Gene Symbol: Pck1
Description: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, cytosolic
Alias: AI265463, PEPCK, PEPCK-C, Pck-1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic [GTP], phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Species: mouse
Products:     Pck1

Top Publications

  1. Khazen W, Distel E, Collinet M, Chaves V, M Bika J, Chany C, et al. Acute and selective inhibition of adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase by interferon gamma. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4007-14 pubmed
    ..glyceroneogenesis for glycerol-3-phosphate synthesis and increased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), the key enzyme in this pathway. We wondered whether glyceroneogenesis and PEPCK-C would be IFN-gamma targets...
  2. Burgess S, Hausler N, Merritt M, Jeffrey F, Storey C, Milde A, et al. Impaired tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in mouse livers lacking cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48941-9 pubmed
    Liver-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) null mice, when fasted, maintain normal whole body glucose kinetics but develop dramatic hepatic steatosis...
  3. Franckhauser S, Munoz S, Pujol A, Casellas A, Riu E, Otaegui P, et al. Increased fatty acid re-esterification by PEPCK overexpression in adipose tissue leads to obesity without insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2002;51:624-30 pubmed
    ..increased fat mass and to explore the role of obesity in the development of insulin resistance, we overexpressed PEPCK, a regulatory enzyme of glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue...
  4. Olswang Y, Cohen H, Papo O, Cassuto H, Croniger C, Hakimi P, et al. A mutation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-binding site in the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reduces adipose tissue size and fat content in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:625-30 pubmed
    ..in mice by specifically eliminating the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the pathway...
  5. She P, Shiota M, Shelton K, Chalkley R, Postic C, Magnuson M. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is necessary for the integration of hepatic energy metabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:6508-17 pubmed
    ..Cre/loxP gene targeting strategy in mice to determine the role of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in hepatic energy metabolism...
  6. Millward C, DeSantis D, Hsieh C, Heaney J, Pisano S, Olswang Y, et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) helps regulate the triglyceride/fatty acid cycle and development of insulin resistance in mice. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1452-63 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) in the development of insulin resistance...
  7. Hakimi P, Johnson M, Yang J, LePage D, Conlon R, Kalhan S, et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the critical role of cataplerosis in the control of hepatic metabolism. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005;2:33 pubmed
    The metabolic function of PEPCK-C is not fully understood; deletion of the gene for the enzyme in mice provides an opportunity to fully assess its function. The gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (EC 4...
  8. Valera A, Pujol A, Pelegrin M, Bosch F. Transgenic mice overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase develop non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9151-4 pubmed
    ..Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK; EC is a regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis...
  9. Zhang J, Henagan T, Gao Z, Ye J. Inhibition of glyceroneogenesis by histone deacetylase 3 contributes to lipodystrophy in mice with adipose tissue inflammation. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated glyceroneogenesis by examining the activity of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in adipocytes...

More Information


  1. She P, Burgess S, Shiota M, Flakoll P, Donahue E, Malloy C, et al. Mechanisms by which liver-specific PEPCK knockout mice preserve euglycemia during starvation. Diabetes. 2003;52:1649-54 pubmed
    Liver-specific PEPCK knockout mice, which are viable despite markedly abnormal lipid metabolism, exhibit mild hyperglycemia in response to fasting...
  2. Rodgers J, Lerin C, Haas W, Gygi S, Spiegelman B, Puigserver P. Nutrient control of glucose homeostasis through a complex of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1. Nature. 2005;434:113-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified a molecular mechanism whereby SIRT1 functions in glucose homeostasis as a modulator of PGC-1alpha. These findings have strong implications for the basic pathways of energy homeostasis, diabetes and lifespan. ..
  3. Burgess S, He T, Yan Z, Lindner J, Sherry A, Malloy C, et al. Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase does not solely control the rate of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the intact mouse liver. Cell Metab. 2007;5:313-20 pubmed
    ..Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), commonly considered the control point for liver gluconeogenesis, is normally regulated by circulating hormones ..
  4. Deussing J, von Olshausen I, Peters C. Murine and human cathepsin Z: cDNA-cloning, characterization of the genes and chromosomal localization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1491:93-106 pubmed
  5. Kaestner K, Katz J, Liu Y, Drucker D, Schutz G. Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. Genes Dev. 1999;13:495-504 pubmed
    ..We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo. ..
  6. Mutel E, Gautier Stein A, Abdul Wahed A, Amigó Correig M, Zitoun C, Stefanutti A, et al. Control of blood glucose in the absence of hepatic glucose production during prolonged fasting in mice: induction of renal and intestinal gluconeogenesis by glucagon. Diabetes. 2011;60:3121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we characterized molecular mechanisms underlying expression changes of gluconeogenic genes (G6pc, Pck1, and glutaminase) in both the kidneys and intestine...
  7. Wan Z, Ritchie I, Beaudoin M, Castellani L, Chan C, Wright D. IL-6 indirectly modulates the induction of glyceroneogenic enzymes in adipose tissue during exercise. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41719 pubmed publisher
    Glyceroneogenesis is an important step in the control of fatty acid re-esterification with PEPCK and PDK4 being identified as key enzymes in this process...
  8. Wolf G. Metabolic control of gluconeogenesis in transgenic mice: regulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. Nutr Rev. 1994;52:275-7 pubmed
    ..Important differences were uncovered between results from earlier cell culture experiments and the results from more physiologic responses of the transgenic animals. ..
  9. Liu B, Lin Y, Wang Y, Huang C, Chen C, Wu S, et al. Porcine adiponectin receptor 1 transgene resists high-fat/sucrose diet-induced weight gain, hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Exp Anim. 2013;62:347-60 pubmed
    ..The pAdipor1 transgene also restored HFSD-reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose transporter 4 mRNA in the adipose tissues, implying that the increased Pck1 may promote ..
  10. Zhang W, Wang P, Chen S, Zhang Z, Liang T, Liu C. Rhythmic expression of miR-27b-3p targets the clock gene Bmal1 at the posttranscriptional level in the mouse liver. FASEB J. 2016;30:2151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Zhang, W., Wang, P., Chen, S., Zhang, Z., Liang, T., Liu, C. Rhythmic expression of miR-27b-3p targets the clock gene Bmal1 at the posttranscriptional level in the mouse liver. ..
  11. Williams C, Postic C, Robin D, Robin P, Parrinello J, Shelton K, et al. Isolation and characterization of the mouse cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene: evidence for tissue-specific hypersensitive sites. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999;148:67-77 pubmed
    A 72 kilobase pair DNA fragment that contains the mouse phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene locus, pck1, was isolated from a genomic bacterial artificial chromosome library. The region from approximately -5.5 to +6...
  12. Gómez Valadés A, Méndez Lucas A, Vidal Alabró A, Blasco F, Chillon M, Bartrons R, et al. Pck1 gene silencing in the liver improves glycemia control, insulin sensitivity, and dyslipidemia in db/db mice. Diabetes. 2008;57:2199-210 pubmed publisher
    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; encoded by Pck1) catalyzes the first committed step in gluconeogenesis. Extensive evidence demonstrates a direct correlation between PEPCK-C activity and glycemia control...
  13. Méndez Lucas A, Duarte J, Sunny N, Satapati S, He T, Fu X, et al. PEPCK-M expression in mouse liver potentiates, not replaces, PEPCK-C mediated gluconeogenesis. J Hepatol. 2013;59:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver-specific deletion of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) abolishes gluconeogenesis from mitochondrial substrates, deregulates lipid metabolism and affects TCA cycle...
  14. Nandan S, Beale E. Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA in mouse liver, kidney, and fat tissues by fasting, diabetes, and insulin. Lab Anim Sci. 1992;42:473-7 pubmed
    Previous investigations of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene have been conducted using rats...
  15. Cadoudal T, Leroyer S, Reis A, Tordjman J, Durant S, Fouque F, et al. Proposed involvement of adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the metabolic syndrome. Biochimie. 2005;87:27-32 pubmed
    ..The key enzyme in this process is the cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; EC Recent advance has stressed the role of glyceroneogenesis and of PEPCK-C in FA release from WAT...
  16. Berglund E, Lee Young R, Lustig D, Lynes S, Donahue E, Camacho R, et al. Hepatic energy state is regulated by glucagon receptor signaling in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2412-22 pubmed
    ..energy consumption linked to increased gluconeogenic flux through cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) and associated pathways...
  17. Siracusa L, Alvord W, Bickmore W, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Interspecific backcross mice show sex-specific differences in allelic inheritance. Genetics. 1991;128:813-21 pubmed
    ..These studies provide evidence for sex-specific differences in allelic inheritance for chromosome 2 and suggest biological explanations for this form of transmission distortion. ..
  18. Saedler K, Hochgeschwender U. Impaired neonatal survival of pro-opiomelanocortin null mutants. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;336:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies confirm an essential involvement of POMC peptides and of adrenal glucocorticoids and catecholamines on glucose homeostasis critical for early postnatal survival. ..
  19. Wolfrum C, Asilmaz E, Luca E, Friedman J, Stoffel M. Foxa2 regulates lipid metabolism and ketogenesis in the liver during fasting and in diabetes. Nature. 2004;432:1027-32 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological intervention to inhibit phosphorylation of Foxa2 may be an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. ..
  20. Bose S, Hutson I, Harris C. Hepatic Glucocorticoid Receptor Plays a Greater Role Than Adipose GR in Metabolic Syndrome Despite Renal Compensation. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4943-4960 pubmed
    ..This indicates that liver GR might be more important in development of MS in dexamethasone-treated mice, whereas adipose GR plays a little role in these paradigms. ..
  21. Marker P, King J, Copeland N, Jenkins N, Kingsley D. Chromosomal localization, embryonic expression, and imprinting tests for Bmp7 on distal mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1995;28:576-80 pubmed
    ..Both embryonic expression patterns and the human chromosomal sublocalization inferred from its mouse location make Bmp7 a candidate for the gene affected in some patients with Holt-Oram syndrome. ..
  22. Merritt M, Harrison C, Sherry A, Malloy C, Burgess S. Flux through hepatic pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase detected by hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19084-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms, including cataplerotic decarboxylation of [4-(13)C]oxaloacetate via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), forward TCA cycle flux of [4-(13)C]oxaloacetate to generate (13)CO(2) at isocitrate dehydrogenase, or ..
  23. Freytag S, Collier K. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for human pyruvate carboxylase. Structural relationship to other biotin-containing carboxylases and regulation of mRNA content in differentiating preadipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:12831-7 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrated that pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content increased 23-fold in 7 days after the onset of differentiation. ..
  24. Zhang W, Sargis R, Volden P, Carmean C, SUN X, Brady M. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37103 pubmed publisher
    ..with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression...
  25. Vidal S, Stefaneanu L, Thapar K, Aminyar R, Kovacs K, Bartke A. Lactotroph hyperplasia in the pituitaries of female mice expressing high levels of bovine growth hormone. Transgenic Res. 1999;8:191-202 pubmed
    b>PEPCK/bGH transgenic mice have very high blood levels of foreign GH, and prominent reproductive disturbances, especially in females...
  26. Hsieh C, Huang C, Bederman I, Yang J, Beidelschies M, Hatzoglou M, et al. Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1352-62 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation...
  27. Sund N, Ang S, Sackett S, Shen W, Daigle N, Magnuson M, et al. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta (Foxa2) is dispensable for maintaining the differentiated state of the adult hepatocyte. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5175-83 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of such functional dichotomy for a tissue specification transcription factor. ..
  28. Kaneko K, Xu P, Cordonier E, Chen S, Ng A, Xu Y, et al. Neuronal Rap1 Regulates Energy Balance, Glucose Homeostasis, and Leptin Actions. Cell Rep. 2016;16:3003-3015 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, neuronal Rap1 critically regulates leptin sensitivity and mediates HFD-induced obesity and hypothalamic pathology and may represent a potential therapeutic target for obesity treatment. ..
  29. Xu H, Yang Q, Shen M, Huang X, Dembski M, Gimeno R, et al. Dual specificity MAPK phosphatase 3 activates PEPCK gene transcription and increases gluconeogenesis in rat hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36013-8 pubmed
    ..In liver, insulin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the transcriptions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes...
  30. Carmona M, Iglesias R, Obregon M, Darlington G, Villarroya F, Giralt M. Mitochondrial biogenesis and thyroid status maturation in brown fat require CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21489-98 pubmed
  31. Stone S, Myers H, Watkins S, Brown B, Feingold K, Elias P, et al. Lipopenia and skin barrier abnormalities in DGAT2-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11767-76 pubmed
    ..DGAT1 was unable to compensate for the absence of DGAT2, supporting the hypothesis that the two enzymes play fundamentally different roles in mammalian triglyceride metabolism. ..
  32. Yubero P, Hondares E, Carmona M, Rossell M, Gonzalez F, Iglesias R, et al. The developmental regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha expression in the liver is partially dissociated from the control of gluconeogenesis and lipid catabolism. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4268-77 pubmed
    ..e. the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes...
  33. Yu X, Huang Y, Hu Q, Ma L. Hyperhomocysteinemia stimulates hepatic glucose output and PEPCK expression. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:1027-32 pubmed
    ..In addition, the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene was elevated in the liver of mice with hyperhomocysteinemia and primary mouse hepatocytes treated with ..
  34. Tsai N, Huq M, Gupta P, Yamamoto K, Kagechika H, Wei L. Activation of testicular orphan receptor 4 by fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1789:734-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that TR4 might exert its physiological function by sensing certain lipids. Identifying these compounds could be useful for examining the physiological pathways in which TR4 and its target genes are involved. ..
  35. Chen S, Chen J, Johnson P, Muppala V, Lee Y. C/EBPbeta, when expressed from the C/ebpalpha gene locus, can functionally replace C/EBPalpha in liver but not in adipose tissue. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7292-9 pubmed
    ..Levels of hepatic PEPCK mRNA are not different between C/ebpalpha(beta/beta) and wild-type mice...
  36. Pilz A, Willer E, Povey S, Abbott C. The genes coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 (PCK1) and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4) map to human chromosome 20, extending the known region of homology with mouse chromosome 2. Ann Hum Genet. 1992;56:289-93 pubmed
    ..1989; Bessis et al. 1990). We have utilized Southern blot analysis on human/rodent somatic cell hybrids to map the human homologues of both of these genes, PCK1 and CHRNA4, to human chromosome 20.
  37. Lechner P, Croniger C, Hakimi P, Millward C, Fekter C, Yun J, et al. The use of transgenic mice to analyze the role of accessory factor two in the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene transcription during diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22675-9 pubmed
    The regulation of transcription of the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C) (4.1.1...
  38. Williamson C, Dutton E, Abbott C, Beechey C, Ball S, Peters J. Thirteen genes (Cebpb, E2f1, Tcf4, Cyp24, Pck1, Acra4, Edn3, Kcnb1, Mc3r, Ntsr, Cd40, Plcg1 and Rcad) that probably lie in the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2 are not monoallelically expressed. Genet Res. 1995;65:83-93 pubmed
    ..These included 3 genes (Cebpb, E2f1 and Tcf4) that express transcription factors, 2 genes (Cyp24 and Pck1) that are involved in growth, 5 genes (Acra4, Edn3, Kcnb1, Mc3r and Ntsr) where a defect could lead to neurological ..
  39. Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Cho B, Strobel M, Williams S, Copeland N, et al. Mouse chromosomal location of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins C/EBP beta (Cebpb), C/EBP delta (Cebpd), and CRP1 (Cebpe). Genomics. 1995;28:333-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Cebpb maps to mouse chromosome 2, Cebpd to chromosome 16, and Cebpe to chromosome 14. The assignment of Cebpd to chromosome 16 identifies a new region of homology between mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 8. ..
  40. Planas Paz L, Orsini V, Boulter L, Calabrese D, Pikiolek M, Nigsch F, et al. The RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls liver zonation and size. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that the RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNRF3/RNF43 module controls metabolic liver zonation and is a hepatic growth/size rheostat during development, homeostasis and regeneration. ..
  41. Fulchignoni Lataud M, Szpirer J, Levan G, Weiss M. Assignment of the rat genes coding for alpha 1-antitrypsin (PI), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FDP). Mamm Genome. 1992;3:42-5 pubmed
    ..Using a panel of hybrid clones segregating rat chromosomes, and Southern blot analysis, alpha 1-AT (PI), PEPCK, ADH and FDP are assigned to rat Chromosomes (Chr) 6, 3, 2 and 17, respectively...
  42. Scribner K, McGrane M. RNA polymerase II association with the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter is reduced in vitamin A-deficient mice. J Nutr. 2003;133:4112-7 pubmed
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene expression is decreased in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice...
  43. Tsuneki H, Kon K, Ito H, Yamazaki M, Takahara S, Toyooka N, et al. Timed Inhibition of Orexin System by Suvorexant Improved Sleep and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4146-4157 pubmed
    ..Our results provide insight into the development of novel pharmacological interventions for type 2 diabetes that target the orexin-operated sleep/wake regulatory system. ..
  44. Pavan W, Liddell R, Wright A, Thibaudeau G, Matteson P, McHugh K, et al. A high-resolution linkage map of the lethal spotting locus: a mouse model for Hirschsprung disease. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:1-7 pubmed
    ..guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-stimulating polypeptide 1 (Gnas), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) were assessed as candidates for the ls mutation. Only Edn3 and Gnas did not recombine with the ls mutation...
  45. Shin D, McGrane M. Vitamin A regulates genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. J Nutr. 1997;127:1274-8 pubmed
    ..regulation of three important genes in hepatic gluconeogenesis: the genes for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6-PF-2-K/..
  46. Shindo M, Nakano H, Kuroyanagi H, Shirasawa T, Mihara M, Gilbert D, et al. cDNA cloning, expression, subcellular localization, and chromosomal assignment of mammalian aurora homologues, aurora-related kinase (ARK) 1 and 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;244:285-92 pubmed
    ..Interspecific backcross mapping revealed that Ark1 is located in a distal region of mouse chromosome 2, while Ark2 is located in a central region of mouse chromosome 11. ..
  47. Arizmendi C, Liu S, Croniger C, Poli V, Friedman J. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta regulates gluconeogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene transcription during diabetes. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:13033-40 pubmed
    ..C/EBPbeta binds to several sequences of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter with high affinity, and C/EBPbeta protein is increased 200% in the livers of streptozotocin-..
  48. Allen Jennings A, Hartman M, Kociba G, Hai T. The roles of ATF3 in liver dysfunction and the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20020-5 pubmed
    ..site derived from the promoter of the gene encoding the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Furthermore, transient transfection assays indicated that ATF3 repressed the activity of the PEPCK promoter...
  49. Feingold K, Moser A, Shigenaga J, Grunfeld C. Inflammation inhibits the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver and adipose tissue. Innate Immun. 2012;18:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Triglyceride biosynthesis requires glycerol 3-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) plays a key role. We demonstrate that LPS, zymosan, and TNF-? decrease PEPCK in liver and fat...
  50. Semakova J, Hyroššová P, Méndez Lucas A, Cutz E, Bermudez J, Burgess S, et al. PEPCK-C reexpression in the liver counters neonatal hypoglycemia in Pck1 del/del mice, unmasking role in non-gluconeogenic tissues. J Physiol Biochem. 2017;73:89-98 pubmed publisher
    Whole body cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout (PEPCK-C KO) mice die early after birth with profound hypoglycemia therefore masking the role of PEPCK-C in adult, non-gluconeogenic tissues where it is expressed...
  51. Hsieh C, Millward C, DeSantis D, Pisano S, Machova J, Perales J, et al. Reduced milk triglycerides in mice lacking phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue contribute to the development of insulin resistance in pups. J Nutr. 2009;139:2257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..binding site for PPARgamma was deleted from the promoter of the cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene (Pck1) (PPARE(-/-)). We analyzed pups from dams with the same genotype as well as fostered and cross-fostered pups...
  52. Charalambous M, Ferron S, da Rocha S, Murray A, Rowland T, Ito M, et al. Imprinted gene dosage is critical for the transition to independent life. Cell Metab. 2012;15:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that appropriate dosage control at imprinted loci can act as a critical determinant in postnatal survival during phases of physiological adaptation. ..
  53. Keeney S, Baudat F, Angeles M, Zhou Z, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. A mouse homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiotic recombination DNA transesterase Spo11p. Genomics. 1999;61:170-82 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results strongly suggest that this gene encodes the functional homolog of yeast Spo11p, which in turn suggests that the mechanism of meiotic recombination initiation is conserved between yeast and mammals. ..
  54. Nelson K, Knopf J, Siracusa L. Localization of phospholipase C-gamma 1 to mouse chromosome 2. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:597-600 pubmed
  55. Siracusa L, Silan C, Justice M, Mercer J, Bauskin A, Ben Neriah Y, et al. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 2. Genomics. 1990;6:491-504 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between the mouse and the human genomes indicate that mouse chromosome 2 contains regions homologous to at least six human chromosomes. Mouse models for human diseases are discussed. ..
  56. Glorian M, Franckhauser Vogel S, Robin D, Robin P, Forest C. Glucocorticoids repress induction by thiazolidinediones, fibrates, and fatty acids of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression in adipocytes. J Cell Biochem. 1998;68:298-308 pubmed
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) exerts a glyceroneogenic function in adipocytes in which transcription of its gene is increased by unsaturated fatty acids and fibrates...
  57. Pan C, Lei K, Chen H, Ward J, Chou J. Ontogeny of the murine glucose-6-phosphatase system. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998;358:17-24 pubmed
    ..Despite the expression of G6Pase in the embryonic liver, microsomal G6P transport activity was not detectable until birth, peaking at about age 4 weeks. Our study strongly supports the multicomponent model for the G6Pase system. ..
  58. Ghoshal S, Pasham S, Odom D, Furr H, McGrane M. Vitamin A depletion is associated with low phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels during late fetal development and at birth in mice. J Nutr. 2003;133:2131-6 pubmed
    Expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene is repressed during fetal liver development and activated at birth...
  59. Hakimi P, Yang J, Casadesus G, Massillon D, Tolentino Silva F, Nye C, et al. Overexpression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in skeletal muscle repatterns energy metabolism in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32844-55 pubmed
    Transgenic mice, containing a chimeric gene in which the cDNA for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C) (EC was linked to the alpha-skeletal actin gene promoter, express PEPCK-C in skeletal muscle (1-3 units/g)...
  60. Hayhurst G, Strick Marchand H, Mulet C, Richard A, Morosan S, Kremsdorf D, et al. Morphogenetic competence of HNF4 alpha-deficient mouse hepatic cells. J Hepatol. 2008;49:384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the lack of epithelialization characteristic of the HNF4 alpha-null embryonic liver is due, at least in part, to non-cell autonomous defects, and that null cells do not suffer intrinsic defects in polarization. ..
  61. Cadoudal T, Glorian M, Massias A, Fouque F, Forest C, Benelli C. Retinoids upregulate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glyceroneogenesis in human and rodent adipocytes. J Nutr. 2008;138:1004-9 pubmed
    ..Glyceroneogenesis and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), which is the key enzyme in this pathway, are both regulated by a series of hormones and nutrients, among which ..
  62. Cole T, Blendy J, Monaghan A, Krieglstein K, Schmid W, Aguzzi A, et al. Targeted disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene blocks adrenergic chromaffin cell development and severely retards lung maturation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1608-21 pubmed
  63. Messina J, Weinstock R. Evidence for diverse roles of protein kinase-C in the inhibition of gene expression by insulin: the tyrosine aminotransferase, albumin, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes. Endocrinology. 1994;135:2327-34 pubmed
    ..These findings support our hypothesis that the role of PKC in the regulation of gene expression by insulin varies for different insulin-regulated genes. ..
  64. Liu S, Li Y, Chen Y, Chiang E, Li A, Lee Y, et al. Glycine N-methyltransferase-/- mice develop chronic hepatitis and glycogen storage disease in the liver. Hepatology. 2007;46:1413-25 pubmed
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    ..Second, loss of anaplerosis/cataplerosis via genetic knockdown of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) prevented fatty acid-induced rise in oxidative flux, oxidative stress, and inflammation...
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    ..were associated with decreases in the mRNA expression and protein content of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)...
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    ..has been mapped to approximately 1 kilobase pair upstream of the cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene...
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