Gene Symbol: Pde4d
Description: phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP specific
Alias: 9630011N22Rik, Dpde3, cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4D, cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D5A, dunce
Species: mouse
Products:     Pde4d

Top Publications

  1. Richter W, Day P, Agrawal R, Bruss M, Granier S, Wang Y, et al. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4. EMBO J. 2008;27:384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..binding to the beta2AR is a prerequisite for the recruitment of a complex consisting of beta-arrestin and the PDE4D variant, PDE4D5, to the receptor...
  2. Verde I, Pahlke G, Salanova M, Zhang G, Wang S, Coletti D, et al. Myomegalin is a novel protein of the golgi/centrosome that interacts with a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:11189-98 pubmed
    ..we have identified a novel protein, named myomegalin, that interacts with the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE4D, thereby targeting it to particulate structures...
  3. Lehnart S, Wehrens X, Reiken S, Warrier S, Belevych A, Harvey R, et al. Phosphodiesterase 4D deficiency in the ryanodine-receptor complex promotes heart failure and arrhythmias. Cell. 2005;123:25-35 pubmed
    ..We show that PDE4D gene inactivation in mice results in a progressive cardiomyopathy, accelerated heart failure after myocardial ..
  4. Lynex C, Li Z, Chen M, Toh K, Low R, Goh D, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel PDE4D11 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase isoform. Cell Signal. 2008;20:2247-55 pubmed publisher
    Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel PDE4D isoform (PDE4D11) identified in mouse brain cDNA...
  5. Jin S, Richard F, Kuo W, D Ercole A, Conti M. Impaired growth and fertility of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11998-2003 pubmed
    ..in vivo, we have inactivated the type 4 cAMP-specific PDE (PDE4D) gene, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila dunce. This isoenzyme is involved in feedback regulation of cAMP levels...
  6. Zhang H, Huang Y, Jin S, Frith S, Suvarna N, Conti M, et al. Antidepressant-like profile and reduced sensitivity to rolipram in mice deficient in the PDE4D phosphodiesterase enzyme. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:587-95 pubmed
    ..In the present study, immunoblot analysis showed loss of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of PDE4D knockout (PDE4D-/-) mice, but unchanged PDE4A and ..
  7. Bruss M, Richter W, Horner K, Jin S, Conti M. Critical role of PDE4D in beta2-adrenoceptor-dependent cAMP signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22430-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To this aim, mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in PDE4A, PDE4B, or PDE4D were generated, and the regulation of PDE activity, the accumulation of cAMP, and CREB phosphorylation in response ..
  8. Xiang Y, Naro F, Zoudilova M, Jin S, Conti M, Kobilka B. Phosphodiesterase 4D is required for beta2 adrenoceptor subtype-specific signaling in cardiac myocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:909-14 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) selectively impacts signaling by beta2AR in neonatal cardiac myocytes, while having little or no effect on ..
  9. De Arcangelis V, Liu R, Soto D, Xiang Y. Differential association of phosphodiesterase 4D isoforms with beta2-adrenoceptor in cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33824-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that beta(2)ARs form signaling complexes with a set of PDE4D isoforms expressed in cardiac myocytes...

More Information


  1. Li Y, Cheng Y, Huang Y, Conti M, Wilson S, O Donnell J, et al. Phosphodiesterase-4D knock-out and RNA interference-mediated knock-down enhance memory and increase hippocampal neurogenesis via increased cAMP signaling. J Neurosci. 2011;31:172-83 pubmed publisher
    ..PDE4 has four subtypes (PDE4A-D) consisting of 25 splice variants. Mice deficient in PDE4D displayed memory enhancement in radial arm maze, water maze, and object recognition tests...
  2. Jin S, Lan L, Zoudilova M, Conti M. Specific role of phosphodiesterase 4B in lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling in mouse macrophages. J Immunol. 2005;175:1523-31 pubmed
    ..In these cells, LPS stimulation of TLR caused a major up-regulation of PDE4B but not the paralogs PDE4A or PDE4D. Only ablation of PDE4B impacted LPS signaling and TNF-alpha production...
  3. Suk H, Zhou C, Yang T, Zhu H, Yu R, Olabisi O, et al. Ablation of calcineurin A? reveals hyperlipidemia and signaling cross-talks with phosphodiesterases. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also indicate that potentiated cAMP signaling pathway may provide an alternative molecular pathogenesis for the metabolic complications elicited by CsA in transplant patients. ..
  4. Li X, Baillie G, Houslay M. Mdm2 directs the ubiquitination of beta-arrestin-sequestered cAMP phosphodiesterase-4D5. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..for this is the ubiquitin-interacting motif located in the extreme C terminus of PDE4D5, which is specific to the PDE4D sub-family...
  5. Zhu H, Suk H, Yu R, Brancho D, Olabisi O, Yang T, et al. Evolutionarily conserved role of calcineurin in phosphodegron-dependent degradation of phosphodiesterase 4D. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..calcineurin binds directly to and inhibits the proteosomal degradation of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D)...
  6. Wang D, Deng C, Bugaj Gaweda B, Kwan M, Gunwaldsen C, Leonard C, et al. Cloning and characterization of novel PDE4D isoforms PDE4D6 and PDE4D7. Cell Signal. 2003;15:883-91 pubmed
    We report here the cloning and characterization of two novel PDE4D isoforms, PDE4D6 and PDE4D7. PDE4D6 is a supershort form and PDE4D7 a long form of PDE4D...
  7. Por E, Bierbower S, Berg K, Gomez R, Akopian A, Wetsel W, et al. ?-Arrestin-2 desensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, inhibition of PDE4D5 activity reversed ?-arrestin-2 desensitization of TRPV1. Together, these results identify a new endogenous scaffolding mechanism that regulates TRPV1 ligand binding and activation. ..
  8. Tian G, Sågetorp J, Xu Y, Shuai H, Degerman E, Tengholm A. Role of phosphodiesterases in the shaping of sub-plasma-membrane cAMP oscillations and pulsatile insulin secretion. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5084-95 pubmed publisher
  9. Xie M, Blackman B, Scheitrum C, Mika D, Blanchard E, Lei T, et al. The upstream conserved regions (UCRs) mediate homo- and hetero-oligomerization of type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4s). Biochem J. 2014;459:539-50 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, individual PDE4 protomers may independently mediate protein-protein interactions, providing a mechanism whereby PDE4s contribute to the assembly of macromolecular signalling complexes. ..
  10. Rutten K, Misner D, Works M, Blokland A, Novak T, Santarelli L, et al. Enhanced long-term potentiation and impaired learning in phosphodiesterase 4D-knockout (PDE4D) mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, genetic knockout mice were used to investigate the involvement of the PDE4D isoform in both in vitro and in vivo models of learning and memory...
  11. Bradshaw N, Ogawa F, Antolin Fontes B, Chubb J, Carlyle B, Christie S, et al. DISC1, PDE4B, and NDE1 at the centrosome and synapse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:1091-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the Nuclear Distribution Factor E Homologs (NDE1 and NDEL1), LIS1, and phosphodiesterases 4B and 4D (PDE4B and PDE4D)...
  12. Rahrmann E, Collier L, Knutson T, Doyal M, Kuslak S, Green L, et al. Identification of PDE4D as a proliferation promoting factor in prostate cancer using a Sleeping Beauty transposon-based somatic mutagenesis screen. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of transposon insertions identified candidate prostate cancer genes at common insertion sites, including Pde4d. PDE4D was also overexpressed in human prostate cancer patient samples and cell lines, and changes in PDE4D mRNA ..
  13. Kitaoka K, Kawata S, Yoshida T, Kadoriku F, Kitamura M. Exposure to an Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Stimulates Adrenal Steroidogenesis via Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Activity in a Mouse Adrenal Cell Line. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154167 pubmed publisher
    ..The same mechanism may trigger the increase in adrenal steroid secretion in mice observed in our previous study. ..
  14. Singh S, Mishra N, Rir Sima Ah J, Campen M, Kurup V, Razani Boroujerdi S, et al. Maternal exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke primes the lung for induction of phosphodiesterase-4D5 isozyme and exacerbated Th2 responses: rolipram attenuates the airway hyperreactivity and muscarinic receptor expression but not lung inflammation . J Immunol. 2009;183:2115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PDE4 inhibitors might ease AHR, but are unlikely to attenuate lung inflammation and atopy associated with childhood allergic asthma. ..
  15. Kvajo M, McKellar H, Gogos J. Avoiding mouse traps in schizophrenia genetics: lessons and promises from current and emerging mouse models. Neuroscience. 2012;211:136-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss emerging mouse models, such as second-generation pathophysiology models based on innovative approaches that are facilitated by the information gathered from the current genetic mouse models. ..
  16. Soda T, Frank C, Ishizuka K, Baccarella A, Park Y, Flood Z, et al. DISC1-ATF4 transcriptional repression complex: dual regulation of the cAMP-PDE4 cascade by DISC1. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:898-908 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identify a novel DISC1 and ATF4 binding region in the genomic locus of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), a gene implicated in psychiatric disorders...
  17. Repaske D, Swinnen J, Jin S, Van Wyk J, Conti M. A polymerase chain reaction strategy to identify and clone cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase cDNAs. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding the 63-kDa calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:18683-8 pubmed
    ..Molecular cloning of these PDEs will provide valuable tools for investigating the roles of these isozymes in regulation of intracellular concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides. ..
  18. Sakai M, Suzuki T, Tomita K, Yamashita S, Palikhe S, Hattori K, et al. Diminished responsiveness to dobutamine as an inotrope in mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis: attribution to phosphodiesterase 4 upregulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;312:H1224-H1237 pubmed publisher
    ..Of phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, PDE4D, but not PDE3A, both of which are responsible for cardiac cAMP hydrolysis, was significantly upregulated in CLP ..
  19. Hansen G, Jin S, Umetsu D, Conti M. Absence of muscarinic cholinergic airway responses in mice deficient in the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE4D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6751-6 pubmed
    ..In this paper we demonstrate that the airways of mice deficient in a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4D) are no longer responsive to cholinergic stimulation...
  20. Kobayashi K, Suda T, Manabe H, Miki I. Administration of PDE4 inhibitors suppressed the pannus-like inflammation by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation. Mediators Inflamm. 2007;2007:58901 pubmed publisher
    ..PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation. ..
  21. Hill E, Sheppard C, Cheung Y, Gall I, Krause E, Houslay M. Oxidative stress employs phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and ERK signalling pathways to activate cAMP phosphodiesterase-4D3 (PDE4D3) through multi-site phosphorylation at Ser239 and Ser579. Cell Signal. 2006;18:2056-69 pubmed
    ..We identify a novel process through which reactive oxygen species activate long PDE4 isoforms so as to reduce cAMP levels and thereby promote inflammatory responses. ..
  22. Yun S, Budatha M, Dahlman J, Coon B, Cameron R, Langer R, et al. Interaction between integrin ?5 and PDE4D regulates endothelial inflammatory signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1043-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo knockdown of PDE4D5 inhibited inflammation at athero-prone sites. These data elucidate a molecular mechanism linking ECM remodelling and inflammation, thereby identifying a new class of therapeutic targets. ..
  23. Blackman B, Horner K, Heidmann J, Wang D, Richter W, Rich T, et al. PDE4D and PDE4B function in distinct subcellular compartments in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12590-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the consequences of PDE4B or PDE4D gene ablation on cAMP signaling at a subcellular level using mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
  24. Chandrasekaran A, Toh K, Low S, Tay S, Brenner S, Goh D. Identification and characterization of novel mouse PDE4D isoforms: molecular cloning, subcellular distribution and detection of isoform-specific intracellular localization signals. Cell Signal. 2008;20:139-53 pubmed
    We report here the cloning and characterization of short and supershort mouse PDE4D isoforms. PDE4D is one of the phosphodiesterase enzyme families with multiple promoters and splice variants...
  25. Serrels B, Sandilands E, Serrels A, Baillie G, Houslay M, Brunton V, et al. A complex between FAK, RACK1, and PDE4D5 controls spreading initiation and cancer cell polarity. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1086-92 pubmed publisher
    ..FAK/RACK1/PDE4D5 is a novel 'direction-sensing' complex that acts to recruit specific components of the cAMP second-messenger system to nascent integrin adhesions and to the leading edge of polarizing cells. ..
  26. D Andrea I, Fardella V, Fardella S, Pallante F, Ghigo A, Iacobucci R, et al. Lack of kinase-independent activity of PI3Kγ in locus coeruleus induces ADHD symptoms through increased CREB signaling. EMBO Mol Med. 2015;7:904-17 pubmed publisher
    ..that the ADHD phenotype depends on a dysregulation of CREB signaling exerted by a kinase-independent PI3Kγ-PDE4D interaction in the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, thus uncovering new tools for mechanistic and ..
  27. Mehats C, Jin S, Wahlstrom J, Law E, Umetsu D, Conti M. PDE4D plays a critical role in the control of airway smooth muscle contraction. FASEB J. 2003;17:1831-41 pubmed
    The airways of mice deficient in the cAMP phosphodiesterase PDE4D gene are refractory to muscarinic cholinergic stimulation. This study was undertaken to determine whether altered smooth muscle contractility causes the PDE4D-/- phenotype...
  28. Mika D, Richter W, Conti M. A CaMKII/PDE4D negative feedback regulates cAMP signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by CaMKII regulation of PDE4D. This regulation establishes a negative feedback loop necessary to maintain cAMP/CaMKII homeostasis, revealing a ..
  29. Mahavadi S, Nalli A, Kumar D, Hu W, Kuemmerle J, Grider J, et al. Cytokine-induced iNOS and ERK1/2 inhibit adenylyl cyclase type 5/6 activity and stimulate phosphodiesterase 4D5 activity in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;307:C402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in the cAMP/PKA signaling and smooth muscle relaxation contribute to colonic dysmotility during inflammation. ..
  30. Mackenzie S, Yarwood S, Peden A, Bolger G, Vernon R, Houslay M. Stimulation of p70S6 kinase via a growth hormone-controlled phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway leads to the activation of a PDE4A cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase in 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3549-54 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that activation of PDE4A5 by growth hormone serves as a brake on the differentiation processes. ..
  31. Beca S, Helli P, Simpson J, Zhao D, Farman G, Jones P, et al. Phosphodiesterase 4D regulates baseline sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and cardiac contractility, independently of L-type Ca2+ current. Circ Res. 2011;109:1024-1030 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to determine whether PDE4D regulates basal cardiac contractility...
  32. Haj Slimane Z, Bedioune I, Lechêne P, Varin A, Lefebvre F, Mateo P, et al. Control of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein kinase A by phosphodiesterases and phosphatases in cardiac myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;102:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses...
  33. Crabtree G, Sun Z, Kvajo M, Broek J, Fenelon K, McKellar H, et al. Alteration of Neuronal Excitability and Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of a Mouse Model of Mental Illness. J Neurosci. 2017;37:4158-4180 pubmed publisher
  34. Cherry J, Davis R. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases are localized in regions of the mouse brain associated with reinforcement, movement, and affect. J Comp Neurol. 1999;407:287-301 pubmed
    ..specific antibodies were generated against the proteins encoded by each of three dunce homologs PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4D in the mouse. On Western blots, these antibodies recognized multiple protein species in all brain regions studied...
  35. Isidori A, Cornacchione M, Barbagallo F, Di Grazia A, Barrios F, Fassina L, et al. Inhibition of type 5 phosphodiesterase counteracts β2-adrenergic signalling in beating cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a new effect of PDE5 inhibitors on the modulation of cardiomyocyte response to adrenergic stimulation via PDE5-PDE2-mediated cross-talk. ..
  36. Cherry J, Davis R. A mouse homolog of dunce, a gene important for learning and memory in Drosophila, is preferentially expressed in olfactory receptor neurons. J Neurobiol. 1995;28:102-13 pubmed
    The dunce (dnc) gene in Drosophila codes for a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE). Flies with a mutation at this locus exhibit severe deficits in learning and memory...
  37. Kim M, Park S, Lee J, Jung C, Sung D, Park J, et al. Salt-Inducible Kinase 1 Terminates cAMP Signaling by an Evolutionarily Conserved Negative-Feedback Loop in β-Cells. Diabetes. 2015;64:3189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that SIK1 regulates insulin secretion in β-cells by modulating PDE4D and cAMP concentrations...
  38. Ariga M, Neitzert B, Nakae S, Mottin G, Bertrand C, Pruniaux M, et al. Nonredundant function of phosphodiesterases 4D and 4B in neutrophil recruitment to the site of inflammation. J Immunol. 2004;173:7531-8 pubmed
    ..Ablation of two of these genes, PDE4B and PDE4D, but not PDE4A, has profound effects on neutrophil function...
  39. Wang W, Zhang X, Feng Z, Wang D, Zhang H, Sui B, et al. Overexpression of phosphodiesterase-4 subtypes involved in surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2017;130:274-282 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice displayed learning and memory impairment, overexpression of PDE4B and PDE4D, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reduction in the expression of p-CREB, PSD95 and cAMP levels after ..
  40. Leroy J, Richter W, Mika D, Castro L, Abi Gerges A, Xie M, et al. Phosphodiesterase 4B in the cardiac L-type Ca²? channel complex regulates Ca²? current and protects against ventricular arrhythmias in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Three genes encoding PDE4 are expressed in mouse heart: Pde4a, Pde4b, and Pde4d. Here we show that both PDE4B and PDE4D are tethered to the LTCC in the mouse heart but that ?-AR stimulation of ..
  41. Gregg C, Steppan J, Gonzalez D, Champion H, Phan A, Nyhan D, et al. ?2-adrenergic receptor-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase constrains cAMP-dependent increases in cardiac inotropy through phosphodiesterase 4 activation. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0% of PDE4 activity at LY concentrations of 10 ?M). Notably, PI3K(?) coimmunoprecipitated with PDE4D. The ?(2)-AR inverse agonist, ICI 118,551 (ICI), abolished induced increases in contractility...
  42. Kim H, Ha S, Lee M, Huston E, Kim D, Jang S, et al. Cyclic AMP controls mTOR through regulation of the dynamic interaction between Rheb and phosphodiesterase 4D. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5406-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify cAMP phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as a binding partner of Rheb that acts as a cAMP-specific negative regulator of mTORC1...
  43. Zhang H, Huang Y, Masood A, Stolinski L, Li Y, Zhang L, et al. Anxiogenic-like behavioral phenotype of mice deficient in phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B). Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:1611-23 pubmed
    ..However, the functions of the four PDE4 subfamilies (PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4C, and PDE4D) remain largely unknown...
  44. Milatovich A, Bolger G, Michaeli T, Francke U. Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1994;20:75-86 pubmed
    ..Genes DPDE1, DPDE2, DPDE3, and DPDE4 that share sequence homology with the Drosophila dunce gene were assigned to human chromosome 19 (DPDE1 ..
  45. Nishi A, Kuroiwa M, Miller D, O Callaghan J, Bateup H, Shuto T, et al. Distinct roles of PDE4 and PDE10A in the regulation of cAMP/PKA signaling in the striatum. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10460-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data underscore the importance of individual brain-enriched cyclic-nucleotide PDE isoforms as therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders affecting dopamine neurotransmission. ..
  46. Huang Z, Han Z, Cui W, Zhang F, He H, Zeng T, et al. Dynamic expression pattern of Pde4d and its relationship with CpG methylation in the promoter during mouse embryo development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:982-7 pubmed publisher
    Mouse Pde4d is located on chromosome 13 and serves many functions in important physiological processes involving cyclic adenosine monophosphate...
  47. Park J, Richard F, Chun S, Park J, Law E, Horner K, et al. Phosphodiesterase regulation is critical for the differentiation and pattern of gene expression in granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1117-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that one of these feedback regulations involving the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE4D plays a critical role in cAMP signaling during the differentiation of granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle...
  48. Nomura Furuwatari C, Wakitani S, Hashimoto Y, Imai Y, Ohta Y, Nakagawa K, et al. Expression profiles of phosphodiesterase 4D splicing variants in osteoblastic cells. J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Four PDE4 family members are transcribed from four distinct genes (4A, 4B, 4C, and 4D). Expression of PDE4A and PDE4D has been observed in osteoblastic cells...
  49. Terrenoire C, Houslay M, Baillie G, Kass R. The cardiac IKs potassium channel macromolecular complex includes the phosphodiesterase PDE4D3. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have tested the hypothesis that specific cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms of the PDE4D family that are expressed in the heart are also part of the I(Ks) signaling complex and contribute to its ..