Gene Symbol: Pdgfa
Description: platelet derived growth factor, alpha
Alias: platelet-derived growth factor subunit A, PDGF A-chain, PDGF subunit A, PDGF-1, platelet-derived growth factor A-chain, platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide
Species: mouse
Products:     Pdgfa

Top Publications

  1. Li X, Ponten A, Aase K, Karlsson L, Abramsson A, Uutela M, et al. PDGF-C is a new protease-activated ligand for the PDGF alpha-receptor. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:302-9 pubmed
  2. Hoehn K, Hohnen Behrens C, Cederberg A, Wu L, Turner N, Yuasa T, et al. IRS1-independent defects define major nodes of insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2008;7:421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that while insulin resistance is associated with multiple deficiencies, the most deleterious defects and the origin of insulin resistance occur independently of IRS. ..
  3. Xu X, Bringas P, Soriano P, Chai Y. PDGFR-alpha signaling is critical for tooth cusp and palate morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:75-84 pubmed
    ..Pdgfralpha and Pdgfa are specifically and consistently expressed in the CNC-derived odontogenic mesenchyme and the dental epithelium, ..
  4. Ding H, Wu X, Bostrom H, Kim I, Wong N, Tsoi B, et al. A specific requirement for PDGF-C in palate formation and PDGFR-alpha signaling. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1111-6 pubmed
    ..This phenotype was less severe than that of Pdgfra(-/-) embryos. Pdgfc(-/-) Pdgfa(-/-) embryos developed a cleft face, subepidermal blistering, deficiency of renal cortex mesenchyme, spina bifida ..
  5. Yeh H, Ruit K, Wang Y, Parks W, Snider W, Deuel T. PDGF A-chain gene is expressed by mammalian neurons during development and in maturity. Cell. 1991;64:209-16 pubmed
    ..This generalized distribution of PDGF A transcripts, together with the known effects of PDGF on glial cells in vitro, suggests a unique role of neurons in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of glial cells in vivo. ..
  6. Andrae J, Ehrencrona H, Gallini R, Lal M, Ding H, Betsholtz C. Analysis of mice lacking the heparin-binding splice isoform of platelet-derived growth factor A. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4030-40 pubmed publisher
    ..two PDGF-A splice isoforms during early postnatal organ development in the mouse and report on the generation of a Pdgfa allele (Pdgfa(?ex6)) incapable of producing PDGF-Along due to a deletion of the exon 6 splice acceptor site...
  7. Tallquist M, Weismann K, Hellstrom M, Soriano P. Early myotome specification regulates PDGFA expression and axial skeleton development. Development. 2000;127:5059-70 pubmed
    ..b>PDGFA ligand expression was not detected in the myotome of Myf5 null mutant embryos and PDGFA promoter activity was ..
  8. Gnessi L, Basciani S, Mariani S, Arizzi M, Spera G, Wang C, et al. Leydig cell loss and spermatogenic arrest in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-A-deficient mice. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:1019-26 pubmed
    ..The Leydig cell loss and the spermatogenic impairment in the mutant mice are reminiscent of cases of testicular failure in man. ..
  9. Bostrom H, Willetts K, Pekny M, Leveen P, Lindahl P, Hedstrand H, et al. PDGF-A signaling is a critical event in lung alveolar myofibroblast development and alveogenesis. Cell. 1996;85:863-73 pubmed
    ..The two PDGF null phenotypes also reveal analogous morphogenetic functions for myofibroblast-type cells in lung and kidney organogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Hutchins J, Jefferson V. Developmental distribution of platelet-derived growth factor in the mouse central nervous system. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1992;67:121-35 pubmed
  2. Bostrom H, Gritli Linde A, Betsholtz C. PDGF-A/PDGF alpha-receptor signaling is required for lung growth and the formation of alveoli but not for early lung branching morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2002;223:155-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, although PDGF-AA signaling over PDGFR alpha may have direct or indirect roles in overall lung growth, it does not specifically control early branching of the lung epithelium. ..
  3. Karlsson L, Lindahl P, Heath J, Betsholtz C. Abnormal gastrointestinal development in PDGF-A and PDGFR-(alpha) deficient mice implicates a novel mesenchymal structure with putative instructive properties in villus morphogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3457-66 pubmed
    ..The role of PDGF-A seems to be to secure renewal of PDGFR-(alpha) positive cells when they are consumed in the initial rounds of cluster formation. ..
  4. Karlsson L, Bondjers C, Betsholtz C. Roles for PDGF-A and sonic hedgehog in development of mesenchymal components of the hair follicle. Development. 1999;126:2611-21 pubmed
    ..Such embryos fail to form pre-papilla aggregates of postmitotic PDGF-Ralpha-positive cells, suggesting that shh has a critical role in the assembly of the dermal papilla. ..
  5. Fruttiger M, Karlsson L, Hall A, Abramsson A, Calver A, Bostrom H, et al. Defective oligodendrocyte development and severe hypomyelination in PDGF-A knockout mice. Development. 1999;126:457-67 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence that myelin proteolipid protein (PLP/DM-20)-positive cells in the late embryonic brainstem are non-dividing cells, presumably immature oligodendrocytes, and not proliferating precursors. ..
  6. Calver A, Hall A, Yu W, Walsh F, Heath J, Betsholtz C, et al. Oligodendrocyte population dynamics and the role of PDGF in vivo. Neuron. 1998;20:869-82 pubmed
    ..Therefore, cell survival controls override proliferation controls for determining the final number and distribution of mature oligodendrocytes. ..
  7. Lindahl P, Karlsson L, Hellstrom M, Gebre Medhin S, Willetts K, Heath J, et al. Alveogenesis failure in PDGF-A-deficient mice is coupled to lack of distal spreading of alveolar smooth muscle cell progenitors during lung development. Development. 1997;124:3943-53 pubmed
    ..We also propose that postnatal alveogenesis failure in PDGF-A(-/-) mice is due to a prenatal block in the distal spreading of PDGF-Ralpha+ cells along the tubular lung epithelium during the canalicular stage of lung development. ..
  8. Orr Urtreger A, Lonai P. Platelet-derived growth factor-A and its receptor are expressed in separate, but adjacent cell layers of the mouse embryo. Development. 1992;115:1045-58 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the spatio-temporal regulation of PDGF-A and Pdgfra, and other related systems, represents one model for the spatial regulation of receptor-ligand interactions. ..
  9. Reneker L, Overbeek P. Lens-specific expression of PDGF-A alters lens growth and development. Dev Biol. 1996;180:554-65 pubmed
    ..Elevated levels of PDGF-A enhance proliferation, but also appear to induce some aspects of the fiber cell differentiation pathway. ..
  10. Soriano P. Abnormal kidney development and hematological disorders in PDGF beta-receptor mutant mice. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1888-96 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that whereas the beta receptor is essential in certain cell types during embryonic development, its broader role may be masked because of compensation by the alpha-subunit. ..
  11. Hutchins J, Zhang X. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors in the developing mouse optic pathway. Vis Neurosci. 1994;11:33-40 pubmed
    ..Ganglion cells are labeled with antibodies to PDGF receptor only during the period of active process outgrowth. These findings suggest that PDGF is used as a mediator of intercellular signaling during neuronal development. ..
  12. Teng L, Mundell N, Frist A, Wang Q, Labosky P. Requirement for Foxd3 in the maintenance of neural crest progenitors. Development. 2008;135:1615-24 pubmed publisher
  13. Lu J, Zhu Y, Feng W, Pan Y, Li S, Han D, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor mediates interleukin-13-induced collagen I production in mouse airway fibroblasts. J Biosci. 2014;39:693-700 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our study suggests that activation of JAK/STAT6 signal pathway and subsequent PDGF generation and resultant ERK1/2 MAPK activation mediated IL-13-induced collagen I production in airway fibroblasts. ..
  14. Lin C, Chen M, Yao E, Song H, Gacayan R, Hui C, et al. Differential regulation of Gli proteins by Sufu in the lung affects PDGF signaling and myofibroblast development. Dev Biol. 2014;392:324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work illustrates the unappreciated complexity of Hh responses where distinct Hh targets could respond differently depending on the availability of Gli proteins that control their expression. ..
  15. Zhang X, Afink G, Hu X, Forsberg Nilsson K, Nister M. Gli1 is not required for Pdgfralpha expression during mouse embryonic development. Differentiation. 2005;73:109-19 pubmed
    ..g., bone, gut, and lung development. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that Glis can have more complex regulatory effects on Pdgfra gene activity, nor can we exclude such effects in pathological conditions. ..
  16. Yamada H, Yamada E, Ando A, Seo M, Esumi N, Okamoto N, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor-A-induced retinal gliosis protects against ischemic retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:477-87 pubmed
    ..Therefore, PDGF-A increases retinal astrocytes, which promote the survival of endothelial cells as well as their expression of barrier characteristics. ..
  17. Palmieri S, Payne J, Stiles C, Biggers J, Mercola M. Expression of mouse PDGF-A and PDGF alpha-receptor genes during pre- and post-implantation development: evidence for a developmental shift from an autocrine to a paracrine mode of action. Mech Dev. 1992;39:181-91 pubmed
    ..We propose that chronic autostimulation of PDGF alpha-receptors occurs in pre-implantation embryos, whereas, following implantation, early mesoderm development is dependent on stimulation by ectodermally produced PDGF-A. ..
  18. Chen X, Aravindakshan J, Yang Y, Tiwari Pandey R, Sairam M. Aberrant expression of PDGF ligands and receptors in the tumor prone ovary of follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:903-15 pubmed
  19. Andrae J, Gouveia L, He L, Betsholtz C. Characterization of platelet-derived growth factor-A expression in mouse tissues using a lacZ knock-in approach. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105477 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene (Pdgfa) occurs widely in the developing mouse, where it is mainly localized to various epithelial and neuronal structures...
  20. Hoyle G, Li J, Finkelstein J, Eisenberg T, Liu J, Lasky J, et al. Emphysematous lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis in the lungs of transgenic mice overexpressing platelet-derived growth factor. Am J Pathol. 1999;154:1763-75 pubmed
    ..Results of these studies indicated that overexpression of PDGF-B induced distinct abnormalities in the developing and adult lung and led to a complex phenotype that encompassed aspects of both emphysema and fibrotic lung disease. ..
  21. Tamai Y, Nakajima R, Ishikawa T, Takaku K, Seldin M, Taketo M. Colonic hamartoma development by anomalous duplication in Cdx2 knockout mice. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2965-70 pubmed
  22. Kidson S, Kume T, Deng K, Winfrey V, Hogan B. The forkhead/winged-helix gene, Mf1, is necessary for the normal development of the cornea and formation of the anterior chamber in the mouse eye. Dev Biol. 1999;211:306-22 pubmed
    ..Possible roles for Mf1 in this process are discussed. ..
  23. Shindo T, Manabe I, Fukushima Y, Tobe K, Aizawa K, Miyamoto S, et al. Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor KLF5/BTEB2 is a target for angiotensin II signaling and an essential regulator of cardiovascular remodeling. Nat Med. 2002;8:856-63 pubmed
    ..KLF5 thus seems to be a key element linking external stress and cardiovascular remodeling. ..
  24. Henderson D, Conway S, Copp A. Rib truncations and fusions in the Sp2H mouse reveal a role for Pax3 in specification of the ventro-lateral and posterior parts of the somite. Dev Biol. 1999;209:143-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings point to additional regulatory functions for the Pax3 transcription factor, apart from those already demonstrated for development of the neural tube, neural crest, and dermomyotome. ..
  25. West H, Richardson W, Fruttiger M. Stabilization of the retinal vascular network by reciprocal feedback between blood vessels and astrocytes. Development. 2005;132:1855-62 pubmed
    ..Retinal neurons release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFA) to stimulate proliferation of astrocytes, which in turn stimulate blood vessel growth by secreting vascular ..
  26. Mundschau L, Forman L, Weng H, Faller D. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induction of egr-1 is independent of PDGF receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16137-42 pubmed
  27. Wen Q, Zheng Q, Li X, Hu Z, Gao F, Cheng C, et al. Wt1 dictates the fate of fetal and adult Leydig cells during development in the mouse testis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E1131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, FLC-like cells in mutant testes are putative FLCs that remain mitotically active in adult mice, illustrating that Wt1 dictates the fate of FLC and ALC during postnatal testis development. ..
  28. Isenberg J, Calzada M, Zhou L, Guo N, Lawler J, Wang X, et al. Endogenous thrombospondin-1 is not necessary for proliferation but is permissive for vascular smooth muscle cell responses to platelet-derived growth factor. Matrix Biol. 2005;24:110-23 pubmed
  29. Mizuta R, LaSalle J, Cheng H, Shinohara A, Ogawa H, Copeland N, et al. RAB22 and RAB163/mouse BRCA2: proteins that specifically interact with the RAD51 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6927-32 pubmed
    ..To detect RAD51 interactions in vivo, we developed a transient nuclear focus assay that was used to demonstrate a complete colocalization of RAB22 with RAD51 in large nuclear foci. ..
  30. Bromann P, Korkaya H, Webb C, Miller J, Calvin T, Courtneidge S. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates Src-dependent mRNA stabilization of specific early genes in fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10253-63 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PDGF regulates gene expression through an SFK-specific pathway that is distinct from the Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways, and that SFKs signal gene expression by enhancing mRNA stability. ..
  31. Bassel Duby R, Hernandez M, Yang Q, Rochelle J, Seldin M, Williams R. Myocyte nuclear factor, a novel winged-helix transcription factor under both developmental and neural regulation in striated myocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:4596-605 pubmed
  32. Cirri P, Taddei M, Chiarugi P, Buricchi F, Caselli A, Paoli P, et al. Insulin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced cell proliferation. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:73-83 pubmed
    ..The latter is very likely to be responsible for the insulin-dependent inhibition of PDGF-receptor mitogenic signaling. ..
  33. Hu W, Zhang Y, Wang L, Lau C, Xu J, Luo J, et al. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4-Smad-Induced Upregulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AA Impairs Endothelial Function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated Ad-Bmp4 to overexpress Bmp4 and Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA to knockdown Pdgfa in mice through tail intravenous injection...
  34. Aase K, Abramsson A, Karlsson L, Betsholtz C, Eriksson U. Expression analysis of PDGF-C in adult and developing mouse tissues. Mech Dev. 2002;110:187-91 pubmed
    ..PDGF-C may therefore have unique functions during tissue development and maintenance. ..
  35. Kiso M, Hamazaki T, Itoh M, Kikuchi S, Nakagawa H, Okochi H. Synergistic effect of PDGF and FGF2 for cell proliferation and hair inductive activity in murine vibrissal dermal papilla in vitro. J Dermatol Sci. 2015;79:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both cell proliferation and hair inductive activity in murine DPCs are maintained by the synergistic effect of FGF2 and PDGF-AA. ..
  36. Schattemann G, Loushin C, Li T, Hart C. PDGF-A is required for normal murine cardiovascular development. Dev Biol. 1996;176:133-42 pubmed
  37. Rivera Gonzalez G, Shook B, Andrae J, Holtrup B, Bollag K, Betsholtz C, et al. Skin Adipocyte Stem Cell Self-Renewal Is Regulated by a PDGFA/AKT-Signaling Axis. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:738-751 pubmed publisher
    ..program that occurs during hair growth to uncover an unrecognized regulator of ASC self-renewal and proliferation, PDGFA, which activates AKT signaling to drive and maintain the adipogenic program in the skin...
  38. Mitani A, Nagase T, Fukuchi K, Aburatani H, Makita R, Kurihara H. Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif is essential for normal alveolarization in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Taz-heterozygous mice were resistant to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The results indicate the importance of TAZ in lung alveolarization and its involvement in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. ..
  39. Chen Y, Wang Z, Dai X, Fei X, Shen Y, Zhang M, et al. Glioma initiating cells contribute to malignant transformation of host glial cells during tumor tissue remodeling via PDGF signaling. Cancer Lett. 2015;365:174-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary high invasive GICs SU3 contribute to transformation of adjacent normal host glial cells in local tumor microenvironment possibly via PDGF/PDGFR signaling activation, which deserved further investigation. ..
  40. Tripurani S, Cook R, Eldin K, Pangas S. BMP-specific SMADs function as novel repressors of PDGFA and modulate its expression in ovarian granulosa cells and tumors. Oncogene. 2013;32:3877-85 pubmed publisher
    Platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA) is frequently upregulated in various cancers and thought to function as a key player in the development and progression of tumor growth by regulating aspects of cell proliferation, ..
  41. Kurahashi M, Niwa Y, Cheng J, Ohsaki Y, Fujita A, Goto H, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor signals play critical roles in differentiation of longitudinal smooth muscle cells in mouse embryonic gut. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective PDGF receptor inhibitor AG1295 suppressed the differentiation of LMC in gut explants. We conclude that PDGF signals play critical roles in the differentiation of LMC in mouse embryonic gut. ..
  42. Leal F, Williams L, Robbins K, Aaronson S. Evidence that the v-sis gene product transforms by interaction with the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor. Science. 1985;230:327-30 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that SSV-transforming activity is mediated by the interaction of a virus-coded mitogen with PDGF receptors...
  43. Andrae J, Gouveia L, Gallini R, He L, Fredriksson L, Nilsson I, et al. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFR? signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex. Biol Open. 2016;5:461-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present expression data onPdgfa,PdgfcandPdgfrain the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. ..
  44. Miyoshi H, Kon Y, Seo K, Jin H, Hasegawa A, Watanabe T. Jumbled spine and ribs (Jsr): a new mutation on mouse chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:213-7 pubmed
    ..The predicted gene order around Jsr was determined to be cen-(Epo, Pdgfa, D5Mit31, D5Mit374)-(Jsr, Nfe2u, D5Mit99, D5Mit247, D5Mit284, D5Mit292, D5Mit327)-D5Mit328-tel...
  45. Chai Y, Bringas P, Mogharei A, Shuler C, Slavkin H. PDGF-A and PDGFR-alpha regulate tooth formation via autocrine mechanism during mandibular morphogenesis in vitro. Dev Dyn. 1998;213:500-11 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PDGF-A and its cognate receptor (PDGFR-alpha) regulate the size and stage of tooth development via an autocrine mechanism during odontogenesis in vitro. ..
  46. Tsui C, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Barnes C, Worley P. Narp, a novel member of the pentraxin family, promotes neurite outgrowth and is dynamically regulated by neuronal activity. J Neurosci. 1996;16:2463-78 pubmed
    ..Because Narp is rapidly regulated by neuronal activity, its lectin and growth-promoting activities are likely to play role in the modification of cellular properties that underlie long-term plasticity. ..
  47. McGowan S, McCoy D. Platelet-derived growth factor-A regulates lung fibroblast S-phase entry through p27(kip1) and FoxO3a. Respir Res. 2013;14:68 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanisms for diminishing the effects of PDGFR?-mediated signaling likely regulate secondary septal formation and their derangement may contribute to imbalanced fibroblast cell kinetics in parenchymal lung diseases. ..
  48. Miller M, Cohen E, Baggs J, Lu M, Hogenesch J, Morrisey E. Wnt ligands signal in a cooperative manner to promote foregut organogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15348-53 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a model in which Pdgf signaling potentiates Wnt2-Wnt7b signaling to promote high levels of Wnt activity in mesenchymal progenitors that is required for proper development of endoderm-derived organs, such as the lung. ..
  49. Torihashi S, Hattori T, Hasegawa H, Kurahashi M, Ogaeri T, Fujimoto T. The expression and crucial roles of BMP signaling in development of smooth muscle progenitor cells in the mouse embryonic gut. Differentiation. 2009;77:277-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, BMP signaling was expressed for a short window in the smooth muscle progenitors and the signal, especially BMP2, plays an essential role in smooth muscle differentiation in cooperation with PDGF signaling. ..
  50. Bloomekatz J, Singh R, Prall O, Dunn A, Vaughan M, Loo C, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling directs cardiomyocyte movement toward the midline during heart tube assembly. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data uncover a novel mechanism through which endodermal-myocardial communication can guide the cell movements that initiate cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  51. Tsai H, Macklin W, Miller R. Netrin-1 is required for the normal development of spinal cord oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1913-22 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that netrin-1 is crucial for both the initial dispersal of spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursors and their subsequent development in the presumptive white matter. ..
  52. Nakamura T, Ebihara I, Nagaoka I, Tomino Y, Koide H. Renal platelet-derived growth factor gene expression in NZB/W F1 mice with lupus and ddY mice with IgA nephropathy. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992;63:173-81 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PDGF plays a role in the progression of nephritis and that the beneficial effect of MPSL correlates with its ability to decrease the abnormally high PDGF mRNA levels seen in lupus nephritis. ..
  53. Liao X, Escobedo J, Williams L. Viability of transgenic mice expressing a platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist in plasma. J Investig Med. 1996;44:139-43 pubmed
  54. Ohlsson R, Falck P, Hellstrom M, Lindahl P, Bostrom H, Franklin G, et al. PDGFB regulates the development of the labyrinthine layer of the mouse fetal placenta. Dev Biol. 1999;212:124-36 pubmed
    ..We point out that the roles of PDGFB/Rbeta signaling in the placenta may be analogous to those in the developing kidney, by controlling pericytes in the labyrinthine layer and mesangial cells in the kidney. ..
  55. Umahara M, Okada S, Yamada E, Saito T, Ohshima K, Hashimoto K, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c regulates platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated glucose transporter 4 translocation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Endocrinology. 2008;149:40-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that one mechanism accounting for the PDGF induction of Glut4 translocation is the suppression of the Munc18c negative regulation of Syntaxin 4 function. ..
  56. Le Bras B, Barallobre M, Homman Ludiye J, Ny A, Wyns S, Tammela T, et al. VEGF-C is a trophic factor for neural progenitors in the vertebrate embryonic brain. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:340-8 pubmed
    ..VEGF-C thus has a new, evolutionary conserved function as a growth factor selectively required by neural progenitor cells expressing its receptor VEGFR-3. ..
  57. He F, Popkie A, Xiong W, Li L, Wang Y, Phiel C, et al. Gsk3? is required in the epithelium for palatal elevation in mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Gsk3? is an intrinsic regulator required in the epithelium for palate elevation, and could act through a pathway independent of Wnt/?-catenin signaling to regulate palate development...
  58. Reneker L, Overbeek P. Lens-specific expression of PDGF-A in transgenic mice results in retinal astrocytic hamartomas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37:2455-66 pubmed
    ..The authors speculate that proliferation of retinal astrocytes is mediated through a PDGF signaling pathway, which may involve the TSC gene product. ..
  59. Seo K, Wang Y, Kokubo H, Kettlewell J, Zarkower D, Johnson R. Targeted disruption of the DM domain containing transcription factor Dmrt2 reveals an essential role in somite patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;290:200-10 pubmed
  60. Ghosh D, Lili L, McGrail D, Matyunina L, McDonald J, Dawson M. Integral role of platelet-derived growth factor in mediating transforming growth factor-?1-dependent mesenchymal stem cell stiffening. Stem Cells Dev. 2014;23:245-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings will provide a more mechanistic insight for modeling tissue-level rigidity in fibrotic tissues and tumors. ..
  61. Kurokawa K, Matsuda M. Localized RhoA activation as a requirement for the induction of membrane ruffling. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4294-303 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that mDia1, but not ROCK, was stably associated with membrane ruffles. In conclusion, these results suggested that RhoA cooperates with Rac1 and Cdc42 to induce membrane ruffles via the recruitment of mDia. ..
  62. Gallini R, Lindblom P, Bondjers C, Betsholtz C, Andrae J. PDGF-A and PDGF-B induces cardiac fibrosis in transgenic mice. Exp Cell Res. 2016;349:282-290 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic expression of the natural isoforms of Pdgfa and Pdgfb resulted in isoform specific fibrotic reactions and cardiac hypertrophy...
  63. McGowan S, McCoy D. Platelet-derived growth factor-A and sonic hedgehog signaling direct lung fibroblast precursors during alveolar septal formation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Better understanding how LF are positioned during alveolar development could identify signaling pathways, which promote alveolar septal regeneration. ..
  64. Mercola M, Wang C, Kelly J, Brownlee C, Jackson Grusby L, Stiles C, et al. Selective expression of PDGF A and its receptor during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1990;138:114-22 pubmed
    ..RNAse protection analysis shows that PDGF A chain, but not B chain, mRNA is expressed in 6.5- to 8.5-day embryonic and extraembryonic tissues...
  65. Lindahl P, Hellstrom M, Kalén M, Betsholtz C. Endothelial-perivascular cell signaling in vascular development: lessons from knockout mice. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1998;9:407-11 pubmed
    ..Based on findings in platelet-derived growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor knockout mice, a general model for the role of platelet-derived growth factors in smooth muscle development is proposed. ..
  66. Li S, Lee R, Chen P, Lu C, Wang S, Hwu Y. Differential expression and distribution of alternatively spliced transcripts of PDGF-A and of PDGF receptor-alpha in mouse reproductive tissues. Life Sci. 2005;77:2412-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, the complete PDGF-A/PDGFR-alpha signaling system is present in murine reproductive tissues, but the distribution of the long and short isoforms of PDFG-A differs. ..
  67. Iavarone C, Catania A, Marinissen M, Visconti R, Acunzo M, Tarantino C, et al. The platelet-derived growth factor controls c-myc expression through a JNK- and AP-1-dependent signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50024-30 pubmed
    ..They also provide a novel potential mechanism by which both JNK and Jun proteins may exert either their proliferative or apoptotic potential by stimulating the expression of the c-myc proto-oncogene. ..
  68. Gray K, Eitzman B, Raszmann K, Steed T, Geboff A, McLachlan J, et al. Coordinate regulation by diethylstilbestrol of the platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) and -B chains and the PDGF receptor alpha- and beta-subunits in the mouse uterus and vagina: potential mediators of estrogen action. Endocrinology. 1995;136:2325-40 pubmed
    ..After DES treatment, the uterus exhibits a significant decrease in the level of PDGF ligand and receptor proteins immunostained within 6 h, whereas less dramatic effects ar observed in the vagina.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  69. Li S, Baserga R. Epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor regulate the activity of the insulin-like growth factor I gene promoter. Exp Gerontol. 1996;31:195-206 pubmed
    ..When the E2F binding sequence in the IGF-I promoter is mutated, the IGF-I promoter is constitutively active and no longer responds to the action of growth factors. ..
  70. Vasudevan H, Soriano P. SRF regulates craniofacial development through selective recruitment of MRTF cofactors by PDGF signaling. Dev Cell. 2014;31:332-44 pubmed publisher
  71. Salazar K, Lankford S, Brody A. Mesenchymal stem cells produce Wnt isoforms and TGF-beta1 that mediate proliferation and procollagen expression by lung fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L1002-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It will be essential to determine whether these factors can play a role in attempts to use MSC for therapeutic approaches. ..
  72. Qiu C, Ferguson M. The distribution of PDGFs and PDGF-receptors during murine secondary palate development. J Anat. 1995;186 ( Pt 1):17-29 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the interaction between PDGF-AA and its receptor may participate in palate development, particularly in regulating palatal midline epithelial seam formation and degeneration. ..
  73. Demaria M, Ohtani N, Youssef S, Rodier F, Toussaint W, Mitchell J, et al. An essential role for senescent cells in optimal wound healing through secretion of PDGF-AA. Dev Cell. 2014;31:722-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define a beneficial role for the SASP in tissue repair and help to explain why the SASP evolved. ..
  74. Payne J, Shibasaki F, Mercola M. Spina bifida occulta in homozygous Patch mouse embryos. Dev Dyn. 1997;209:105-16 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, since the neural tube appears to close normally, we suggest that spina bifida in the Ph homozygote is caused primarily by a somitic mesoderm abnormality rather than a neural tube defect. ..
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