynorphin/neurokinin B neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the mouse. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objectives were to determine whether preprodynorphin (Dyn) and neurokinin B (NKB) are coexpressed in Kiss1 neurons in the mouse and to evaluate its physiological ..
  36. Adjan V, Hauser K, Bakalkin G, Yakovleva T, Gharibyan A, Scheff S, et al. Caspase-3 activity is reduced after spinal cord injury in mice lacking dynorphin: differential effects on glia and neurons. Neuroscience. 2007;148:724-36 pubmed
    ..While normally beneficial, our findings suggest that prodynorphin or its peptide products become maladaptive following SCI and contribute to secondary injury. ..
  37. Li Y, van den Pol A. Differential target-dependent actions of coexpressed inhibitory dynorphin and excitatory hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides. J Neurosci. 2006;26:13037-47 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hypocretin neurons may be able to exercise a high degree of modulatory control over postsynaptic targets using multiple neuropeptides with target-dependent actions. ..
  38. Minokadeh A, Funkelstein L, Toneff T, Hwang S, Beinfeld M, Reinheckel T, et al. Cathepsin L participates in dynorphin production in brain cortex, illustrated by protease gene knockout and expression. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results demonstrate a prominent role for cathepsin L, jointly with PC1/3 and PC2, for production of dynorphins in brain. ..
  39. Smeets C, Zmorzynska J, Melo M, Stargardt A, Dooley C, Bakalkin G, et al. Altered secondary structure of Dynorphin A associates with loss of opioid signalling and NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity in SCA23. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:2728-2737 pubmed
    ..mutations in prodynorphin, encoding the precursor protein for the opioid neuropeptides ?-neoendorphin, Dynorphin (Dyn) A and Dyn B, leading to neurotoxic elevated mutant Dyn A levels...
  40. Bilkei Gorzo A, Erk S, Schürmann B, Mauer D, Michel K, Boecker H, et al. Dynorphins regulate fear memory: from mice to men. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Human volunteers bearing the (T) allele of PDYN (prodynorphin) at rs1997794 showed reduced fear extinction and a significantly diminished functional connectivity ..
  41. Gottsch M, Navarro V, Zhao Z, Glidewell Kenney C, Weiss J, Jameson J, et al. Regulation of Kiss1 and dynorphin gene expression in the murine brain by classical and nonclassical estrogen receptor pathways. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), where the dynorphin gene (Dyn) is expressed in Kiss1 neurons, E(2) inhibits the expression of Kiss1 mRNA...
  42. Wildner H, Das Gupta R, Bröhl D, Heppenstall P, Zeilhofer H, Birchmeier C. Genome-wide expression analysis of Ptf1a- and Ascl1-deficient mice reveals new markers for distinct dorsal horn interneuron populations contributing to nociceptive reflex plasticity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Three genes, pDyn coding the neuropeptide dynorphin, Kcnip2 encoding a potassium channel associated protein, and the nuclear receptor ..
  43. Menard C, Tse Y, Cavanagh C, Chabot J, Herzog H, Schwarzer C, et al. Knockdown of prodynorphin gene prevents cognitive decline, reduces anxiety, and rescues loss of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in aging. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12792-804 pubmed publisher
    ..In human, prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene polymorphisms might be linked to cognitive function in the elderly...
  44. Gregus A, Inra C, Giordano T, Costa A, Rajadhyaksha A, Inturrisi C. Spinal mediators that may contribute selectively to antinociceptive tolerance but not other effects of morphine as revealed by deletion of GluR5. Neuroscience. 2010;169:475-87 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of protein kinases ERK1/2 and P38 MAPK and PKC as well as elevated levels of the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN), substance P (sP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH)...
  45. Al Hasani R, McCall J, Shin G, Gomez A, Schmitz G, Bernardi J, et al. Distinct Subpopulations of Nucleus Accumbens Dynorphin Neurons Drive Aversion and Reward. Neuron. 2015;87:1063-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the discrete regional specificity by which NAc dynorphinerigic cells regulate preference and aversion provides insight into motivated behaviors that are dysregulated in stress, reward, and psychiatric disease. ..
  46. Duan B, Cheng L, Bourane S, Britz O, Padilla C, Garcia Campmany L, et al. Identification of spinal circuits transmitting and gating mechanical pain. Cell. 2014;159:1417-1432 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitory neurons marked by the expression of dynorphin (Dyn) represent INs, which are necessary to gate Aβ fibers from activating SOM(+) neurons to evoke pain...
  47. Sainsbury A, Lin S, McNamara K, Slack K, Enriquez R, Lee N, et al. Dynorphin knockout reduces fat mass and increases weight loss during fasting in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1722-35 pubmed
    ..We investigated energy homeostasis in dynorphin knockout mice (Dyn(-/-) mice) and probed the interactions between dynorphins and the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system...
  48. Menard C, Herzog H, Schwarzer C, Quirion R. Possible role of dynorphins in Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive deficits. Neurodegener Dis. 2014;13:82-5 pubmed publisher
    ..dynorphin levels have been reported in postmortem samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and prodynorphin (PDYN) gene polymorphisms might be linked to cognitive function in the elderly...
  49. Lu K, Evans S, Hirano S, Liu F. Dual role for Islet-1 in promoting striatonigral and repressing striatopallidal genetic programs to specify striatonigral cell identity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual action of developmental control by Isl1 in promoting appropriate striatonigral but repressing inappropriate striatopallidal genetic profiles may ensure sharpening of the striatonigral identity during development. ..
  50. Blednov Y, Walker D, Martinez M, Harris R. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin. Alcohol. 2006;40:73-86 pubmed
    ..We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions...
  51. Barco A, Patterson S, Patterson S, Alarcon J, Gromova P, Mata Roig M, et al. Gene expression profiling of facilitated L-LTP in VP16-CREB mice reveals that BDNF is critical for the maintenance of LTP and its synaptic capture. Neuron. 2005;48:123-37 pubmed
    ..We found that the overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor accounts for an important component of this phenotype. ..
  52. Geerling J, Kim M, Mahoney C, Abbott S, Agostinelli L, Garfield A, et al. Genetic identity of thermosensory relay neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;310:R41-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Prodynorphin (Pdyn)-expressing neurons were identified using a GFP reporter mouse and formed a caudal subset of LPB FoxP2+ neurons, ..
  53. Campillo A, González Cuello A, Cabañero D, Garcia Nogales P, Romero A, Milanes M, et al. Increased spinal dynorphin levels and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and c-Fos immunoreactivity after surgery under remifentanil anesthesia in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This in turn would result in long-lasting increased levels of dynorphin that, in our model, could participate in the persistence of pain but not in the manifestation of first pain. ..
  54. Muschamp J, Hollander J, Thompson J, Voren G, Hassinger L, Onvani S, et al. Hypocretin (orexin) facilitates reward by attenuating the antireward effects of its cotransmitter dynorphin in ventral tegmental area. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a unique cellular process by which orexin can occlude the reward threshold-elevating effects of coreleased dynorphin and thereby act in a permissive fashion to facilitate reward. ..
  55. Kastenberger I, Lutsch C, Herzog H, Schwarzer C. Influence of sex and genetic background on anxiety-related and stress-induced behaviour of prodynorphin-deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34251 pubmed publisher
    ..Data obtained from different strains of prodynorphin (Pdyn)- and kappa opioid receptor (KOP)-deficient mice do not provide a consistent picture of the functions of Dyn/KOP in ..
  56. Blednov Y, Mayfield R, Belknap J, Harris R. Behavioral actions of alcohol: phenotypic relations from multivariate analysis of mutant mouse data. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:424-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that alcohol consumption is controlled by multiple physiological systems where single-gene mutations can disrupt the networks of such systems. ..
  57. Anthwal N, Pelling M, Claxton S, Mellitzer G, Collin C, Kessaris N, et al. Conditional deletion of neurogenin-3 using Nkx2.1iCre results in a mouse model for the central control of feeding, activity and obesity. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1133-45 pubmed publisher
  58. Gendron L, Pintar J, Chavkin C. Essential role of mu opioid receptor in the regulation of delta opioid receptor-mediated antihyperalgesia. Neuroscience. 2007;150:807-17 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that DOR-mediated antihyperalgesia is dependent on MOR expression but that activation of MOR by endogenous opioids is probably not required. ..
  59. Huang M, Huang T, Xiang Y, Xie Z, Chen Y, Yan R, et al. Ptf1a, Lbx1 and Pax2 coordinate glycinergic and peptidergic transmitter phenotypes in dorsal spinal inhibitory neurons. Dev Biol. 2008;322:394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..including neuropeptide Y (NPY), nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), somatostatin (SOM), enkephalin (ENK), dynorphin (DYN) and galanin (GAL)...
  60. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Wang C, Xu Z, Liang Q, An L, et al. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Sp9 Is Required for the Development of Striatopallidal Projection Neurons. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1431-1444 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-seq and in situ hybridization reveal that Sp9 promotes expression of Adora2a, P2ry1, Gpr6, and Grik3 in the LGE and striatum. Thus, Sp9 is crucial for the generation, differentiation, and survival of striatopallidal MSNs. ..
  61. Oliveros A, Starski P, Lindberg D, Choi S, Heppelmann C, Dasari S, et al. Label-Free Neuroproteomics of the Hippocampal-Accumbal Circuit Reveals Deficits in Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide Signaling in Mice Lacking Ethanol-Sensitive Adenosine Transporter. J Proteome Res. 2017;16:1445-1459 pubmed publisher
    ..of the SNARE complex protein VAMP1 (synaptobrevin-1) in the dHip as well as decreased expression of pro-dynorphin (PDYN), neuroendocrine convertase (PCSK1), and Leu-Enkephalin (dynorphin-A) in the NAc...
  62. Zimmer A, Valjent E, Konig M, Zimmer A, Robledo P, Hahn H, et al. Absence of delta -9-tetrahydrocannabinol dysphoric effects in dynorphin-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9499-505 pubmed
    ..THC) and morphine responses has been investigated by using mice with a targeted inactivation of the prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene...
  63. Chung S, Weber F, Zhong P, Tan C, Nguyen T, BEIER K, et al. Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling. Nature. 2017;545:477-481 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit. ..
  64. Bäckman C, Malik N, Zhang Y, Shan L, Grinberg A, Hoffer B, et al. Characterization of a mouse strain expressing Cre recombinase from the 3' untranslated region of the dopamine transporter locus. Genesis. 2006;44:383-90 pubmed
    ..This knockin mouse can be used for generating tissue specific knockouts in mice carrying genes flanked by loxP sites, and will facilitate the analysis of gene function in dopaminergic neurons. ..
  65. Shah B, Vong L, Olson D, Koda S, Krashes M, Ye C, et al. MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a basis for the feeding-regulating effects of MC4Rs. ..
  66. Rataj Baniowska M, Niewiadomska Cimicka A, Paschaki M, Szyszka Niagolov M, Carramolino L, Torres M, et al. Retinoic Acid Receptor β Controls Development of Striatonigral Projection Neurons through FGF-Dependent and Meis1-Dependent Mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2015;35:14467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data unveil a novel mechanism of development of striatonigral projection neurons involving retinoic acid and FGF, two signals required for positioning the boundaries of Meis1-expressing cells. ..
  67. Xu M, Petraschka M, McLaughlin J, Westenbroek R, Caron M, Lefkowitz R, et al. Neuropathic pain activates the endogenous kappa opioid system in mouse spinal cord and induces opioid receptor tolerance. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4576-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, endogenous dynorphin had both pronociceptive and antinociceptive actions after nerve injury and induced GRK3-mediated opioid tolerance. ..
  68. Tejeda H, Wu J, Kornspun A, Pignatelli M, Kashtelyan V, Krashes M, et al. Pathway- and Cell-Specific Kappa-Opioid Receptor Modulation of Excitation-Inhibition Balance Differentially Gates D1 and D2 Accumbens Neuron Activity. Neuron. 2017;93:147-163 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we describe a circuit-based mechanism showing differential gating of afferent control of D1 and D2 MSN activity by KORs in a pathway-specific manner. ..
  69. Albrecht U, Sutcliffe J, Cattanach B, Beechey C, Armstrong D, Eichele G, et al. Imprinted expression of the murine Angelman syndrome gene, Ube3a, in hippocampal and Purkinje neurons. Nat Genet. 1997;17:75-8 pubmed
    ..The major phenotypic features of AS correlate with the loss of maternal-specific expression of Ube3a in hippocampus and cerebellum as revealed in the mouse model. ..