Pax2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pax2
Description: paired box 2
Alias: Opdc, Pax-2, paired box protein Pax-2, optic disc coloboma, paired box gene 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Pax2

Top Publications

  1. Narlis M, Grote D, Gaitan Y, Boualia S, Bouchard M. Pax2 and pax8 regulate branching morphogenesis and nephron differentiation in the developing kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1121-9 pubmed
    Pax genes are important regulators of kidney development. In the mouse, homozygous Pax2 inactivation results in renal agenesis, a phenotype that has largely precluded the analysis of Pax gene function during metanephric kidney development...
  2. Matt N, Ghyselinck N, Pellerin I, Dupé V. Impairing retinoic acid signalling in the neural crest cells is sufficient to alter entire eye morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;320:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we observed that RA is required in the neural crest cells for normal position of the extraocular muscle. ..
  3. Nishinakamura R, Matsumoto Y, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Sato A, Copeland N, et al. Murine homolog of SALL1 is essential for ureteric bud invasion in kidney development. Development. 2001;128:3105-15 pubmed
    ..Sall1 is therefore essential for ureteric bud invasion, the initial key step for metanephros development. ..
  4. Michos O, Panman L, Vintersten K, Beier K, Zeller R, Zuniga A. Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis. Development. 2004;131:3401-10 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, the metanephric mesenchyme is eliminated by apoptosis, in the same way as the core mesenchymal cells of the limb bud. ..
  5. Kriks S, Lanuza G, Mizuguchi R, Nakafuku M, Goulding M. Gsh2 is required for the repression of Ngn1 and specification of dorsal interneuron fate in the spinal cord. Development. 2005;132:2991-3002 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions involving repression of Ngn1 by Gsh2 promote the differentiation of dI3 neurons from class A progenitors. ..
  6. Thaung C, West K, Clark B, McKie L, Morgan J, Arnold K, et al. Novel ENU-induced eye mutations in the mouse: models for human eye disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:755-67 pubmed
    ..This collection of eye mutations will be valuable for understanding gene function, for dissecting protein function and as models of human eye disease. ..
  7. Matt N, Dupé V, Garnier J, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005;132:4789-800 pubmed
    ..We additionally show that RALDH1 and RALDH3 are the only enzymes that are required for RA synthesis in the eye region from E10.5 to E13.5, and that patterning of the dorsoventral axis of the retina does not require RA. ..
  8. Cheng L, Arata A, Mizuguchi R, Qian Y, Karunaratne A, Gray P, et al. Tlx3 and Tlx1 are post-mitotic selector genes determining glutamatergic over GABAergic cell fates. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:510-7 pubmed
    ..Second, spinal GABAergic markers were derepressed in Tlx mutants, including Pax2 that is necessary for GABAergic differentiation, Gad1/2 and Viaat that regulate GABA synthesis and transport, and ..
  9. Hulander M, Kiernan A, Blomqvist S, Carlsson P, Samuelsson E, Johansson B, et al. Lack of pendrin expression leads to deafness and expansion of the endolymphatic compartment in inner ears of Foxi1 null mutant mice. Development. 2003;130:2013-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutations in FOXI1 could prove to cause a Pendred syndrome-like human deafness...
  10. Kobayashi A, Kwan K, Carroll T, McMahon A, Mendelsohn C, Behringer R. Distinct and sequential tissue-specific activities of the LIM-class homeobox gene Lim1 for tubular morphogenesis during kidney development. Development. 2005;132:2809-23 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the nephric duct is essential for the elongation and maintenance of the adjacent Mullerian duct, the anlage of the female reproductive tract. ..

Detail Information

Publications92

  1. Narlis M, Grote D, Gaitan Y, Boualia S, Bouchard M. Pax2 and pax8 regulate branching morphogenesis and nephron differentiation in the developing kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1121-9 pubmed
    Pax genes are important regulators of kidney development. In the mouse, homozygous Pax2 inactivation results in renal agenesis, a phenotype that has largely precluded the analysis of Pax gene function during metanephric kidney development...
  2. Matt N, Ghyselinck N, Pellerin I, Dupé V. Impairing retinoic acid signalling in the neural crest cells is sufficient to alter entire eye morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;320:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we observed that RA is required in the neural crest cells for normal position of the extraocular muscle. ..
  3. Nishinakamura R, Matsumoto Y, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Sato A, Copeland N, et al. Murine homolog of SALL1 is essential for ureteric bud invasion in kidney development. Development. 2001;128:3105-15 pubmed
    ..Sall1 is therefore essential for ureteric bud invasion, the initial key step for metanephros development. ..
  4. Michos O, Panman L, Vintersten K, Beier K, Zeller R, Zuniga A. Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis. Development. 2004;131:3401-10 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, the metanephric mesenchyme is eliminated by apoptosis, in the same way as the core mesenchymal cells of the limb bud. ..
  5. Kriks S, Lanuza G, Mizuguchi R, Nakafuku M, Goulding M. Gsh2 is required for the repression of Ngn1 and specification of dorsal interneuron fate in the spinal cord. Development. 2005;132:2991-3002 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions involving repression of Ngn1 by Gsh2 promote the differentiation of dI3 neurons from class A progenitors. ..
  6. Thaung C, West K, Clark B, McKie L, Morgan J, Arnold K, et al. Novel ENU-induced eye mutations in the mouse: models for human eye disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:755-67 pubmed
    ..This collection of eye mutations will be valuable for understanding gene function, for dissecting protein function and as models of human eye disease. ..
  7. Matt N, Dupé V, Garnier J, Dennefeld C, Chambon P, Mark M, et al. Retinoic acid-dependent eye morphogenesis is orchestrated by neural crest cells. Development. 2005;132:4789-800 pubmed
    ..We additionally show that RALDH1 and RALDH3 are the only enzymes that are required for RA synthesis in the eye region from E10.5 to E13.5, and that patterning of the dorsoventral axis of the retina does not require RA. ..
  8. Cheng L, Arata A, Mizuguchi R, Qian Y, Karunaratne A, Gray P, et al. Tlx3 and Tlx1 are post-mitotic selector genes determining glutamatergic over GABAergic cell fates. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:510-7 pubmed
    ..Second, spinal GABAergic markers were derepressed in Tlx mutants, including Pax2 that is necessary for GABAergic differentiation, Gad1/2 and Viaat that regulate GABA synthesis and transport, and ..
  9. Hulander M, Kiernan A, Blomqvist S, Carlsson P, Samuelsson E, Johansson B, et al. Lack of pendrin expression leads to deafness and expansion of the endolymphatic compartment in inner ears of Foxi1 null mutant mice. Development. 2003;130:2013-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutations in FOXI1 could prove to cause a Pendred syndrome-like human deafness...
  10. Kobayashi A, Kwan K, Carroll T, McMahon A, Mendelsohn C, Behringer R. Distinct and sequential tissue-specific activities of the LIM-class homeobox gene Lim1 for tubular morphogenesis during kidney development. Development. 2005;132:2809-23 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the nephric duct is essential for the elongation and maintenance of the adjacent Mullerian duct, the anlage of the female reproductive tract. ..
  11. Blank U, Brown A, Adams D, Karolak M, Oxburgh L. BMP7 promotes proliferation of nephron progenitor cells via a JNK-dependent mechanism. Development. 2009;136:3557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This signaling results in the accumulation of cyclin D3 and subsequent proliferation of PAX2(+) progenitors, inversely correlating with the loss of nephron progenitors seen in the Bmp7-null kidney...
  12. Koo S, Hill J, Hwang C, Lin Z, Millen K, Wu D. Lmx1a maintains proper neurogenic, sensory, and non-sensory domains in the mammalian inner ear. Dev Biol. 2009;333:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, aberrant and ectopic sensory organs are observed; most striking among these is vestibular-like hair cells located in the cochlear duct...
  13. Grote D, Souabni A, Busslinger M, Bouchard M. Pax 2/8-regulated Gata 3 expression is necessary for morphogenesis and guidance of the nephric duct in the developing kidney. Development. 2006;133:53-61 pubmed
    ..The transcription factors Pax2 and Pax8 are essential for the initiation of pro- and mesonephros development...
  14. Dakubo G, Wang Y, Mazerolle C, Campsall K, McMahon A, Wallace V. Retinal ganglion cell-derived sonic hedgehog signaling is required for optic disc and stalk neuroepithelial cell development. Development. 2003;130:2967-80 pubmed
    ..We further show that Shh signaling modulates the size of the Pax2(+) astrocyte precursor cell population at the optic disc in vitro...
  15. Raft S, Nowotschin S, Liao J, Morrow B. Suppression of neural fate and control of inner ear morphogenesis by Tbx1. Development. 2004;131:1801-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that Tbx1 acts in the manner of a selector gene to control neural and sensory organ fate specification in the otocyst. ..
  16. Wildner H, Muller T, Cho S, Bröhl D, Cepko C, Guillemot F, et al. dILA neurons in the dorsal spinal cord are the product of terminal and non-terminal asymmetric progenitor cell divisions, and require Mash1 for their development. Development. 2006;133:2105-13 pubmed
    ..Our data allow us to assign to Mash1 a function in asymmetric cell divisions, and indicate that the factor coordinates cell cycle exit and specification in the one daughter that gives rise to a dILA neuron. ..
  17. Zou D, Silvius D, Rodrigo Blomqvist S, Enerback S, Xu P. Eya1 regulates the growth of otic epithelium and interacts with Pax2 during the development of all sensory areas in the inner ear. Dev Biol. 2006;298:430-41 pubmed
    ..they interact with Eya1 or Six1 during inner ear morphogenesis, we have analyzed the expression pattern of Eya1, Pax2 and Pax8 on adjacent sections of otic epithelium from E8.5 to 9...
  18. Gong K, Yallowitz A, Sun H, Dressler G, Wellik D. A Hox-Eya-Pax complex regulates early kidney developmental gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7661-8 pubmed
    ..Herein, we demonstrate that Hox11 paralogous proteins form a complex with Pax2 and Eya1 to directly activate expression of Six2 and Gdnf in the metanephric mesenchyme...
  19. Aoto K, Shikata Y, Imai H, Matsumaru D, Tokunaga T, Shioda S, et al. Mouse Shh is required for prechordal plate maintenance during brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;327:106-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying HPE pathoetiology during dynamic brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. ..
  20. Hallonet M, Hollemann T, Pieler T, Gruss P. Vax1, a novel homeobox-containing gene, directs development of the basal forebrain and visual system. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3106-14 pubmed
    ..Similarly, Shh injection expands the Vax1 and Pax2 territory at the expense of the Pax6 and Rx region...
  21. Riccomagno M, Takada S, Epstein D. Wnt-dependent regulation of inner ear morphogenesis is balanced by the opposing and supporting roles of Shh. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1612-23 pubmed
    ..The restriction of Wnt target genes to the dorsal otocyst is also influenced by Shh. Thus, a balance between Wnt and Shh signaling activities is key in distinguishing between vestibular and auditory cell types. ..
  22. Grieshammer U, Cebrian C, Ilagan R, Meyers E, Herzlinger D, Martin G. FGF8 is required for cell survival at distinct stages of nephrogenesis and for regulation of gene expression in nascent nephrons. Development. 2005;132:3847-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, unlike other FGF family members, which regulate growth and branching morphogenesis of the collecting duct system, Fgf8 encodes a factor essential for gene regulation and cell survival at distinct steps in nephrogenesis. ..
  23. Burns C, Zhang J, Brown E, Van Bibber A, van Es J, Clevers H, et al. Investigation of Frizzled-5 during embryonic neural development in mouse. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1614-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the function of Fzd5 during eye development appears to be species-dependent. ..
  24. Alur R, Vijayasarathy C, Brown J, Mehtani M, Onojafe I, Sergeev Y, et al. Papillorenal syndrome-causing missense mutations in PAX2/Pax2 result in hypomorphic alleles in mouse and human. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000870 pubmed publisher
    ..Many patients with PRS have mutations in the paired box transcription factor gene, PAX2. Although most mutations in PAX2 are predicted to result in complete loss of one allele's function, three missense ..
  25. Hu M, Mo R, Bhella S, Wilson C, Chuang P, Hui C, et al. GLI3-dependent transcriptional repression of Gli1, Gli2 and kidney patterning genes disrupts renal morphogenesis. Development. 2006;133:569-78 pubmed
    ..Shh deficiency decreased expression of kidney patterning genes (Pax2 and Sall1) and cell cycle regulators (cyclin D1 and MYCN)...
  26. Cheng L, Samad O, Xu Y, Mizuguchi R, Luo P, Shirasawa S, et al. Lbx1 and Tlx3 are opposing switches in determining GABAergic versus glutamatergic transmitter phenotypes. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1510-5 pubmed
    ..These genetic studies suggest that Lbx1 expression defines a basal GABAergic differentiation state, and Tlx3 acts to antagonize Lbx1 to promote glutamatergic differentiation. ..
  27. Bouchard M, Grote D, Craven S, Sun Q, Steinlein P, Busslinger M. Identification of Pax2-regulated genes by expression profiling of the mid-hindbrain organizer region. Development. 2005;132:2633-43 pubmed
    The paired domain transcription factor Pax2 is required for the formation of the isthmic organizer (IsO) at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, where it initiates expression of the IsO signal Fgf8...
  28. Levinson R, Batourina E, Choi C, Vorontchikhina M, Kitajewski J, Mendelsohn C. Foxd1-dependent signals control cellularity in the renal capsule, a structure required for normal renal development. Development. 2005;132:529-39 pubmed
  29. Chi L, Zhang S, Lin Y, Prunskaite Hyyryläinen R, Vuolteenaho R, Itäranta P, et al. Sprouty proteins regulate ureteric branching by coordinating reciprocal epithelial Wnt11, mesenchymal Gdnf and stromal Fgf7 signalling during kidney development. Development. 2004;131:3345-56 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that Spry genes contribute to reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal and stromal signalling controlling ureteric branching, which involves the coordination of Ffg/Wnt11/Gdnf pathways. ..
  30. Bouchard M, Souabni A, Mandler M, Neubüser A, Busslinger M. Nephric lineage specification by Pax2 and Pax8. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2958-70 pubmed
    ..nephric lineage is specified during pronephros induction, no single regulator, including the transcription factor Pax2 or Pax8, has yet been identified to control this initial phase of kidney development...
  31. Nishita M, Qiao S, Miyamoto M, Okinaka Y, Yamada M, Hashimoto R, et al. Role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the metanephric mesenchyme during ureteric budding. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an important role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the MM to ensure proper epithelial tubular formation of the UB required for kidney development. ..
  32. Miyazaki Y, Oshima K, Fogo A, Hogan B, Ichikawa I. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 regulates the budding site and elongation of the mouse ureter. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:863-73 pubmed
    ..The other is to promote the elongation of the branching ureter within the metanephros, thereby promoting kidney morphogenesis. ..
  33. Pirvola U, Spencer Dene B, Xing Qun L, Kettunen P, Thesleff I, Fritzsch B, et al. FGF/FGFR-2(IIIb) signaling is essential for inner ear morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2000;20:6125-34 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide genetic evidence that signaling by FGFR-2(IIIb) is critical for the morphological development of the inner ear. ..
  34. Schwarz M, Cecconi F, Bernier G, Andrejewski N, Kammandel B, Wagner M, et al. Spatial specification of mammalian eye territories by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Pax2 and Pax6. Development. 2000;127:4325-34 pubmed
    We have studied the molecular basis of the Pax2 and Pax6 function in the establishment of visual system territories...
  35. Martinez Morales J, Signore M, Acampora D, Simeone A, Bovolenta P. Otx genes are required for tissue specification in the developing eye. Development. 2001;128:2019-30 pubmed
    ..of the prospective neural retina and optic stalk territories, as determined by the expression of Pax6, Six3 and Pax2. Later in development the presumptive pigment epithelium region acquired features of mature neural retina, ..
  36. Pan N, Jahan I, Kersigo J, Kopecky B, Santi P, Johnson S, et al. Conditional deletion of Atoh1 using Pax2-Cre results in viable mice without differentiated cochlear hair cells that have lost most of the organ of Corti. Hear Res. 2011;275:66-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The fate of these undifferentiated cells in neonates is unknown due to lethality. We use Tg(Pax2-Cre) to delete floxed Atoh1 in the inner ear...
  37. Alvarez Y, Alonso M, Vendrell V, Zelarayan L, Chamero P, Theil T, et al. Requirements for FGF3 and FGF10 during inner ear formation. Development. 2003;130:6329-38 pubmed
    ..We thus created double mutant mice for FGF3 and FGF10, which form severely reduced otic vesicles, suggesting redundant roles of these FGFs, acting in combination as neural signals for otic vesicle formation. ..
  38. Murashima A, Akita H, Okazawa M, Kishigami S, Nakagata N, Nishinakamura R, et al. Midline-derived Shh regulates mesonephric tubule formation through the paraxial mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2014;386:216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the essential role of midline-derived Shh in local tissue morphogenesis and differentiation. ..
  39. Mugford J, Sipila P, Kobayashi A, Behringer R, McMahon A. Hoxd11 specifies a program of metanephric kidney development within the intermediate mesoderm of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2008;319:396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..This program maintains tubule forming progenitors and instructs a metanephric specific pattern of nephron differentiation. ..
  40. Mugford J, Sipila P, McMahon J, McMahon A. Osr1 expression demarcates a multi-potent population of intermediate mesoderm that undergoes progressive restriction to an Osr1-dependent nephron progenitor compartment within the mammalian kidney. Dev Biol. 2008;324:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide new insights into the cellular origins of metanephric kidney structures and lend support to a model where Osr1 function is limited to establishing the nephron progenitor pool. ..
  41. Barbieri A, Broccoli V, Bovolenta P, Alfano G, Marchitiello A, Mocchetti C, et al. Vax2 inactivation in mouse determines alteration of the eye dorsal-ventral axis, misrouting of the optic fibres and eye coloboma. Development. 2002;129:805-13 pubmed
    ..Vax2 inactivation determines dorsalisation of the expression of mid-late (Ephb2 and Efnb2) but not early (Pax2 and Tbx5) markers of dorsal-ventral polarity in the developing retina...
  42. Esquela A, Lee S. Regulation of metanephric kidney development by growth/differentiation factor 11. Dev Biol. 2003;257:356-70 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that Gdf11 may be important in directing the initial outgrowth of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct by controlling the expression of Gdnf in the metanephric mesenchyme. ..
  43. Sehgal R, Sheibani N, Rhodes S, Belecky Adams T. BMP7 and SHH regulate Pax2 in mouse retinal astrocytes by relieving TLX repression. Dev Biol. 2009;332:429-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Pax2 is essential for development of the neural tube, urogenital system, optic vesicle, optic cup and optic tract...
  44. Yallowitz A, Gong K, Swinehart I, Nelson L, Wellik D. Non-homeodomain regions of Hox proteins mediate activation versus repression of Six2 via a single enhancer site in vivo. Dev Biol. 2009;335:156-65 pubmed publisher
  45. Wang Q, Lan Y, Cho E, Maltby K, Jiang R. Odd-skipped related 1 (Odd 1) is an essential regulator of heart and urogenital development. Dev Biol. 2005;288:582-94 pubmed
    ..molecular marker analyses show that key regulators of early intermediate mesoderm development, including Lhx1, Pax2, and Wt1, are all down-regulated and nephrogenic mesenchyme undergoes massive apoptosis, resulting in disruption of ..
  46. Kitagaki J, Ueda Y, Chi X, Sharma N, Elder C, Truffer E, et al. FGF8 is essential for formation of the ductal system in the male reproductive tract. Development. 2011;138:5369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a multifocal requirement for FGF8 in establishing the male reproductive tract ducts and implicate Lhx1 signaling in tubule elongation. ..
  47. Bouchard M, Pfeffer P, Busslinger M. Functional equivalence of the transcription factors Pax2 and Pax5 in mouse development. Development. 2000;127:3703-13 pubmed
    b>Pax2 and Pax5 arose by gene duplication at the onset of vertebrate evolution and have since diverged in their developmental expression patterns...
  48. Burton Q, Cole L, Mulheisen M, Chang W, Wu D. The role of Pax2 in mouse inner ear development. Dev Biol. 2004;272:161-75 pubmed
    The paired box transcription factor, Pax2, is important for cochlear development in the mouse inner ear...
  49. Riccomagno M, Martinu L, Mulheisen M, Wu D, Epstein D. Specification of the mammalian cochlea is dependent on Sonic hedgehog. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2365-78 pubmed
    ..be traced back to alterations in the expression of a number of genes involved in cell fate specification including Pax2, Otx1, Otx2, Tbx1, and Ngn1...
  50. Aoto K, Nishimura T, Eto K, Motoyama J. Mouse GLI3 regulates Fgf8 expression and apoptosis in the developing neural tube, face, and limb bud. Dev Biol. 2002;251:320-32 pubmed
    ..Together, our data reveal that GLI3 limits Fgf8-expression domains in multiple tissues, through a mechanism that may include the induction or maintenance of apoptosis. ..
  51. Mui S, Kim J, Lemke G, Bertuzzi S. Vax genes ventralize the embryonic eye. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1249-59 pubmed
  52. Tripathi P, Guo Q, Wang Y, Coussens M, Liapis H, Jain S, et al. Midline signaling regulates kidney positioning but not nephrogenesis through Shh. Dev Biol. 2010;340:518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies also provide insights into the pathogenesis of horseshoe kidneys and how congenital kidney defects can be caused by signals outside the renal primordia. ..
  53. Carroll T, Park J, Hayashi S, Majumdar A, McMahon A. Wnt9b plays a central role in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transitions underlying organogenesis of the mammalian urogenital system. Dev Cell. 2005;9:283-92 pubmed
    ..Together these findings suggest that Wnt9b is a common organizing signal regulating diverse components of the mammalian urogenital system...
  54. Linton J, Martin G, Reichardt L. The ECM protein nephronectin promotes kidney development via integrin alpha8beta1-mediated stimulation of Gdnf expression. Development. 2007;134:2501-9 pubmed
    ..Our results thus place nephronectin and alpha8beta1 integrin in a pathway that regulates Gdnf expression and is essential for kidney development. ..
  55. Discenza M, He S, Lee T, Chu L, Bolon B, Goodyer P, et al. WT1 is a modifier of the Pax2 mutant phenotype: cooperation and interaction between WT1 and Pax2. Oncogene. 2003;22:8145-55 pubmed
    ..bud and progenitor mesenchyme, where the early expression of two genes, Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) and paired box 2 (Pax2), establishes critical but unknown developmental pathways...
  56. Chia I, Grote D, Marcotte M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Bouchard M. Nephric duct insertion is a crucial step in urinary tract maturation that is regulated by a Gata3-Raldh2-Ret molecular network in mice. Development. 2011;138:2089-97 pubmed publisher
  57. Sellick G, Longman C, Tolmie J, Newbury Ecob R, Geenhalgh L, Hughes S, et al. Genomewide linkage searches for Mendelian disease loci can be efficiently conducted using high-density SNP genotyping arrays. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:e164 pubmed
    ..The performance of the SNP array, both in terms of efficiency and precision, indicates that such platforms will become the dominant technology for performing genomewide linkage searches. ..
  58. Wright T, Mansour S. Fgf3 and Fgf10 are required for mouse otic placode induction. Development. 2003;130:3379-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, examination of embryos carrying three out of the four mutant Fgf alleles revealed intermediate phenotypes, suggesting a quantitative requirement for FGF signalling in otic vesicle formation. ..
  59. Petros T, Williams S, Mason C. Temporal regulation of EphA4 in astroglia during murine retinal and optic nerve development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;32:49-66 pubmed
  60. Uetani N, Bertozzi K, Chagnon M, Hendriks W, Tremblay M, Bouchard M. Maturation of ureter-bladder connection in mice is controlled by LAR family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:924-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that ureter positioning is controlled by the opposing actions of Ret and LAR family phosphatases regulating apoptosis-mediated tissue morphogenesis. ..
  61. Sato A, Matsumoto Y, Koide U, Kataoka Y, Yoshida N, Yokota T, et al. Zinc finger protein sall2 is not essential for embryonic and kidney development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:62-9 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking both Sall1 and Sall2 show kidney phenotypes comparable to those of Sall1 knockout, thereby demonstrating the dispensable roles of Sall2 in embryonic and kidney development. ..
  62. Graw J, Löster J, Puk O, Münster D, Haubst N, Soewarto D, et al. Three novel Pax6 alleles in the mouse leading to the same small-eye phenotype caused by different consequences at target promoters. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:4671-83 pubmed
  63. Wellik D, Hawkes P, Capecchi M. Hox11 paralogous genes are essential for metanephric kidney induction. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1423-32 pubmed
    ..In these triple mutants, the metanephric blastema condenses, and expression of early patterning genes, Pax2 and Wt1, is unperturbed. Eya1 expression is also intact...
  64. Dakubo G, Beug S, Mazerolle C, Thurig S, Wang Y, Wallace V. Control of glial precursor cell development in the mouse optic nerve by sonic hedgehog from retinal ganglion cells. Brain Res. 2008;1228:27-42 pubmed publisher
    ..RGC-derived Shh signalling isthus necessary in vivo for maintenance of astrocyte proliferation, affecting both axo-glial and normal glial cell development in the optic nerve. ..
  65. Cain J, Islam E, Haxho F, Chen L, Bridgewater D, Nieuwenhuis E, et al. GLI3 repressor controls nephron number via regulation of Wnt11 and Ret in ureteric tip cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7313 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GLI3 repressor controls nephron number by regulating ureteric tip cell expression of Wnt11 and Ret. ..
  66. Li J, Joyner A. Otx2 and Gbx2 are required for refinement and not induction of mid-hindbrain gene expression. Development. 2001;128:4979-91 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Otx2 and Gbx2 are required to suppress hindbrain and midbrain development, respectively, and thus allow establishment of the normal spatial domains of Fgf8 and other genes. ..
  67. Hoshi M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Jain S. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice. Development. 2012;139:2405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates novel inhibitory roles of RetY1015 and provides a possible mechanistic explanation for some of the confounding broad range phenotypes in individuals with CAKUT...
  68. Hatch E, Noyes C, Wang X, Wright T, Mansour S. Fgf3 is required for dorsal patterning and morphogenesis of the inner ear epithelium. Development. 2007;134:3615-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that Fgf3 prevents ventral expansion of r5-6 neurectodermal Wnt3a, serving to focus inductive WNT signals on the dorsal otic vesicle and highlighting a new example of cross-talk between the two signaling systems. ..
  69. Wang W, Chan E, Baron S, Van de Water T, Lufkin T. Hmx2 homeobox gene control of murine vestibular morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:5017-29 pubmed
    ..The developmental regulators Bmp4, Dlx5 and Pax2 all play a critical role in inner ear ontogeny, and the expression of each of these genes is affected in the Hmx2 ..
  70. Lawoko Kerali G, Rivolta M, Holley M. Expression of the transcription factors GATA3 and Pax2 during development of the mammalian inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 2002;442:378-91 pubmed
    The transcription factors GATA3 and Pax2 are expressed throughout development of the mouse inner ear. We have used antibodies to study their temporal and spatial expression patterns from embryonic days E8-E16.5...
  71. Morcillo J, Martinez Morales J, Trousse F, Fermin Y, Sowden J, Bovolenta P. Proper patterning of the optic fissure requires the sequential activity of BMP7 and SHH. Development. 2006;133:3179-90 pubmed
    ..precursors can be recognised by the expression of netrin 1 and the overlapping distribution of both optic stalk (Pax2, Vax1) and ventral neural retina markers (Vax2, Raldh3)...
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