Gene Symbol: Pard3
Description: par-3 family cell polarity regulator
Alias: AA960621, AI256638, Asip, D8Ertd580e, Par-3, Par3, Pard-3, Pard3a, Phip, partitioning defective 3 homolog, atypical PKC isotype-specific-interacting protein, ephrin-interacting protein, par-3 (partitioning defective 3) homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Pard3

Top Publications

  1. Atwood S, Li M, Lee A, Tang J, Oro A. GLI activation by atypical protein kinase C ?/? regulates the growth of basal cell carcinomas. Nature. 2013;494:484-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that aPKC-?/? is critical for HH-dependent processes and implicates aPKC-?/? as a new, tumour-selective therapeutic target for the treatment of SMO-inhibitor-resistant cancers. ..
  2. Pearson H, Perez Mancera P, Dow L, Ryan A, Tennstedt P, Bogani D, et al. SCRIB expression is deregulated in human prostate cancer, and its deficiency in mice promotes prostate neoplasia. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. ..
  3. Bultje R, Castaneda Castellanos D, Jan L, Jan Y, Kriegstein A, Shi S. Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 2009;63:189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a critical molecular pathway underlying asymmetric cell division of radial glial progenitors in the mammalian neocortex. ..
  4. Cappello S, Böhringer C, Bergami M, Conzelmann K, Ghanem A, Tomassy G, et al. A radial glia-specific role of RhoA in double cortex formation. Neuron. 2012;73:911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data not only demonstrate that RhoA is largely dispensable for migration in neurons but also showed that defects in radial glial cells, rather than neurons, can be sufficient to produce SBH. ..
  5. McCaffrey L, Macara I. The Par3/aPKC interaction is essential for end bud remodeling and progenitor differentiation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1450-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Transplantation of Par3-depleted stem/progenitor cells into the mammary fat pad severely disrupted mammary development, and glands were ..
  6. Traweger A, Wiggin G, Taylor L, Tate S, Metalnikov P, Pawson T. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates the phosphorylation state of the polarity scaffold Par-3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10402-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Koike C, Nishida A, Akimoto K, Nakaya M, Noda T, Ohno S, et al. Function of atypical protein kinase C lambda in differentiating photoreceptors is required for proper lamination of mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10290-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that properly polarized photoreceptors anchor progenitors at the apical edge of the neural retina, which may be essential for building correct laminar organization of the retina. ..
  8. Schmoranzer J, Fawcett J, Segura M, Tan S, Vallee R, Pawson T, et al. Par3 and dynein associate to regulate local microtubule dynamics and centrosome orientation during migration. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In a search for factors that function with dynein in centrosome orientation, we found that the polarity protein Par3 associated with dynein and that knockdown of Par3 inhibited centrosome orientation by disrupting the position of ..
  9. Hartleben B, Schweizer H, Lübben P, Bartram M, Möller C, Herr R, et al. Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23033-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We now identify Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) polarity proteins as novel Neph1-Nephrin-associated proteins...

More Information


  1. Xue B, Krishnamurthy K, Allred D, Muthuswamy S. Loss of Par3 promotes breast cancer metastasis by compromising cell-cell cohesion. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) is dysregulated in metastasis in human breast cancer, and is associated with a higher tumour grade and ErbB2-..
  2. McCaffrey L, Montalbano J, Mihai C, Macara I. Loss of the Par3 polarity protein promotes breast tumorigenesis and metastasis. Cancer Cell. 2012;22:601-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this issue, we depleted the Par3 polarity gene by RNAi in combination with oncogenic Notch or Ras(61L) expression in the murine mammary gland...
  3. Sugiyama Y, Akimoto K, Robinson M, Ohno S, Quinlan R. A cell polarity protein aPKClambda is required for eye lens formation and growth. Dev Biol. 2009;336:246-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that aPKClambda, a regulator of polarity and apical junctions, is required for development of a lens that is the correct size and shape. ..
  4. Pegtel D, Ellenbroek S, Mertens A, van der Kammen R, de Rooij J, Collard J. The Par-Tiam1 complex controls persistent migration by stabilizing microtubule-dependent front-rear polarity. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1623-34 pubmed
    ..The Par polarity complex consisting of Par3, Par6, and PKCzeta, in conjunction with Tiam1-mediated Rac signaling, controls apical-basal cell polarity in ..
  5. Imai F, Hirai S, Akimoto K, Koyama H, Miyata T, Ogawa M, et al. Inactivation of aPKClambda results in the loss of adherens junctions in neuroepithelial cells without affecting neurogenesis in mouse neocortex. Development. 2006;133:1735-44 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we concluded that, at least in the later stages of neurogenesis, regulation of cell cycle exit is independent of adherens junctions. ..
  6. Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara I. The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to Cdc42. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:531-9 pubmed
    ..This assembly is implicated in the formation of normal tight junctions at epithelial cell-cell contacts. Thus, Par6 is a key adaptor that links Cdc42 and atypical PKCs to Par3.
  7. Hirose T, Satoh D, Kurihara H, Kusaka C, Hirose H, Akimoto K, et al. An essential role of the universal polarity protein, aPKClambda, on the maintenance of podocyte slit diaphragms. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4194 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the PAR3-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-PAR6beta cell polarity proteins co-localize to the slit diaphragms with nephrin...
  8. Hirose T, Karasawa M, Sugitani Y, Fujisawa M, Akimoto K, Ohno S, et al. PAR3 is essential for cyst-mediated epicardial development by establishing apical cortical domains. Development. 2006;133:1389-98 pubmed
    ..We show that the targeted disruption of the mouse Par3 gene results in midgestational embryonic lethality with defective epicardial development...
  9. Lin D, Edwards A, Fawcett J, Mbamalu G, Scott J, Pawson T. A mammalian PAR-3-PAR-6 complex implicated in Cdc42/Rac1 and aPKC signalling and cell polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:540-7 pubmed
    ..In vitro, mPAR-3 acts as a substrate and an inhibitor of aPKC. We conclude that mPAR-3 and mPAR-6 have a scaffolding function, coordinating the activities of several signalling proteins that are implicated in mammalian cell polarity. ..
  10. Ebnet K, Suzuki A, Horikoshi Y, Hirose T, Meyer Zu Brickwedde M, Ohno S, et al. The cell polarity protein ASIP/PAR-3 directly associates with junctional adhesion molecule (JAM). EMBO J. 2001;20:3738-48 pubmed
    ..Recently, vertebrate orthologues of two of these proteins, ASIP/PAR-3 and PAR-6, were found to form a signalling complex with the small GTPases Cdc42/Rac1 and with atypical ..
  11. Mizuno K, Suzuki A, Hirose T, Kitamura K, Kutsuzawa K, Futaki M, et al. Self-association of PAR-3-mediated by the conserved N-terminal domain contributes to the development of epithelial tight junctions. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31240-50 pubmed
    ..These results support the notion that the CR1-mediated self-association of the PAR-3-containing protein complex plays a role during the formation of functional tight junctions. ..
  12. Iden S, van Riel W, Schäfer R, Song J, Hirose T, Ohno S, et al. Tumor type-dependent function of the par3 polarity protein in skin tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2012;22:389-403 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse skin tumorigenesis, Par3 deficiency results in reduced papilloma formation and growth...
  13. Costa M, Wen G, Lepier A, Schroeder T, Gotz M. Par-complex proteins promote proliferative progenitor divisions in the developing mouse cerebral cortex. Development. 2008;135:11-22 pubmed
    ..Par3 (Pard3) loss-of-function led to premature cell cycle exit, reflected in reduced clone size in vitro and the restriction ..
  14. Wu M, Smith C, Hall J, Lee I, Luby Phelps K, Tallquist M. Epicardial spindle orientation controls cell entry into the myocardium. Dev Cell. 2010;19:114-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that directed mitotic spindle orientation contributes to epicardial EMT and implicate a junctional complex of beta-catenin and Numb in the regulation of spindle orientation. ..
  15. Rakotomamonjy J, Brunner M, Jüschke C, Zang K, Huang E, Reichardt L, et al. Afadin controls cell polarization and mitotic spindle orientation in developing cortical radial glia. Neural Dev. 2017;12:7 pubmed publisher
  16. Villasenor A, Chong D, Henkemeyer M, Cleaver O. Epithelial dynamics of pancreatic branching morphogenesis. Development. 2010;137:4295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results illustrate distinct, step-wise cellular mechanisms by which pancreatic epithelium shapes itself to create a functional branching organ. ..
  17. Theil T. Gli3 is required for the specification and differentiation of preplate neurons. Dev Biol. 2005;286:559-71 pubmed
  18. Tamehiro N, Zhou S, Okuhira K, Benita Y, Brown C, Zhuang D, et al. SPTLC1 binds ABCA1 to negatively regulate trafficking and cholesterol efflux activity of the transporter. Biochemistry. 2008;47:6138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In composite, these results indicate that the physical interaction of ABCA1 and SPTLC1 results in reduction of ABCA1 activity and that inhibition of this interaction produces enhanced cholesterol efflux...
  19. Kosodo Y, Röper K, Haubensak W, Marzesco A, Corbeil D, Huttner W. Asymmetric distribution of the apical plasma membrane during neurogenic divisions of mammalian neuroepithelial cells. EMBO J. 2004;23:2314-24 pubmed
    ..Our results support a novel concept for the cell biological basis of asymmetric, neurogenic divisions of neuroepithelial cells in the mammalian central nervous system. ..
  20. Alves C, Sanz A, Park B, Pellissier L, Tanimoto N, Beck S, et al. Loss of CRB2 in the mouse retina mimics human retinitis pigmentosa due to mutations in the CRB1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:35-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest an essential role for CRB2 in proper lamination of the photoreceptor layer and suppression of proliferation of late-born retinal progenitor cells...
  21. Castelli M, Boca M, Chiaravalli M, Ramalingam H, Rowe I, Distefano G, et al. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2658 pubmed publisher
    ..Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity ..
  22. Manabe N, Hirai S, Imai F, Nakanishi H, Takai Y, Ohno S. Association of ASIP/mPAR-3 with adherens junctions of mouse neuroepithelial cells. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:61-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we explore the localization of atypical PKC isotype-specific interacting protein (ASIP), a mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans polarity protein PAR-3, in embryonic neural tissues...
  23. Herzog D, Loetscher P, van Hengel J, Knüsel S, Brakebusch C, Taylor V, et al. The small GTPase RhoA is required to maintain spinal cord neuroepithelium organization and the neural stem cell pool. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show that RhoA signaling is necessary for AJ regulation and for the maintenance of mammalian neuroepithelium organization preventing precocious cell-cycle exit and differentiation. ..
  24. Dudok J, Murtaza M, Henrique Alves C, Rashbass P, Wijnholds J. Crumbs 2 prevents cortical abnormalities in mouse dorsal telencephalon. Neurosci Res. 2016;108:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that CRB2 is required for maintenance of the apical polarity complex during development of the cortex and regulation of cell division, and that loss of CRB2 results in cortical abnormalities. ..
  25. Mescher M, Jeong P, Knapp S, Rübsam M, Saynisch M, Kranen M, et al. The epidermal polarity protein Par3 is a non-cell autonomous suppressor of malignant melanoma. J Exp Med. 2017;214:339-358 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidermal Par3 inactivation in mice promotes MC dedifferentiation, motility, and hyperplasia and, in an autochthonous melanoma ..
  26. Tep C, Kim M, Opincariu L, Limpert A, Chan J, Appel B, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces polarized signaling of small GTPase (Rac1) protein at the onset of Schwann cell myelination through partitioning-defective 3 (Par3) protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1600-8 pubmed publisher
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was shown to play a role in Schwann cell myelination by recruiting Par3 to the axon-glial interface, but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear...
  27. Elias B, Das A, Parekh D, Mernaugh G, Adams R, Yang Z, et al. Cdc42 regulates epithelial cell polarity and cytoskeletal function during kidney tubule development. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdc42-null collecting duct cells shows that Cdc42 controls these processes by regulating the polarity Par complex (Par3-Par6-aPKC-Cdc42) and the cytoskeletal proteins N-Wasp and ezrin...
  28. Wölwer C, Godde N, Pase L, Elsum I, Lim K, Sacirbegovic F, et al. The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential for Erythroid Development or Enucleation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170295 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results put into question a role for cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in erythroid enucleation. ..
  29. El Hashash A, Warburton D. Cell polarity and spindle orientation in the distal epithelium of embryonic lung. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:441-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence for polarity in distal epithelial progenitors of embryonic lungs and provide a framework for future translationally oriented studies in this area. ..
  30. Sottocornola R, Royer C, Vives V, Tordella L, Zhong S, Wang Y, et al. ASPP2 binds Par-3 and controls the polarity and proliferation of neural progenitors during CNS development. Dev Cell. 2010;19:126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify ASPP2 as a regulator of Par-3, which plays a key role in controlling cell proliferation, polarity, and tissue organization during CNS development. ..
  31. Whiteman E, Fan S, Harder J, Walton K, Liu C, Soofi A, et al. Crumbs3 is essential for proper epithelial development and viability. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The Crb complex also binds the conserved Par3/Par6/atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) polarity cassette that restricts migration of basolateral proteins through ..
  32. Cho S, Kim J, Simons D, Song J, Le J, Swindell E, et al. Genetic ablation of Pals1 in retinal progenitor cells models the retinal pathology of Leber congenital amaurosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:2663-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data uncover the indispensible role of Pals1 in retinal development, likely involving the maintenance of retinal polarity and survival of retinal neurons, thus providing the basis for the pathologic mechanisms of LCA8. ..
  33. Schock E, Brugmann S. Neural crest cells utilize primary cilia to regulate ventral forebrain morphogenesis via Hedgehog-dependent regulation of oriented cell division. Dev Biol. 2017;431:168-178 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest a novel, cilia-dependent mechanism for NCCs during forebrain development. ..
  34. Clark A, Glanowski S, Nielsen R, Thomas P, Kejariwal A, Todd M, et al. Inferring nonneutral evolution from human-chimp-mouse orthologous gene trios. Science. 2003;302:1960-3 pubmed
    ..In addition to suggesting adaptive physiological differences between chimps and humans, human-accelerated genes are significantly more likely to underlie major known Mendelian disorders. ..
  35. Zovein A, Luque A, Turlo K, Hofmann J, Yee K, Becker M, et al. Beta1 integrin establishes endothelial cell polarity and arteriolar lumen formation via a Par3-dependent mechanism. Dev Cell. 2010;18:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of normally polarized cell-cell adhesion molecules, as well as decreased expression of the polarity gene Par3 (pard3)...
  36. Tarchini B, Jolicoeur C, Cayouette M. A molecular blueprint at the apical surface establishes planar asymmetry in cochlear hair cells. Dev Cell. 2013;27:88-102 pubmed publisher
    ..G?i is additionally required for lateral orientation of cochlear hair cells, providing a possible mechanism to couple the emergence of asymmetric stereocilia bundles with planar cell polarity. ..
  37. Schnatwinkel C, Niswander L. Nubp1 is required for lung branching morphogenesis and distal progenitor cell survival in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44871 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Nubp1 mutation disrupts localization of the polarity protein Par3 and the mitosis relevant protein Numb...
  38. Shah B, Lutter D, Tsytsyura Y, Glyvuk N, Sakakibara A, Klingauf J, et al. Rap1 GTPases Are Master Regulators of Neural Cell Polarity in the Developing Neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2017;27:1253-1269 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the loss of RGC and neuronal polarity results in the disruption of cortical organization. ..
  39. Dasgupta B, Milbrandt J. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein to control mammalian brain development. Dev Cell. 2009;16:256-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The AMPK-Rb axis is utilized by both growth factors and energy restriction to increase NPC growth. Our results reveal that AMPK integrates growth factor signaling with cell cycle control to regulate brain development. ..
  40. Mahaffey J, Grego Bessa J, Liem K, Anderson K. Cofilin and Vangl2 cooperate in the initiation of planar cell polarity in the mouse embryo. Development. 2013;140:1262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Vangl2 and cofilin cooperate to target Rab11(+) vesicles containing PCP proteins to the apical membrane during the initiation of planar cell polarity. ..
  41. Ishiuchi T, Takeichi M. Willin and Par3 cooperatively regulate epithelial apical constriction through aPKC-mediated ROCK phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Willin (a FERM-domain protein) and Par3 (a polarity-regulating protein) cooperatively regulate ROCK-dependent apical constriction...
  42. Weimer J, Yokota Y, Stanco A, Stumpo D, Blackshear P, Anton E. MARCKS modulates radial progenitor placement, proliferation and organization in the developing cerebral cortex. Development. 2009;136:2965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of key polarity complexes [CDC42, beta-catenin (CTNNB1), N-cadherin (CDH2), myosin IIB (MYOIIB), aPKCzeta, LGL, PAR3, pericentrin, PROM1] is lost...
  43. Yu M, Yang S, Qiu Y, Chen G, Wang W, Xu C, et al. Par-3 modulates intestinal epithelial barrier function through regulating intracellular trafficking of occludin and myosin light chain phosphorylation. J Gastroenterol. 2015;50:1103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Par-3 plays an important role in the modulation of intestinal barrier function by regulating delivery of occludin as well as suppression of MLC phosphorylation. ..
  44. Marty Santos L, Cleaver O. Pdx1 regulates pancreas tubulogenesis and E-cadherin expression. Development. 2016;143:101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a novel link between regulators of epithelial architecture, specification of pancreatic cell fate and organogenesis. ..
  45. Lyu J, Kim H, Yamamoto V, Choi S, Wei Z, Joo C, et al. Protein phosphatase 4 and Smek complex negatively regulate Par3 and promote neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. Cell Rep. 2013;5:593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the cell polarity protein Par3, a negative regulator of neuronal differentiation, as a Smek1 substrate and demonstrate that Smek1 suppresses its ..
  46. Koehler S, Tellkamp F, Niessen C, Bloch W, Kerjaschki D, Schermer B, et al. Par3A is dispensable for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;311:F112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic deletion of Pard3a did not impair renal function, neither at birth nor later in life...
  47. Ezan J, Lasvaux L, Gezer A, Novakovic A, May Simera H, Belotti E, et al. Primary cilium migration depends on G-protein signalling control of subapical cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus G-protein-dependent signalling controls the migration of the cilium cell autonomously, whereas core PCP signalling controls long-range tissue PCP. ..
  48. Siletti K, Tarchini B, Hudspeth A. Daple coordinates organ-wide and cell-intrinsic polarity to pattern inner-ear hair bundles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E11170-E11179 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the primary cilium or an associated structure influences the domain of cell-intrinsic signals that shape the hair bundle. Daple is therefore essential to orient and pattern sensory hair bundles. ..
  49. Lin D, Gish G, Songyang Z, Pawson T. The carboxyl terminus of B class ephrins constitutes a PDZ domain binding motif. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3726-33 pubmed
    ..polypeptides with multiple PDZ domains, representing fragments of the molecule GRIP, the protein syntenin, and PHIP, a novel PDZ domain-containing protein related to Caenorhabditis elegans PAR-3...
  50. Wang P, Chou F, Ramachandran S, Xia S, Chen H, Guo F, et al. Crucial roles of the Arp2/3 complex during mammalian corticogenesis. Development. 2016;143:2741-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly might be particularly important for neuronal cell motility in a soft or poorly adhesive matrix environment. ..
  51. Cong W, Hirose T, Harita Y, Yamashita A, Mizuno K, Hirano H, et al. ASPP2 regulates epithelial cell polarity through the PAR complex. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results, taken together with the known functions of ASPP2, suggest a close relationship between cell polarity and other cell regulatory mechanisms mediated by ASPP2. ..
  52. Yamanaka T, Tosaki A, Kurosawa M, Akimoto K, Hirose T, Ohno S, et al. Loss of aPKC? in differentiated neurons disrupts the polarity complex but does not induce obvious neuronal loss or disorientation in mouse brains. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84036 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, despite the polarity complex disruption, neuronal deletion of aPKC? does not induce obvious cell loss or disorientation in mouse brains after cell differentiation. ..
  53. Johansson A, Driessens M, Aspenstrom P. The mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans polarity protein PAR-6 is a binding partner for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 18):3267-75 pubmed
    ..These findings, together with the reported roles of PAR-6 and PAR-3 in C. elegans, suggest that Cdc42 and Rac1 and PAR-6/PAR-3 are involved in the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. ..
  54. Yang Z, Zimmerman S, BRAKEMAN P, Beaudoin G, Reichardt L, MARCIANO D. De novo lumen formation and elongation in the developing nephron: a central role for afadin in apical polarity. Development. 2013;140:1774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that kidney mesenchymal cells contain discrete Par3-expressing membrane microdomains that become restricted to an apical domain, coinciding with lumen formation...
  55. Fujita E, Tanabe Y, Hirose T, Aurrand Lions M, Kasahara T, Imhof B, et al. Loss of partitioning-defective-3/isotype-specific interacting protein (par-3/ASIP) in the elongating spermatid of RA175 (IGSF4A/SynCAM)-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1800-10 pubmed
    ..The lack of the ternary complex in the Ra175(-/-) elongating spermatid may cause the defect of the specialized adhesion structures, resulting in the oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia. ..
  56. Poulson N, Lechler T. Robust control of mitotic spindle orientation in the developing epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:915-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have uncovered two important regulatory points controlling ACD in the epidermis and allow a framework for analysis of how external cues control this important choice. ..
  57. Kharfallah F, Guyot M, El Hassan A, Allache R, Merello E, De Marco P, et al. Scribble1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects through its mediating effect of Par-3 and Vangl1/2 localization. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:2307-2320 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates an important role of Scrib1 in the pathogenesis of NTDs through its mediating effect of Par-3 and Vangl1/2 localization and most likely independently of ABP. ..
  58. Schermer B, Ghenoiu C, Bartram M, Muller R, Kotsis F, Höhne M, et al. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein controls ciliogenesis by orienting microtubule growth. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:547-54 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, pVHL interacts with the Par3-Par6-atypical PKC complex, suggesting a mechanism for linking polarity pathways to microtubule capture and ..
  59. Plusa B, Frankenberg S, Chalmers A, Hadjantonakis A, Moore C, Papalopulu N, et al. Downregulation of Par3 and aPKC function directs cells towards the ICM in the preimplantation mouse embryo. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:505-15 pubmed
    ..The underlying molecular mechanisms for these events are not understood. As the Par3/aPKC complex has a role in establishing cellular polarity and division orientation in other systems, we explored ..
  60. Dudok J, Sanz A, Lundvig D, Wijnholds J. MPP3 is required for maintenance of the apical junctional complex, neuronal migration, and stratification in the developing cortex. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that MPP3 is required for maintenance of the apical protein complex and adherens junctions and for stratification and proper migration of neurons during the development of the cortex. ..
  61. Grego Bessa J, Hildebrand J, Anderson K. Morphogenesis of the mouse neural plate depends on distinct roles of cofilin 1 in apical and basal epithelial domains. Development. 2015;142:1305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The basal accumulation of F-actin is associated with the assembly of ectopic basal tight junctions and focal disruptions of the basement membrane, which eventually lead to a breakdown of epithelial organization. ..
  62. Song J, Park R, Kim J, Hughes L, Lu L, Kim S, et al. Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity. Dev Biol. 2014;386:281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..polarity disruption, and disorganized apical polarity complex and junction proteins such as Crumbs, Pals1, Par3 and ZO-1...
  63. Fukuda T, Kominami K, Wang S, Togashi H, Hirata K, Mizoguchi A, et al. Aberrant cochlear hair cell attachments caused by Nectin-3 deficiency result in hair bundle abnormalities. Development. 2014;141:399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, owing to the loss of Nectin-3, hair cells contact each other inappropriately and form abnormal junctions, ultimately resulting in abnormal hair bundle orientation and morphology. ..
  64. Warner D, Pisano M, Roberts E, Greene R. Identification of three novel Smad binding proteins involved in cell polarity. FEBS Lett. 2003;539:167-73 pubmed
  65. Li C, Hu J, Lu H, Lan J, Du W, Galicia N, et al. ?E-catenin inhibits YAP/TAZ activity to regulate signalling centre formation during tooth development. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12133 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to a developmental mechanism by which ?E-catenin restricts YAP/TAZ activity to establish a group of non-dividing and specialized cells that constitute a signalling centre. ..
  66. Fu X, Sun H, Klein W, Mu X. Beta-catenin is essential for lamination but not neurogenesis in mouse retinal development. Dev Biol. 2006;299:424-37 pubmed
    ..The results further imply that retinal lamination and retinal cell differentiation are genetically separable processes. ..
  67. Charrier L, Loie E, Laprise P. Mouse Crumbs3 sustains epithelial tissue morphogenesis in vivo. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17699 pubmed publisher
  68. Grego Bessa J, Bloomekatz J, Castel P, Omelchenko T, Baselga J, Anderson K. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium. elife. 2016;5:e12034 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  69. Ramkumar N, Omelchenko T, Silva Gagliardi N, McGlade C, Wijnholds J, Anderson K. Crumbs2 promotes cell ingression during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1281-1291 pubmed publisher
  70. Luxenburg C, Heller E, Pasolli H, Chai S, Nikolova M, Stokes N, et al. Wdr1-mediated cell shape dynamics and cortical tension are essential for epidermal planar cell polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2015;17:592-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest intriguing evolutionary parallels but mechanistic modifications to the distal wing hinge-mediated mechanical forces that drive cell shape change and orient PCP in the Drosophila wing disc. ..
  71. Famulski J, Trivedi N, Howell D, Yang Y, Tong Y, Gilbertson R, et al. Siah regulation of Pard3A controls neuronal cell adhesion during germinal zone exit. Science. 2010;330:1834-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that cerebellar granule neuron germinal zone exit is regulated by proteasomal degradation of Pard3A by the Seven in Absentia homolog (Siah) E3 ubiquitin ligase...
  72. Kechad A, Jolicoeur C, Tufford A, Mattar P, Chow R, Harris W, et al. Numb is required for the production of terminal asymmetric cell divisions in the developing mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17197-17210 pubmed publisher
  73. Takekuni K, Ikeda W, Fujito T, Morimoto K, Takeuchi M, Monden M, et al. Direct binding of cell polarity protein PAR-3 to cell-cell adhesion molecule nectin at neuroepithelial cells of developing mouse. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5497-500 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that nectin-1 and -3 are involved in the localization of PAR-3 at AJs in the neuroepithelial cells of the embryonic telencephalon. ..
  74. Chen X, Macara I. Par-3 controls tight junction assembly through the Rac exchange factor Tiam1. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:262-9 pubmed
    ..These results define a critical function for Par-3 in tight junction assembly, and reveal a novel mechanism through which Par-3 engages in the spatial regulation of Rac activity and establishment of epithelial polarity. ..
  75. Kielar M, Tuy F, Bizzotto S, Lebrand C, de Juan Romero C, Poirier K, et al. Mutations in Eml1 lead to ectopic progenitors and neuronal heterotopia in mouse and human. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:923-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found EML1 to be mutated in ribbon-like heterotopia in humans. Our data link abnormal spindle orientations, ectopic progenitors and severe heterotopia in mouse and human. ..