Gene Symbol: Pcna
Description: proliferating cell nuclear antigen
Alias: proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin
Species: mouse
Products:     Pcna

Top Publications

  1. Duvillie B, Currie C, Chrones T, Bucchini D, Jami J, Joshi R, et al. Increased islet cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and greater vascularization leading to beta-cell hyperplasia in mutant mice lacking insulin. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1530-7 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen within the pancreatic ductal epithelium showed no differences in labeling index between insulin-..
  2. Bi X, Barkley L, Slater D, Tateishi S, Yamaizumi M, Ohmori H, et al. Rad18 regulates DNA polymerase kappa and is required for recovery from S-phase checkpoint-mediated arrest. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3527-40 pubmed
    ..The DNA polymerase processivity factor PCNA is monoubiquitinated and interacts with Polkappa in cells treated with the bulky adduct-forming genotoxin benzo[a]..
  3. Kedar P, Kim S, Robertson A, Hou E, Prasad R, Horton J, et al. Direct interaction between mammalian DNA polymerase beta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31115-23 pubmed
    b>Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an essential role in nucleic acid metabolism as a component of the DNA replication and DNA repair machinery...
  4. Martynoga B, Morrison H, Price D, Mason J. Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor proliferation and apoptosis. Dev Biol. 2005;283:113-27 pubmed
  5. Langerak P, Nygren A, Krijger P, van den Berk P, Jacobs H. A/T mutagenesis in hypermutated immunoglobulin genes strongly depends on PCNAK164 modification. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1989-98 pubmed
    ..Monoubiquitination at lysine(164) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA(K164)) stimulates TLS...
  6. Roa S, Avdievich E, Peled J, MacCarthy T, Werling U, Kuang F, et al. Ubiquitylated PCNA plays a role in somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination and is required for meiotic progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The scaffolding properties of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ubiquitylation of its residue K164 have been suggested to play an important role ..
  7. Langerak P, Nygren A, Schouten J, Jacobs H. Rapid and quantitative detection of homologous and non-homologous recombination events using three oligonucleotide MLPA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:e188 pubmed
    ..in ES cell clones targeted with two different constructs: one introduces a single nucleotide change in the PCNA gene and the other allows for a conditional inactivation of the wild-type PCNA allele...
  8. Zimmer C, Tiveron M, Bodmer R, Cremer H. Dynamics of Cux2 expression suggests that an early pool of SVZ precursors is fated to become upper cortical layer neurons. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:1408-20 pubmed
    ..This suggests that laminar determination of upper cortical layer neurons occurs during the earliest stages of corticogenesis. ..
  9. Millien G, Spira A, Hinds A, Wang J, Williams M, Ramirez M. Alterations in gene expression in T1 alpha null lung: a model of deficient alveolar sac development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:35 pubmed
    ..Biochemical assays show that neither PCNA nor p21 are altered at E18.5. At term in contrast, PCNA is increased, and p21 is decreased...

More Information


  1. Taranova O, Magness S, Fagan B, Wu Y, Surzenko N, Hutton S, et al. SOX2 is a dose-dependent regulator of retinal neural progenitor competence. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1187-202 pubmed
  2. Ivkovic S, Yoon B, Popoff S, Safadi F, Libuda D, Stephenson R, et al. Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development. Development. 2003;130:2779-91 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CTGF is important for cell proliferation and matrix remodeling during chondrogenesis, and is a key regulator coupling extracellular matrix remodeling to angiogenesis at the growth plate. ..
  3. Tsai R, McKay R. A nucleolar mechanism controlling cell proliferation in stem cells and cancer cells. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2991-3003 pubmed
    ..This work describes a novel nucleolar mechanism that controls the cell-cycle progression in CNS stem cells and cancer cells. ..
  4. Jiang Y, de Bruin A, Caldas H, Fangusaro J, Hayes J, Conway E, et al. Essential role for survivin in early brain development. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6962-70 pubmed
    ..Our study is the first to solidify a role for survivin as an antiapoptotic protein during normal neuronal development in vivo. ..
  5. Karalay O, Doberauer K, Vadodaria K, Knobloch M, Berti L, Miquelajauregui A, et al. Prospero-related homeobox 1 gene (Prox1) is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling and has a stage-specific role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5807-12 pubmed publisher
  6. Mavila N, James D, Utley S, Cu N, Coblens O, Mak K, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-mediated activation of AKT-?-catenin-CBP pathway regulates survival and proliferation of murine hepatoblasts and hepatic tumor initiating stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50401 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF signaling regulates the proliferation and survival of embryonic and transformed progenitor cells in part through AKT-mediated activation of ?-catenin and downstream interaction with the transcriptional co-activator CBP. ..
  7. Guo C, Sonoda E, Tang T, Parker J, Bielen A, Takeda S, et al. REV1 protein interacts with PCNA: significance of the REV1 BRCT domain in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell. 2006;23:265-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that mouse REV1 can bind directly to PCNA and that monoubiquitylation of PCNA enhances this interaction...
  8. Smits P, Li P, Mandel J, Zhang Z, Deng J, Behringer R, et al. The transcription factors L-Sox5 and Sox6 are essential for cartilage formation. Dev Cell. 2001;1:277-90 pubmed
    ..L-Sox5 and Sox6 are thus redundant, potent enhancers of chondroblast functions, thereby essential for endochondral skeleton formation. ..
  9. Yoon B, Pogue R, Ovchinnikov D, Yoshii I, Mishina Y, Behringer R, et al. BMPs regulate multiple aspects of growth-plate chondrogenesis through opposing actions on FGF pathways. Development. 2006;133:4667-78 pubmed
    ..These results provide a genetic in vivo demonstration that the progression of chondrocytes through the growth plate is controlled by antagonistic BMP and FGF signaling pathways. ..
  10. Clark A, Yun S, Veien E, Wu Y, Chow R, Dorsky R, et al. Negative regulation of Vsx1 by its paralog Chx10/Vsx2 is conserved in the vertebrate retina. Brain Res. 2008;1192:99-113 pubmed
  11. Ching S, Vilain E. Targeted disruption of Sonic Hedgehog in the mouse adrenal leads to adrenocortical hypoplasia. Genesis. 2009;47:628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results establish a direct role for Shh signaling in normal adrenal development...
  12. Zhao H, Yang T, Madakashira B, Thiels C, Bechtle C, Garcia C, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008;318:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly. ..
  13. Das G, Choi Y, Sicinski P, Levine E. Cyclin D1 fine-tunes the neurogenic output of embryonic retinal progenitor cells. Neural Dev. 2009;4:15 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 is expressed in RPCs, and mice with a targeted null allele at the cyclin D1 locus (Ccnd1-/-) have ..
  14. Adolphe C, Hetherington R, Ellis T, Wainwright B. Patched1 functions as a gatekeeper by promoting cell cycle progression. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2081-8 pubmed
    ..of Ptch1, however, a large proportion of basal cells exhibit nuclear accumulation of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and B1...
  15. Murga M, Bunting S, Montaña M, Soria R, Mulero F, Canamero M, et al. A mouse model of ATR-Seckel shows embryonic replicative stress and accelerated aging. Nat Genet. 2009;41:891-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Pulvers J, Huttner W. Brca1 is required for embryonic development of the mouse cerebral cortex to normal size by preventing apoptosis of early neural progenitors. Development. 2009;136:1859-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Brca1 is required for the cerebral cortex to develop to normal size by preventing the apoptosis of early cortical progenitors and their immediate progeny. ..
  17. Gabanella F, Carissimi C, Usiello A, Pellizzoni L. The activity of the spinal muscular atrophy protein is regulated during development and cellular differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:3629-42 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the SMN complex activity in snRNP assembly is regulated and point to a differential requirement for SMN function during development and cellular differentiation. ..
  18. Guo C, Tang T, Bienko M, Dikic I, Friedberg E. Requirements for the interaction of mouse Polkappa with ubiquitin and its biological significance. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4658-64 pubmed
    ..In addition, Polkappa binds with monoubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) more robustly than with non-ubiquitinated PCNA...
  19. Krijger P, Langerak P, van den Berk P, Jacobs H. Dependence of nucleotide substitutions on Ung2, Msh2, and PCNA-Ub during somatic hypermutation. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..by the Ung2-dependent pathway and the generation of A/T mutations by the Msh2/ubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-Ub)-dependent pathway...
  20. Chen Z, Wu J, Yang C, Fan P, Balazs L, Jiao Y, et al. DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein-mediated microRNA biogenesis is essential for vascular smooth muscle cell development in mice. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the DGCR8 gene is required for vascular development through the regulation of VSMC proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation...
  21. Micsenyi A, Tan X, Sneddon T, Luo J, Michalopoulos G, Monga S. Beta-catenin is temporally regulated during normal liver development. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1134-46 pubmed
    ..Nuclear and cytoplasmic beta-catenin corresponded to cell proliferation in liver development. Finally, a smaller-molecular-weight species of beta-catenin might be maintaining normal interactions at the membrane. ..
  22. Pan Y, Balazs L, Tigyi G, Yue J. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. ..
  23. Ohkubo Y, Uchida A, Shin D, Partanen J, Vaccarino F. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is required for the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells and for hippocampal growth in mouse. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6057-69 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Fgfr1 is necessary for hippocampal growth, because it promotes the proliferation of hippocampal progenitors and stem cells during development. ..
  24. Délot E, Bahamonde M, Zhao M, Lyons K. BMP signaling is required for septation of the outflow tract of the mammalian heart. Development. 2003;130:209-20 pubmed
    ..The more restricted spectrum of cardiac anomalies in Bmpr2(deltaE2) mutants makes this strain a key murine model to understand the embryonic defects of persistent truncus arteriosus and impaired semilunar valve formation in humans. ..
  25. Muglia L, Bae D, Brown T, Vogt S, Alvarez J, Sunday M, et al. Proliferation and differentiation defects during lung development in corticotropin-releasing hormone-deficient mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;20:181-8 pubmed
  26. Kobayashi T, Minowa O, Kuno J, Mitani H, Hino O, Noda T. Renal carcinogenesis, hepatic hemangiomatosis, and embryonic lethality caused by a germ-line Tsc2 mutation in mice. Cancer Res. 1999;59:1206-11 pubmed
    ..The mouse strain described here should provide a valuable experimental model to analyze the function of tuberin and its association with tumorigenesis. ..
  27. Fode C, Ma Q, Casarosa S, Ang S, Anderson D, Guillemot F. A role for neural determination genes in specifying the dorsoventral identity of telencephalic neurons. Genes Dev. 2000;14:67-80 pubmed
  28. Kelman Z. PCNA: structure, functions and interactions. Oncogene. 1997;14:629-40 pubmed
    b>Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an essential role in nucleic acid metabolism as a component of the replication and repair machinery. This toroidal-shaped protein encircles DNA and can slide bidirectionally along the duplex...
  29. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners J, Scheel D, Kalamaras J, Dela Cruz F, et al. Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas. Development. 2000;127:5533-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments reveal two independently controlled pathways for beta-cell differentiation, and place Nkx6.1 downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell differentiation. ..
  30. Rountree M, Bachman K, Baylin S. DNMT1 binds HDAC2 and a new co-repressor, DMAP1, to form a complex at replication foci. Nat Genet. 2000;25:269-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, DNMT1 not only maintains DNA methylation, but also may directly target, in a heritable manner, transcriptionally repressive chromatin to the genome during DNA replication. ..
  31. Levine E, Close J, Fero M, Ostrovsky A, Reh T. p27(Kip1) regulates cell cycle withdrawal of late multipotent progenitor cells in the mammalian retina. Dev Biol. 2000;219:299-314 pubmed
    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, p27(Kip1), is necessary for the timing of cell cycle withdrawal that precedes terminal differentiation in oligodendrocytes of the optic nerve...
  32. Kashiwagi M, Morgan B, Georgopoulos K. The chromatin remodeler Mi-2beta is required for establishment of the basal epidermis and normal differentiation of its progeny. Development. 2007;134:1571-82 pubmed
    ..Mi-2beta is however essential for the reprogramming of basal cells to the follicular and, subsequently, hair matrix fates. ..
  33. Mukherjee C, Holubowska A, Schwedhelm Domeyer N, Mitkovski M, Lee S, Kannan M, et al. Loss of the neuron-specific F-box protein FBXO41 models an ataxia-like phenotype in mice with neuronal migration defects and degeneration in the cerebellum. J Neurosci. 2015;35:8701-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that FBXO41 is a critical factor, not only for neuronal migration in the cerebellum, but also for its long-term integrity. ..
  34. Eguren M, Porlan E, Manchado E, Garcia Higuera I, Canamero M, Farinas I, et al. The APC/C cofactor Cdh1 prevents replicative stress and p53-dependent cell death in neural progenitors. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2880 pubmed publisher
    ..However, cell division is prevented in the absence of Cdh1 due to hyperactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases, replicative stress, induction of p53, G2 arrest and apoptotic death of these progenitor cells...
  35. Lawson K, Teteak C, Zou J, Hacquebord J, Ghatan A, Zielinska Kwiatkowska A, et al. Mesenchyme-specific knockout of ESET histone methyltransferase causes ectopic hypertrophy and terminal differentiation of articular chondrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32119-25 pubmed publisher
  36. Bertrand J, Stange R, Hidding H, Echtermeyer F, Nalesso G, Godmann L, et al. Syndecan 4 supports bone fracture repair, but not fetal skeletal development, in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that syndecan 4 is functionally involved in endochondral ossification and that its loss impairs fracture healing, due to inhibition of compensatory mechanisms under inflammatory conditions. ..
  37. Hsu Y, Osinski J, Campbell C, Litwack E, Wang D, Liu S, et al. Mesenchymal nuclear factor I B regulates cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation during lung maturation. Dev Biol. 2011;354:242-52 pubmed publisher
    ..There are more PCNA, BrdU, PHH3 and Ki67 positive cells in Nfib?/? lungs than in wild type lungs at E18...
  38. Yamamoto N, Majima K, Marunouchi T. A study of the proliferating activity in lens epithelium and the identification of tissue-type stem cells. Med Mol Morphol. 2008;41:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The epithelial region stained with antibody for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 remained relatively constant during the study period, although the positive ..
  39. Yamasaki H, Sada A, Iwata T, Niwa T, Tomizawa M, Xanthopoulos K, et al. Suppression of C/EBPalpha expression in periportal hepatoblasts may stimulate biliary cell differentiation through increased Hnf6 and Hnf1b expression. Development. 2006;133:4233-43 pubmed
    ..Wild-type hepatoblasts constructed mature hepatic tissue accompanied by biliary cell differentiation. These results also demonstrate that the suppression of C/EBPalpha expression may stimulate biliary cell differentiation. ..
  40. Kuwajima T, Nishimura I, Yoshikawa K. Necdin promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation in cooperation with Dlx homeodomain proteins. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5383-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that paternally expressed necdin facilitates the differentiation and specification of GABAergic neurons in cooperation with Dlx homeodomain proteins. ..
  41. Di Poï N, Ng C, Tan N, Yang Z, Hemmings B, Desvergne B, et al. Epithelium-mesenchyme interactions control the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta during hair follicle development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1696-712 pubmed
  42. Klutho P, Pennington S, Scott J, Wilson K, Gu S, Doddapattar P, et al. Deletion of Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Does Not Affect Atherothrombosis but Promotes Neointimal Hyperplasia and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:2594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, cyclin D1 protein and cdk4/cyclin D1 complex formation and activity were increased in MsrA-deficient vascular smooth ..
  43. Egan C, Nyman U, Skotte J, Streubel G, Turner S, O Connell D, et al. CHD5 is required for neurogenesis and has a dual role in facilitating gene expression and polycomb gene repression. Dev Cell. 2013;26:223-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insights into the regulatory role of CHD5 during neurogenesis and suggest how inactivation of this candidate tumor suppressor might contribute to neuroblastoma. ..
  44. MARTINEZ DE LUNA R, Ku R, Lyou Y, Zuber M. Maturin is a novel protein required for differentiation during primary neurogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;384:26-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that Maturin functions during primary neurogenesis and is required for the proneural pathway to regulate neural differentiation. ..
  45. Zhuo Y, Hoyle G, Shan B, Levy D, Lasky J. Over-expression of PDGF-C using a lung specific promoter results in abnormal lung development. Transgenic Res. 2006;15:543-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PDGF-C is activated during lung development and is a potent growth factor for mesenchymal cells in vivo. ..
  46. Asaki T, Konishi M, Miyake A, Kato S, Tomizawa M, Itoh N. Roles of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) in adipogenesis in vivo. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;218:119-28 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, the transcriptional cascade of adipogenesis in vivo described here is distinct from the cascade in vitro previously reported. ..
  47. Postnikov Y, Kurahashi T, Zhou M, Bustin M. The nucleosome binding protein HMGN1 interacts with PCNA and facilitates its binding to chromatin. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1844-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a ubiquitous protein that interacts with multiple partners and regulates nuclear activities, including chromatin assembly, histone modifications, replication, and DNA damage repair...
  48. Mahoney J, Mori M, Szymaniak A, Varelas X, Cardoso W. The hippo pathway effector Yap controls patterning and differentiation of airway epithelial progenitors. Dev Cell. 2014;30:137-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for the Hippo-Yap pathway in integrating growth-factor-induced cues in the developing and adult lung potentially key for homeostasis and regeneration repair. ..
  49. Park J, Oh Y, Yoo L, Jung M, Song W, Lee S, et al. Dyrk1A phosphorylates p53 and inhibits proliferation of embryonic neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31895-906 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that up-regulation of Dyrk1A contributes to altered neuronal proliferation in DS through specific phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and subsequent p21(CIP1) induction. ..
  50. Yang Z, Jakymiw A, Wood M, Eystathioy T, Rubin R, Fritzler M, et al. GW182 is critical for the stability of GW bodies expressed during the cell cycle and cell proliferation. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5567-78 pubmed
    ..By costaining with CENP-F and PCNA, and employing a double-thymidine block to synchronize HeLa cells, GW bodies were observed to be small in early S ..
  51. Ohyama K, Ikeda E, Kawamura K, Maeda N, Noda M. Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta/RPTP beta is expressed on tangentially aligned neurons in early mouse neocortex. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;148:121-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PTPzeta is a useful marker for early-generated neocortical neurons in mice: Cajal-Retzius neurons as well as the subplate neurons. ..
  52. de Lange F, Moorman A, Anderson R, Männer J, Soufan A, de Gier de Vries C, et al. Lineage and morphogenetic analysis of the cardiac valves. Circ Res. 2004;95:645-54 pubmed
    ..The tricuspid septal leaflet then delaminates from the muscular ventricular septum late in development. ..
  53. Julian E, Hallahan A, Wainwright B. RBP-J is not required for granule neuron progenitor development and medulloblastoma initiated by Hedgehog pathway activation in the external germinal layer. Neural Dev. 2010;5:27 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it remains a possibility that, in granule neuron progenitors, Notch may signal via an alternative pathway without the requirement for RBP-J. ..
  54. Coremans V, Ahmed T, Balschun D, D Hooge R, Devriese A, Cremer J, et al. Impaired neurogenesis, learning and memory and low seizure threshold associated with loss of neural precursor cell survivin. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Survivin is highly expressed in neural precursor cells in the brain, yet its function there has not been elucidated...
  55. Farkas L, Haffner C, Giger T, Khaitovich P, Nowick K, Birchmeier C, et al. Insulinoma-associated 1 has a panneurogenic role and promotes the generation and expansion of basal progenitors in the developing mouse neocortex. Neuron. 2008;60:40-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data imply that Insm1 is involved in the generation and expansion of basal progenitors, a hallmark of neocortex evolution. ..
  56. Cavalheiro G, Matos Rodrigues G, Gomes A, Rodrigues P, Martins R. c-Myc regulates cell proliferation during lens development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e87182 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the conclusion that c-myc regulates the proliferation of lens epithelial cells in vivo and may, directly or indirectly, modulate the expression of classical cell cycle regulators in developing mouse lens. ..
  57. Pattyn A, Simplicio N, van Doorninck J, Goridis C, Guillemot F, Brunet J. Ascl1/Mash1 is required for the development of central serotonergic neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:589-95 pubmed
    ..Thus Ascl1, which is essential for noradrenergic differentiation, is also a determinant of the serotonergic phenotype. ..
  58. Myshrall T, Moore S, Ostendorf A, Satz J, Kowalczyk T, Nguyen H, et al. Dystroglycan on radial glia end feet is required for pial basement membrane integrity and columnar organization of the developing cerebral cortex. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012;71:1047-63 pubmed publisher
  59. Zhang Z, Zhang Z, Wang H, Zhang G, Hu D, Xiong J, et al. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen binds DNA polymerase-β and mediates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neuronal death. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106669 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we show that both proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and DNA pol-β are required for MPP(+)-induced neuronal death...
  60. Smeulders N, Woolf A, Wilcox D. Smooth muscle differentiation and cell turnover in mouse detrusor development. J Urol. 2002;167:385-90 pubmed
    ..Alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were assessed by immunohistochemical testing of whole bladders and Western blot analysis of ..
  61. Uchiumi T, Fotovati A, Sasaguri T, Shibahara K, Shimada T, Fukuda T, et al. YB-1 is important for an early stage embryonic development: neural tube formation and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:40440-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that YB-1 is involved in early mouse development, including neural tube closure and cell proliferation. ..
  62. Engel F, Hauck L, Boehm M, Nabel E, Dietz R, von Harsdorf R. p21(CIP1) Controls proliferating cell nuclear antigen level in adult cardiomyocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:555-65 pubmed
    ..extract of S phase cells and adult primary cardiomyocytes results in a dramatic reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels...
  63. Zhang H, Jiang X, Zhang Y, Xu B, Hua J, Ma T, et al. microRNA 376a regulates follicle assembly by targeting Pcna in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. Reproduction. 2014;148:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..that microRNA 376a (miR-376a) regulates primordial follicle assembly by modulating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), a gene we previously reported to regulate primordial follicle assembly by regulating oocyte ..
  64. Hirata A, Katayama K, Tsuji T, Imura H, Natsume N, Sugahara T, et al. Homeobox family Hoxc localization during murine palate formation. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2016;56:172-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Hoxc distribution in palatal cells during palate development may be correlated with FGF signaling. (228/250 words) © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society. ..
  65. Celeste A, Petersen S, Romanienko P, Fernandez Capetillo O, Chen H, Sedelnikova O, et al. Genomic instability in mice lacking histone H2AX. Science. 2002;296:922-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, H2AX is critical for facilitating the assembly of specific DNA-repair complexes on damaged DNA. ..
  66. Hosaka Y, Saito T, Sugita S, Hikata T, Kobayashi H, Fukai A, et al. Notch signaling in chondrocytes modulates endochondral ossification and osteoarthritis development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The RBPj?-dependent Notch signaling in chondrocytes modulates the terminal stage of endochondral ossification and OA development, representing an extracellular therapeutic target of OA. ..
  67. Bizzoca A, Corsi P, Polizzi A, Pinto M, Xenaki D, Furley A, et al. F3/Contactin acts as a modulator of neurogenesis during cerebral cortex development. Dev Biol. 2012;365:133-51 pubmed publisher
  68. Miura T, Shiota K, Morriss Kay G. A mesenchyme-free culture system to elucidate the mechanism of otic vesicle morphogenesis. J Anat. 2004;205:297-312 pubmed
    ..Hyaluronidase treatment inhibited semicircular canal morphogenesis, resulting in a cystic form of the otic vesicle. These data validate this culture system as a tool for elucidating the mechanism of morphogenesis of the otic vesicle. ..
  69. Tury A, Mairet Coello G, Dicicco Bloom E. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 regulates cell cycle exit, differentiation, and migration of embryonic cerebral cortical precursors. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:1840-56 pubmed publisher
    Mounting evidence indicates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family, including p57(Kip2) and p27(Kip1), control not only cell cycle exit but also corticogenesis...
  70. Stevens H, Smith K, Maragnoli M, Fagel D, Borok E, Shanabrough M, et al. Fgfr2 is required for the development of the medial prefrontal cortex and its connections with limbic circuits. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that FGFR2 signaling expands the number of excitatory neurons in the mPFC and secondarily influences target neurons in subcortical stations of the limbic system. ..
  71. Porse B, Pedersen T, Hasemann M, Schuster M, Kirstetter P, Luedde T, et al. The proline-histidine-rich CDK2/CDK4 interaction region of C/EBPalpha is dispensable for C/EBPalpha-mediated growth regulation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1028-37 pubmed
    ..from the DeltaPHR mice were analyzed for their expression of cell cycle markers, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 kinase activity, and global gene expression, we failed to detect any cell cycle or ..
  72. Kawaguchi D, Yoshimatsu T, Hozumi K, Gotoh Y. Selection of differentiating cells by different levels of delta-like 1 among neural precursor cells in the developing mouse telencephalon. Development. 2008;135:3849-58 pubmed publisher
  73. Wetzel M, Naska S, Laliberté C, Rymar V, Fujitani M, Biernaskie J, et al. p73 regulates neurodegeneration and phospho-tau accumulation during aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 2008;59:708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, p73 is essential for preventing neurodegeneration, and haploinsufficiency for p73 may be a susceptibility factor for AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  74. Owens P, Bazzi H, Engelking E, Han G, Christiano A, Wang X. Smad4-dependent desmoglein-4 expression contributes to hair follicle integrity. Dev Biol. 2008;322:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Smad4 loss-associated Dsg4 depletion contributed, at least in part, to hair follicles degeneration in Smad4 deficient skin. ..