Gene Symbol: Pak1
Description: p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1
Alias: AW045634, PAK-1, Paka, serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1, CDC42/RAC effector kinase PAK-A, P21 CDKN1A-activated kinase 1, activated protein kinase alpha, alpha-PAK, p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1, p21-activated kinase 1, p65-PAK
Species: mouse
Products:     Pak1

Top Publications

  1. Kreis P, Rousseau V, Thévenot E, Combeau G, Barnier J. The four mammalian splice variants encoded by the p21-activated kinase 3 gene have different biological properties. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1184-97 pubmed publisher
    The p21-activated kinases (PAK1), PAK2, and PAK3 are members of the PAK group I and share high sequence identity and common biochemical properties...
  2. Wang Z, Oh E, Clapp D, Chernoff J, Thurmond D. Inhibition or ablation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) disrupts glucose homeostatic mechanisms in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41359-67 pubmed publisher
    The p21-activated kinase PAK1 is implicated in tumorigenesis, and efforts to inhibit PAK1 signaling as a means to induce tumor cell apoptosis are underway...
  3. Stockton R, Reutershan J, Scott D, Sanders J, Ley K, Schwartz M. Induction of vascular permeability: beta PIX and GIT1 scaffold the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by PAK. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2346-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the PAK-PIX-GIT1 complex is critical for Erk-dependent myosin phosphorylation and vascular permeability. ..
  4. Ijuin T, Takenawa T. Regulation of insulin signaling by the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate phosphatase SKIP through the scaffolding function of Pak1. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3570-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon insulin stimulation, SKIP is translocated to the membrane ruffles, where it binds to the active form of Pak1, which mediates multiple protein complex formation with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) effectors ..
  5. Sánchez Solana B, Motwani M, Li D, Eswaran J, Kumar R. p21-activated kinase-1 signaling regulates transcription of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39291-302 pubmed publisher aimed at identifying differentially regulated genes between wild-type (WT) and p21-activated kinase 1-null (PAK1-KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found TF and TFPI are differentially expressed in the PAK1-KO MEFs in ..
  6. Nie J, Sun C, Faruque O, Ye G, Li J, Liang Q, et al. Synapses of amphids defective (SAD-A) kinase promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) in pancreatic ?-Cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:26435-44 pubmed publisher
    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases...
  7. Leisner T, Liu M, Jaffer Z, Chernoff J, Parise L. Essential role of CIB1 in regulating PAK1 activation and cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:465-76 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report a direct and specific interaction of PAK1 with a 22-kD Ca2+-binding protein, CIB1, which results in PAK1 activation both in vitro and in vivo...
  8. Huang W, Zhou Z, Asrar S, Henkelman M, Xie W, Jia Z. p21-Activated kinases 1 and 3 control brain size through coordinating neuronal complexity and synaptic properties. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:388-403 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that double-knockout (DK) mice lacking both PAK1 and PAK3 were born healthy, with normal brain size and structure, but severely impaired in postnatal brain growth, ..
  9. Thullberg M, Gad A, Beeser A, Chernoff J, Stromblad S. The kinase-inhibitory domain of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) inhibits cell cycle progression independent of PAK1 kinase activity. Oncogene. 2007;26:1820-8 pubmed
    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a mediator of downstream signaling from the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42. In its inactive state, PAK1 forms a homodimer where two kinases inhibit each other in trans...

More Information


  1. Li X, Minden A. Targeted disruption of the gene for the PAK5 kinase in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7134-42 pubmed
    ..The nervous system appears normal in the absence of PAK5, as do other tissues in which PAK5 is normally expressed. Our results suggest functional redundancy between PAK5 and other Rho GTPase targets. ..
  2. Wang Z, Fu M, Wang L, Liu J, Li Y, Brakebusch C, et al. p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase-independent manner. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20093-9 pubmed publisher
    b>PAK1 plays an important role in proliferation and tumorigenesis, at least partially by promoting ERK phosphorylation of C-RAF (Ser-338) or MEK1 (Ser-298)...
  3. Allen J, Jaffer Z, Park S, Burgin S, Hofmann C, Sells M, et al. p21-activated kinase regulates mast cell degranulation via effects on calcium mobilization and cytoskeletal dynamics. Blood. 2009;113:2695-705 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate, genetically, that Pak1 is required for this process...
  4. Bradley E, Ruan M, Oursler M. PAK1 is a novel MEK-independent raf target controlling expression of the IAP survivin in M-CSF-mediated osteoclast survival. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The p21 activated kinase PAK1 modulates activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by either directly activating Raf or priming MEK for activation by ..
  5. MCDANIEL A, Allen J, Park S, Jaffer Z, Michels E, Burgin S, et al. Pak1 regulates multiple c-Kit mediated Ras-MAPK gain-in-function phenotypes in Nf1+/- mast cells. Blood. 2008;112:4646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an intercross of Pak 1(-/-) mice with Nf1(+/-) mice, we determined that Pak1 regulates hyperactive Ras-dependent proliferation via a Pak1/..
  6. Jacobs T, Causeret F, Nishimura Y, Terao M, Norman A, Hoshino M, et al. Localized activation of p21-activated kinase controls neuronal polarity and morphology. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8604-15 pubmed
    ..Here we reveal that the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) is essential for the specification of an axon and dendrites...
  7. Smith S, Jaffer Z, Chernoff J, Ridley A. PAK1-mediated activation of ERK1/2 regulates lamellipodial dynamics. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3729-36 pubmed publisher
    b>PAK1 is a member of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated by the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42, and are implicated in regulating morphological polarity, cell migration and adhesion...
  8. Higuchi M, Onishi K, Kikuchi C, Gotoh Y. Scaffolding function of PAK in the PDK1-Akt pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Rac1 stimulates a second, kinase-independent function of PAK1. The PAK1 kinase domain serves as a scaffold to facilitate Akt stimulation by PDK1 and to aid recruitment of Akt to ..
  9. Chow H, Jubb A, Koch J, Jaffer Z, Stepanova D, Campbell D, et al. p21-Activated kinase 1 is required for efficient tumor formation and progression in a Ras-mediated skin cancer model. Cancer Res. 2012;72:5966-75 pubmed publisher
    ..As p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) has been shown to regulate both these signaling pathways and is itself upregulated in many human cancers, we ..
  10. Chiang Y, Shao W, Xu X, Chernoff J, Jin T. P21-activated protein kinase 1 (Pak1) mediates the cross talk between insulin and ?-catenin on proglucagon gene expression and its ablation affects glucose homeostasis in male C57BL/6 mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In several other cell lineages, insulin is able to stimulate p21-activated protein kinase 1 (Pak1). Here we determined the role of Pak1 in gcg expression and the effect of Pak1 deletion on glucose homeostasis...
  11. Kissil J, Wilker E, Johnson K, Eckman M, Yaffe M, Jacks T. Merlin, the product of the Nf2 tumor suppressor gene, is an inhibitor of the p21-activated kinase, Pak1. Mol Cell. 2003;12:841-9 pubmed
    ..We describe a novel interaction between merlin and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), which is dynamic and facilitated upon increased cellular confluence...
  12. Dorrance A, De Vita S, Radu M, Reddy P, McGuinness M, Harris C, et al. The Rac GTPase effector p21-activated kinase is essential for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell migration and engraftment. Blood. 2013;121:2474-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Pak proteins are key components of multiple engraftment-associated HSPC functions and play a direct role in activation of ERK in HSPCs, and that Pak2 is specifically essential for HSPC engraftment. ..
  13. Balasenthil S, Sahin A, Barnes C, Wang R, Pestell R, Vadlamudi R, et al. p21-activated kinase-1 signaling mediates cyclin D1 expression in mammary epithelial and cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1422-8 pubmed
    p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) has been shown recently to induce hyperplasia in the mammary epithelium, a phenotype also manifested by overexpression of cyclin D1, a known indicator of the proliferative stage...
  14. Rashid T, Banerjee M, Nikolic M. Phosphorylation of Pak1 by the p35/Cdk5 kinase affects neuronal morphology. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:49043-52 pubmed
    The small GTPase Rac and its effectors, the Pak1 and p35/Cdk5 kinases, have been assigned important roles in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in neurons...
  15. Asrar S, Meng Y, Zhou Z, Todorovski Z, Huang W, Jia Z. Regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation by p21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1). Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We took genetic approaches to create and analyze knockout mice deficient in the expression of the protein kinase PAK1 that is directly associated with and activated by the Rho GTPases...
  16. Wang R, Mazumdar A, Vadlamudi R, Kumar R. P21-activated kinase-1 phosphorylates and transactivates estrogen receptor-alpha and promotes hyperplasia in mammary epithelium. EMBO J. 2002;21:5437-47 pubmed
    Stimulation of p21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1) induces cytoskeleton reorganization and signaling pathways in mammary cancer cells...
  17. Zhang H, Webb D, Asmussen H, Niu S, Horwitz A. A GIT1/PIX/Rac/PAK signaling module regulates spine morphogenesis and synapse formation through MLC. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3379-88 pubmed
    ..This local activation of Rac is regulated by PIX, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor. PAK1 and PAK3 serve as downstream effectors of Rac in regulating spine and synapse formation...
  18. Somanath P, Byzova T. 14-3-3beta-Rac1-p21 activated kinase signaling regulates Akt1-mediated cytoskeletal organization, lamellipodia formation and fibronectin matrix assembly. J Cell Physiol. 2009;218:394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..While activation of Akt1 resulted in translocation of Rac1 to membrane ruffles, enhanced Rac1 activity, Pak1 phosphorylation, and lamellipodia formation, resulting in enhanced adhesion and assembly of fibronectin, inhibition ..
  19. Singh N, Kotla S, Dyukova E, Traylor J, Orr A, Chernoff J, et al. Disruption of p21-activated kinase 1 gene diminishes atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7450 pubmed publisher
    b>Pak1 plays an important role in various cellular processes, including cell motility, polarity, survival and proliferation. To date, its role in atherogenesis has not been explored...
  20. Joseph G, Lu M, Radu M, Lee J, Burden S, Chernoff J, et al. Group I Paks Promote Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation In Vivo and In Vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..The group I Paks Pak1 and Pak2 are related protein kinases and direct effectors of Cdc42 and Rac1...
  21. Ma Q, Yang F, Calon F, Ubeda O, Hansen J, Weisbart R, et al. p21-activated kinase-aberrant activation and translocation in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate aberrant PAK in Abeta oligomer-induced signaling and synaptic deficits in Alzheimer disease. ..
  22. Luo Z, Wang Q, Zhou J, Wang J, Luo Z, Liu M, et al. Regulation of AChR clustering by Dishevelled interacting with MuSK and PAK1. Neuron. 2002;35:489-505 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Dvl1 interacts with downstream kinase PAK1. Agrin activates PAK, and this activation requires Dvl. Inhibition of PAK1 activity attenuates AChR clustering...
  23. Van den Broeke C, Radu M, Deruelle M, Nauwynck H, Hofmann C, Jaffer Z, et al. Alphaherpesvirus US3-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is mediated by group A p21-activated kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..By using PAK1(-/-) and PAK2(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), we show that US3-mediated stress fiber disassembly requires ..
  24. Chen Y, Fueger P, Wang Z. Depletion of PAK1 enhances ubiquitin-mediated survivin degradation in pancreatic ?-cells. Islets. 2013;5:22-8 pubmed publisher
    Functional ?-cell mass deficiency in diabetes results from imbalanced ?-cell death and replication, and decreased PAK1 protein levels in human islets from donors with type 2 diabetes implicates a possible role for PAK1 in maintaining ?-..
  25. Kaji K, Nichols J, Hendrich B. Mbd3, a component of the NuRD co-repressor complex, is required for development of pluripotent cells. Development. 2007;134:1123-32 pubmed
  26. West M, Wallin R, Matthews S, Svensson H, Zaru R, Ljunggren H, et al. Enhanced dendritic cell antigen capture via toll-like receptor-induced actin remodeling. Science. 2004;305:1153-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the DC actin cytoskeleton can be rapidly mobilized in response to innate immune stimuli to enhance antigen capture and presentation. ..
  27. Molosh A, Johnson P, Spence J, Arendt D, Federici L, Bernabe C, et al. Social learning and amygdala disruptions in Nf1 mice are rescued by blocking p21-activated kinase. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these amygdala disruptions were normalized by the additional deletion of the p21 protein-activated kinase (Pak1) gene...
  28. Ijuin T, Takenawa T. Improvement of insulin signaling in myoblast cells by an addition of SKIP-binding peptide within Pak1 kinase domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;456:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..skeletal muscle and kidney-enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (SKIP) and p21-activated protein kinase (Pak1) at the plasma membrane is induced insulin-dependently and that this binding mediated a rapid and efficient ..
  29. Grimsley Myers C, Sipe C, Géléoc G, Lu X. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle...
  30. Burbelo P, Drechsel D, Hall A. A conserved binding motif defines numerous candidate target proteins for both Cdc42 and Rac GTPases. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:29071-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that proteins containing the CRIB motif bind to Cdc42 and/or Rac in a GTP-dependent manner, and they may, therefore, participate in downstream signaling. ..
  31. Walmsley M, Ooi S, Reynolds L, Smith S, Ruf S, Mathiot A, et al. Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling. Science. 2003;302:459-62 pubmed
    ..Both GTPases were required to transduce BCR signals leading to proliferation, survival and up-regulation of BAFF-R, a receptor for BAFF, a key survival molecule required for B cell development and maintenance. ..
  32. Zhou G, Tucker D, Bae S, Bhatheja K, Birnbaum M, Field J. Opposing roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in Rac/Pak signaling and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36443-53 pubmed
    ..Consistently, Akt2 knock-out cells had elevated Pak1 and Rac activities, suggesting that Akt2 inhibits Rac and Pak1...
  33. Ryan X, Alldritt J, Svenningsson P, Allen P, Wu G, Nairn A, et al. The Rho-specific GEF Lfc interacts with neurabin and spinophilin to regulate dendritic spine morphology. Neuron. 2005;47:85-100 pubmed
    ..Thus, interaction between Lfc and neurabin/spinophilin selectively regulates Rho-dependent organization of F-actin in spines and is a link between the microtubule and F-actin cytoskeletons in dendrites. ..
  34. Tunduguru R, Chiu T, Ramalingam L, Elmendorf J, Klip A, Thurmond D. Signaling of the p21-activated kinase (PAK1) coordinates insulin-stimulated actin remodeling and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;92:380-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have implicated PAK1 as a required element in GLUT4 recruitment in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo, although its underlying mechanism of ..
  35. Thiel D, Reeder M, Pfaff A, Coleman T, Sells M, Chernoff J. Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of p21-activated kinase 1. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1227-32 pubmed
    Mammalian p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) is a highly conserved effector for the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. In lower eukaryotes, Pak1 homologs are regulated during the cell cycle by phosphorylation...
  36. Fuerst P, Bruce F, Tian M, Wei W, Elstrott J, Feller M, et al. DSCAM and DSCAML1 function in self-avoidance in multiple cell types in the developing mouse retina. Neuron. 2009;64:484-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, DSCAM and DSCAML1 function similarly in self-avoidance, and are not essential for synaptic specificity in the mouse retina. ..
  37. Goh K, Ng N, Hagen T, Inoue T. p21-activated kinase interacts with Wnt signaling to regulate tissue polarity and gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15853-8 pubmed
    ..In HEK293T cells, Pak1 can antagonize canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, overexpression of Ror2 leads to phosphorylation of Pak1...
  38. Van den Broeke C, Radu M, Nauwynck H, Chernoff J, Favoreel H. Role of group A p21-activated kinases in the anti-apoptotic activity of the pseudorabies virus US3 protein kinase. Virus Res. 2011;155:376-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we identified the group A p21-activated kinases PAK1 and PAK2 as important effectors in the US3-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements...
  39. Causeret F, Terao M, Jacobs T, Nishimura Y, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, et al. The p21-activated kinase is required for neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:861-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The p21-activated kinase (Pak1), a key cytoskeletal regulator, controls neuronal polarization, elaboration of axons and dendrites, and the ..
  40. Hu B, Arpag S, Zhang X, Mobius W, Werner H, SOSINSKY G, et al. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006290 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization...
  41. Chiang Y, Jin T. p21-Activated protein kinases and their emerging roles in glucose homeostasis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E707-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, a large number of studies have shed light onto the fundamental role of group I PAKs, most notably PAK1, in metabolic homeostasis...
  42. Sipe C, Liu L, Lee J, Grimsley Myers C, Lu X. Lis1 mediates planar polarity of auditory hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization. Development. 2013;140:1785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that Lis1 mediates the planar polarity of hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization downstream of the tissue polarity pathway. ..
  43. Jin S, Zhuo Y, Guo W, Field J. p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24698-705 pubmed
    ..Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism through which Pak1 signals to BAD through a Raf-1-activated pathway...
  44. Carothers A, Javid S, Moran A, Hunt D, Redston M, Bertagnolli M. Deficient E-cadherin adhesion in C57BL/6J-Min/+ mice is associated with increased tyrosine kinase activity and RhoA-dependent actomyosin contractility. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:387-400 pubmed
    ..Thus, the positive regulation of E-cadherin adhesion provided by Apc+ in vivo allows proper negative regulation of Egfr, Src, Pyk2, and MAPK, as well as RhoA activities. ..
  45. Sosa García B, Vázquez Rivera V, González Flores J, Engel B, Cress W, Santiago Cardona P. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Transcriptionally Represses Pak1 in Osteoblasts. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0142406 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Rb represses the expression of the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak1), an effector of the small Rho GTPase Rac1...
  46. Davis R, Simon J, Utter M, Mungai P, Alvarez M, Chowdhury S, et al. Knockout of p21-activated kinase-1 attenuates exercise-induced cardiac remodelling through altered calcineurin signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;108:335-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate a novel role of p21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1) in the regulation of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy...
  47. Ingram D, Hiatt K, King A, Fisher L, Shivakumar R, Derstine C, et al. Hyperactivation of p21(ras) and the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, cooperate to alter the proliferation of neurofibromin-deficient mast cells in vivo and in vitro. J Exp Med. 2001;194:57-69 pubmed
  48. Jiang X, Wassif C, Backlund P, Song L, Holtzclaw L, Li Z, et al. Activation of Rho GTPases in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: pathophysiological and clinical implications. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental abnormalities of neuronal process formation may contribute to the neurocognitive deficits found in SLOS and may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  49. Tunggal J, Helfrich I, Schmitz A, Schwarz H, Gunzel D, Fromm M, et al. E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions. EMBO J. 2005;24:1146-56 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. ..
  50. Wu Y, Singh S, Georgescu M, Birge R. A role for Mer tyrosine kinase in alphavbeta5 integrin-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:539-53 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our data link another PS-dependent signal to the CrkII/Dock180/Rac1 module. ..
  51. Luo S, Mizuta H, Rubinsztein D. p21-activated kinase 1 promotes soluble mutant huntingtin self-interaction and enhances toxicity. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:895-905 pubmed
    ..Here we report that p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) binds to htt in vivo and in vitro...
  52. Smith T, Hager H, Francis R, Kilkenny D, Lo C, Bader D. Bves directly interacts with GEFT, and controls cell shape and movement through regulation of Rac1/Cdc42 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose Bves as a novel regulator of the Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling cascades. ..
  53. Roepstorff K, Rasmussen I, Sawada M, Cudre Maroux C, Salmon P, Bokoch G, et al. Stimulus-dependent regulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase by a VAV1, Rac1, and PAK1 signaling axis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7983-93 pubmed
    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is best known for its role in the regulation of cytoskeletal and transcriptional signaling pathways...
  54. Piccand J, Meunier A, Merle C, Jia Z, Barnier J, Gradwohl G. Pak3 promotes cell cycle exit and differentiation of ?-cells in the embryonic pancreas and is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in adult mice. Diabetes. 2014;63:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In the adult, Pak3 is required for the proper control of glucose homeostasis under challenging HFD. ..
  55. Wang R, Zhang H, Balasenthil S, Medina D, Kumar R. PAK1 hyperactivation is sufficient for mammary gland tumor formation. Oncogene. 2006;25:2931-6 pubmed
    Emerging data suggest that p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a downstream signaling molecule of the small GTPases, growth factors, and lipid signaling, is upregulated or hyperactivated in human breast cancer...
  56. Shan L, Guo H, Song N, Jia Z, Hu X, Huang J, et al. Light exposure before learning improves memory consolidation at night. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15578 pubmed publisher
    ..The light exposure increases hippocampal active p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP)...
  57. Radu M, Lyle K, Hoeflich K, Villamar Cruz O, Koeppen H, Chernoff J. p21-Activated Kinase 2 Regulates Endothelial Development and Function through the Bmk1/Erk5 Pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3990-4005 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we employ genetic and molecular studies that show that Pak2, but not Pak1, is a critical mediator of development and maintenance of endothelial cell function...
  58. Pan X, Chang X, Leung C, Zhou Z, Cao F, Xie W, et al. PAK1 regulates cortical development via promoting neuronal migration and progenitor cell proliferation. Mol Brain. 2015;8:36 pubmed publisher
    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a serine/threonine kinase known to be activated by the Rho family small GTPases and to play a key role in cytoskeletal reorganization, spine morphology and synaptic plasticity...
  59. Wang Y, Tsui H, Ke Y, Shi Y, Li Y, Davies L, et al. Pak1 is required to maintain ventricular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and electrophysiological stability through SERCA2a regulation in mice. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014;7:938-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We here explore the role of Pak1 in maintaining ventricular Ca(2+) homeostasis and electrophysiological stability under both normal physiological ..
  60. Boutahar N, Reynaud E, Lassabliere F, Borg J. Timing differences of signaling response in neuron cultures activated by glutamate analogue or free radicals. Brain Res. 2008;1191:20-9 pubmed
    ..In order to identify the initial membrane target of these neurotoxins, PAK1 was analyzed. Early increase of PAK1 expression was measured after NMDA treatment and was still present after 24 h...
  61. Cheng C, Kong X, Wang H, Gan H, Hao Y, Zou W, et al. Trihydrophobin 1 Interacts with PAK1 and Regulates ERK/MAPK Activation and Cell Migration. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8786-96 pubmed publisher
    ..that trihydrophobin 1 (TH1), originally identified as a negative regulator of A-RAF kinase, also interacted with PAK1 in cultured cells...
  62. Huynh N, Yim M, Chernoff J, Shulkes A, Baldwin G, He H. p-21-Activated kinase 1 mediates gastrin-stimulated proliferation in the colorectal mucosa via multiple signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The p-21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) plays important roles in growth factor signaling networks that control cell motility, proliferation, ..
  63. Rosario M, Schuster S, Jüttner R, Parthasarathy S, Tarabykin V, Birchmeier W. Neocortical dendritic complexity is controlled during development by NOMA-GAP-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 and activation of cofilin. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1743-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings define a novel cell-intrinsic mechanism to regulate dendritic branching and thus neuronal complexity in the cerebral cortex. ..
  64. Wang R, Vadlamudi R, Bagheri Yarmand R, Beuvink I, Hynes N, Kumar R. Essential functions of p21-activated kinase 1 in morphogenesis and differentiation of mammary glands. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:583-92 pubmed
    ..By targeting an ectopic expression of a kinase-dead Pak1 mutant under the control of ovine beta-lactoglobulin promoter, we found that the mammary glands of female mice ..
  65. Mikawa T, Maruyama T, Okamoto K, Nakagama H, Lleonart M, Tsusaka T, et al. Senescence-inducing stress promotes proteolysis of phosphoglycerate mutase via ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:729-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that, during oncogene- or DNA damage-induced senescence, Pak1-mediated phosphorylation of phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) predisposes the glycolytic enzyme to ubiquitin-mediated ..
  66. Dolan B, Duron S, Campbell D, Vollrath B, Shankaranarayana Rao B, Ko H, et al. Rescue of fragile X syndrome phenotypes in Fmr1 KO mice by the small-molecule PAK inhibitor FRAX486. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a single administration of FRAX486 is sufficient to rescue all of these phenotypes in adult Fmr1 KO mice, demonstrating the potential for rapid, postdiagnostic therapy in adults with FXS. ..
  67. Swiercz J, Kuner R, Behrens J, Offermanns S. Plexin-B1 directly interacts with PDZ-RhoGEF/LARG to regulate RhoA and growth cone morphology. Neuron. 2002;35:51-63 pubmed
  68. Carstanjen D, Yamauchi A, Koornneef A, Zang H, Filippi M, Harris C, et al. Rac2 regulates neutrophil chemotaxis, superoxide production, and myeloid colony formation through multiple distinct effector pathways. J Immunol. 2005;174:4613-20 pubmed
    ..The Rac2 mutants V36A, F37A, and N39A all bind to both Pak1 and p67(phox), yet are unable to rescue superoxide production and chemotaxis when expressed in Rac2-/- PMN...
  69. Wobst H, Schmitz B, Schachner M, Diestel S, Leshchyns ka I, Sytnyk V. Kinesin-1 promotes post-Golgi trafficking of NCAM140 and NCAM180 to the cell surface. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2816-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) competes with KLC1 for binding to the intracellular domain of NCAM and contributes to the regulation of the ..
  70. Combeau G, Kreis P, Domenichini F, Amar M, Fossier P, Rousseau V, et al. The p21-activated kinase PAK3 forms heterodimers with PAK1 in brain implementing trans-regulation of PAK3 activity. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30084-96 pubmed publisher
    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK3 belong to group I of the PAK family and control cell movement and division...
  71. Wang Z, Pedersen E, Basse A, Lefever T, Peyrollier K, Kapoor S, et al. Rac1 is crucial for Ras-dependent skin tumor formation by controlling Pak1-Mek-Erk hyperactivation and hyperproliferation in vivo. Oncogene. 2010;29:3362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated Rac1 promoted Erk-dependent hyperproliferation by Pak1-mediated Mek activation independent of Mek1 phosporylation at serine 298...
  72. Mokalled M, Johnson A, Kim Y, Oh J, Olson E. Myocardin-related transcription factors regulate the Cdk5/Pctaire1 kinase cascade to control neurite outgrowth, neuronal migration and brain development. Development. 2010;137:2365-74 pubmed publisher
  73. Nola S, Sebbagh M, Marchetto S, Osmani N, Nourry C, Audebert S, et al. Scrib regulates PAK activity during the cell migration process. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3552-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data underscore the role of Scrib in cell migration and show the strong impact of Scrib in the function of PAK and Rac, two key molecules implicated in this process. ..
  74. Zeng C, Goodluck H, Qin X, Liu B, Mohan S, Xing W. Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 regulates osteoclast function by modulating RAC1/Cdc42 Small GTPase phosphorylation and activation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;311:E772-E780 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function by directly modulating phosphorylation and activation of small GTPase RAC1/Cdc42 and that its function depends on ANK, ROC, WD40, and kinase domains. ..
  75. Chang J, Ni Y, Han L, Sinnett Smith J, Jacamo R, Rey O, et al. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) phosphorylation on Ser203 by type I p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates PKD1 localization. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9523-9539 pubmed publisher
    ..act via different mechanisms abrogated PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser203, 2) siRNA-mediated knockdown of PAK1 and PAK2 in IEC-18 and Swiss 3T3 cells blunted PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser203, 3) phosphorylation of Ser<..
  76. Andrade L, Albarnaz J, Mügge F, David B, Abrahao J, da Fonseca F, et al. Vaccinia virus dissemination requires p21-activated kinase 1. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2991-3002 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present evidence demonstrating the involvement of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) in the dissemination of VACV...
  77. Ahn M, Yoder S, Wang Z, Oh E, Ramalingam L, Tunduguru R, et al. The p21-activated kinase (PAK1) is involved in diet-induced beta cell mass expansion and survival in mice and human islets. Diabetologia. 2016;59:2145-55 pubmed publisher
    Human islets from type 2 diabetic donors are reportedly 80% deficient in the p21 (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase, PAK1. PAK1 is implicated in beta cell function and maintenance of beta cell mass...
  78. Jhaveri K, Debnath P, Chernoff J, Sanders J, Schwartz M. The role of p21-activated kinase in the initiation of atherosclerosis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012;12:55 pubmed publisher
    ..The study addresses whether PAK1 contributes to inflammatory marker expression in endothelial cells at atherosclerosis-susceptible regions of ..
  79. He H, Shulkes A, Baldwin G. PAK1 interacts with beta-catenin and is required for the regulation of the beta-catenin signalling pathway by gastrins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1943-54 pubmed publisher
    ..also regulate beta-catenin signalling through multiple pathways which seem to converge on p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In this study, we have investigated the role of PAK1 in the regulation of beta-catenin signalling by gastrins...
  80. Osada S, Izawa M, Saito R, Mizuno K, Suzuki A, Hirai S, et al. YSK1, a novel mammalian protein kinase structurally related to Ste20 and SPS1, but is not involved in the known MAPK pathways. Oncogene. 1997;14:2047-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that YSK1 may be involved in the regulation of a novel intracellular signaling pathway. ..