Gene Symbol: oxytocin
Description: oxytocin
Alias: Oxy, oxytocin-neurophysin 1, OT-NPI, neurophysin 1
Species: mouse
Products:     oxytocin

Top Publications

  1. Amico J, Morris M, Vollmer R. Mice deficient in oxytocin manifest increased saline consumption following overnight fluid deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R1368-73 pubmed
    Male mice (9-13 mo of age) in which the gene for oxytocin (OT) had been deleted (OT -/-) were administered 0...
  2. Paquin J, Danalache B, Jankowski M, McCann S, Gutkowska J. Oxytocin induces differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9550-5 pubmed
    We recently discovered the existence of the oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OT/OTR) system in the heart...
  3. Kublaoui B, Gemelli T, Tolson K, Wang Y, Zinn A. Oxytocin deficiency mediates hyperphagic obesity of Sim1 haploinsufficient mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1723-34 pubmed publisher
    ..PVN neurons in Sim1(+/-) mice are hyporesponsive to the melanocortin agonist melanotan II. PVN neuropeptides oxytocin (Oxt), TRH and CRH inhibit feeding when administered centrally...
  4. Camerino C. Low sympathetic tone and obese phenotype in oxytocin-deficient mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:980-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Oxytocin (Oxt) is secreted both peripherally and centrally and is involved in several functions including parturition, milk let-down reflex, social behavior, and food intake...
  5. Yoshida M, Takayanagi Y, Inoue K, Kimura T, Young L, Onaka T, et al. Evidence that oxytocin exerts anxiolytic effects via oxytocin receptor expressed in serotonergic neurons in mice. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2259-71 pubmed publisher
    The oxytocin receptor has been implicated in the regulation of reproductive physiology as well as social and emotional behaviors...
  6. Wu Z, Xu Y, Zhu Y, Sutton A, Zhao R, Lowell B, et al. An obligate role of oxytocin neurons in diet induced energy expenditure. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45167 pubmed publisher
    b>Oxytocin neurons represent one of the major subsets of neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH), a critical brain region for energy homeostasis...
  7. Billings L, Spero J, Vollmer R, Amico J. Oxytocin null mice ingest enhanced amounts of sweet solutions during light and dark cycles and during repeated shaker stress. Behav Brain Res. 2006;171:134-41 pubmed
    Central oxytocin (OT) pathways appear to limit consumption of sweet solutions...
  8. Mantella R, Vollmer R, Li X, Amico J. Female oxytocin-deficient mice display enhanced anxiety-related behavior. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2291-6 pubmed
    Previous studies have suggested that oxytocin (OT) may be anxiolytic in female laboratory rats and mice. The elevated plus-maze was used to compare anxiety-related behaviors of OT-deficient (OT-/-) and wild-type (OT+/+) mice...
  9. Kasahara Y, Takayanagi Y, Kawada T, Itoi K, Nishimori K. Impaired thermoregulatory ability of oxytocin-deficient mice during cold-exposure. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:3122-6 pubmed
    We analyzed temperature homeostasis in oxytocin-deficient (Oxt(-/-)) mice and found that Oxt(-/-) mice exhibited lower body temperatures than wild-type animals when they were exposed to cold...

More Information


  1. Mantella R, Rinaman L, Vollmer R, Amico J. Cholecystokinin and D-fenfluramine inhibit food intake in oxytocin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R1037-45 pubmed
    Results from previous studies indicate that oxytocin (OT)-containing neural pathways are activated in laboratory rats after systemic administration of CCK or d-fenfluramine and that centrally released OT may participate in the ..
  2. Sclafani A, Rinaman L, Vollmer R, Amico J. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1828-33 pubmed
    b>Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain...
  3. Michaud J, Rosenquist T, May N, Fan C. Development of neuroendocrine lineages requires the bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3264-75 pubmed
    ..At least five distinct types of secretory neurons, identified by the expression of oxytocin, vasopressin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin, are absent in the ..
  4. Young W, Shepard E, Amico J, Hennighausen L, Wagner K, Lamarca M, et al. Deficiency in mouse oxytocin prevents milk ejection, but not fertility or parturition. J Neuroendocrinol. 1996;8:847-53 pubmed
    b>Oxytocin is a nonapeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of parturition and lactation. It has also been implicated in various behaviors, such as mating and maternal, and memory...
  5. Rinaman L, Vollmer R, Karam J, Phillips D, Li X, Amico J. Dehydration anorexia is attenuated in oxytocin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R1791-9 pubmed
    Evidence in rats suggests that central oxytocin (OT) signaling pathways contribute to suppression of food intake during dehydration (i.e., dehydration anorexia)...
  6. Tamma R, Colaianni G, Zhu L, DiBenedetto A, Greco G, Montemurro G, et al. Oxytocin is an anabolic bone hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7149-54 pubmed publisher
    We report that oxytocin (OT), a primitive neurohypophyseal hormone, hitherto thought solely to modulate lactation and social bonding, is a direct regulator of bone mass...
  7. Ozaki Y, Nomura M, Saito J, Luedke C, Muglia L, Matsumoto T, et al. Expression of the arginine vasopressin gene in response to salt loading in oxytocin gene knockout mice. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:39-44 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence suggests that both oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are vital components in the regulation of body fluid balance...
  8. Higashida H, Yokoyama S, Kikuchi M, Munesue T. CD38 and its role in oxytocin secretion and social behavior. Horm Behav. 2012;61:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CD38, a transmembrane protein with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, in mouse social behavior via the regulation of oxytocin (OXT) release, an essential component of social cognition...
  9. Amico J, Vollmer R, Cai H, Miedlar J, Rinaman L. Enhanced initial and sustained intake of sucrose solution in mice with an oxytocin gene deletion. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R1798-806 pubmed
    ..Both the initial neophobia and later plateau of sucrose intake may involve central oxytocin (OT) signaling pathways...
  10. Olszewski P, Fredriksson R, Eriksson J, Mitra A, Radomska K, Gosnell B, et al. Fto colocalizes with a satiety mediator oxytocin in the brain and upregulates oxytocin gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:422-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we employed double immunohistochemistry and showed that the majority of neurons synthesizing a satiety mediator, oxytocin, coexpress Fto in the brain of male and female mice...
  11. Imamura T, Luedke C, Vogt S, Muglia L. Oxytocin modulates the onset of murine parturition by competing ovarian and uterine effects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;279:R1061-7 pubmed
    Recent analysis of mice deficient in both oxytocin (OT) and cyclooxygenase-1 has shown that OT exerts significant effects on both the ovarian corpus luteum and the uterine myometrium during pregnancy...
  12. Jin D, Liu H, Hirai H, Torashima T, Nagai T, Lopatina O, et al. CD38 is critical for social behaviour by regulating oxytocin secretion. Nature. 2007;446:41-5 pubmed
    ..Consistently, the plasma level of oxytocin (OT), but not vasopressin, was strongly decreased in CD38-/- mice...
  13. Nishimori K, Young L, Guo Q, Wang Z, Insel T, Matzuk M. Oxytocin is required for nursing but is not essential for parturition or reproductive behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11699-704 pubmed
    b>Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal hormone, has been traditionally considered essential for mammalian reproduction...
  14. Miedlar J, Rinaman L, Vollmer R, Amico J. Oxytocin gene deletion mice overconsume palatable sucrose solution but not palatable lipid emulsions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1063-8 pubmed
    We previously reported that oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display markedly enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions compared with intake by wild-type (WT) mice of the same background strain...
  15. Gutkowska J, Broderick T, Bogdan D, Wang D, Lavoie J, Jankowski M. Downregulation of oxytocin and natriuretic peptides in diabetes: possible implications in cardiomyopathy. J Physiol. 2009;587:4725-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies showed a cardioprotective role of oxytocin (OT) to induce natriuretic peptides (NPs) and nitric oxide (NO) release...
  16. Roizen J, LUEDKE C, Herzog E, Muglia L. Oxytocin in the circadian timing of birth. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e922 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that oxytocin mediates circadian regulation of birth, we evaluated parturition timing following shifts in light cycles in ..
  17. Hadsell D, Bonnette S, George J, Torres D, Klimentidis Y, Klementidis Y, et al. Diminished milk synthesis in upstream stimulatory factor 2 null mice is associated with decreased circulating oxytocin and decreased mammary gland expression of eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and 4G. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2251-67 pubmed
    ..This decrease was associated with reduced abundance of the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G. Blood oxytocin concentrations on d 9 postpartum were also lower in Usf2-/- mice than Usf2+/+ mice...
  18. Elabd C, Cousin W, Upadhyayula P, Chen R, Chooljian M, Li J, et al. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4082 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that oxytocin--a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition and social behaviours--is required for proper muscle ..
  19. Winslow J, Hearn E, Ferguson J, Young L, Matzuk M, Insel T. Infant vocalization, adult aggression, and fear behavior of an oxytocin null mutant mouse. Horm Behav. 2000;37:145-55 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OT)-deficient female mice produced by homologous recombination fail to lactate but exhibit normal parturition and reproductive behaviors...
  20. Scott N, Prigge M, Yizhar O, Kimchi T. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic circuit controls maternal care and oxytocin secretion. Nature. 2015;525:519-22 pubmed publisher
    ..optogenetic activation or increased TH expression in the AVPV TH(+) neurons of female mice increases circulating oxytocin, whereas their ablation reduces oxytocin levels...
  21. Denizot A, Besson V, Correra R, Mazzola A, Lopes I, Courbard J, et al. A Novel Mutant Allele of Pw1/Peg3 Does Not Affect Maternal Behavior or Nursing Behavior. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006053 pubmed publisher
    ..homozygous Pw1/Peg3 mutant females nurse and feed their pups properly and no differences are detected in either oxytocin neuron number or oxytocin plasma levels. In addition, suckling capacities are normal in mutant pups...
  22. Schonemann M, Ryan A, McEvilly R, O Connell S, Arias C, Kalla K, et al. Development and survival of the endocrine hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland requires the neuronal POU domain factor Brn-2. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3122-35 pubmed
  23. Duplan S, Boucher F, Alexandrov L, Michaud J. Impact of Sim1 gene dosage on the development of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:2239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Sim1 haploinsufficiency reduces the number of vasopressin (AVP)- and oxytocin-producing cells in the PVN by about 50 and 80%, respectively, but does not affect the development of Crh, Trh and ..
  24. Wersinger S, Temple J, Caldwell H, Young W. Inactivation of the oxytocin and the vasopressin (Avp) 1b receptor genes, but not the Avp 1a receptor gene, differentially impairs the Bruce effect in laboratory mice (Mus musculus). Endocrinology. 2008;149:116-21 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological and genetic evidence implicates both oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) in the regulation of social memory in males, but less work has been done in females...
  25. Kim T, Lee J, Kim J, Park J, Choi J, Kim H, et al. G9a-Mediated Regulation of OXT and AVP Expression in the Basolateral Amygdala Mediates Stress-Induced Lasting Behavioral Depression and Its Reversal by Exercise. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:2843-2856 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these genes, the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were selected as representative stress-induced and exercise-responded genes ..
  26. Zhao Z, Wang L, Gao W, Hu F, Zhang J, Ren Y, et al. A Central Catecholaminergic Circuit Controls Blood Glucose Levels during Stress. Neuron. 2017;95:138-152.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes the central role of VLM CA neurons in stress-induced hyperglycemia and substantially expands our understanding of the central mechanism that controls glucose metabolism. ..
  27. Choleris E, Ogawa S, Kavaliers M, Gustafsson J, Korach K, Muglia L, et al. Involvement of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and oxytocin in social discrimination: A detailed behavioral analysis with knockout female mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:528-39 pubmed
    ..The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is necessary for social recognition in male and female mice, with its effects being modulated by estrogens ..
  28. Pedersen C, Vadlamudi S, Boccia M, Amico J. Maternal behavior deficits in nulliparous oxytocin knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:274-81 pubmed
    The first observations of postpartum oxytocin knockout (OTKO) mice found no maternal behavior deficits. However, it is unclear how detailed those observations were...
  29. Muglia L, Jacobson L, Dikkes P, Majzoub J. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency reveals major fetal but not adult glucocorticoid need. Nature. 1995;373:427-32 pubmed
    ..Postnatally, despite marked glucocorticoid deficiency, these mice exhibit normal growth, fertility and longevity, suggesting that the major role of glucocorticoid is during fetal rather than postnatal life. ..
  30. van Deutekom J, Cao B, Pruchnic R, Wickham T, Kovesdi I, Huard J. Extended tropism of an adenoviral vector does not circumvent the maturation-dependent transducibility of mouse skeletal muscle. J Gene Med. 1999;1:393-9 pubmed
  31. Szeto I, Barton S, Keverne E, Surani A. Analysis of imprinted murine Peg3 locus in transgenic mice. Mamm Genome. 2004;15:284-95 pubmed
    ..Concerning the expression of the Peg3 transgene, we detected appropriate expression in the adult brain. However, this was not sufficient to rescue the maternal behavior phenotype seen in Peg3 deficient animals. ..
  32. Kavaliers M, Colwell D, Choleris E, Agmo A, Muglia L, Ogawa S, et al. Impaired discrimination of and aversion to parasitized male odors by female oxytocin knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2003;2:220-30 pubmed
    ..In the present study, using female mice whose gene for oxytocin (OT) has been selectively deleted (OT knockout mice (OTKO)), we show that at least one normal allele for OT is ..
  33. Veenema A, Bredewold R, Neumann I. Opposite effects of maternal separation on intermale and maternal aggression in C57BL/6 mice: link to hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32:437-50 pubmed
    ..MS was found to selectively increase vasopressin immunoreactivity in males, whereas MS selectively decreased oxytocin immunoreactivity in lactating females...
  34. Colvin J, Green R, Schmahl J, Capel B, Ornitz D. Male-to-female sex reversal in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor 9. Cell. 2001;104:875-89 pubmed
    ..While Sry is found only in some mammals, Fgfs are highly conserved. Thus, Fgfs may function in sex determination and reproductive system development in many species. ..
  35. Acampora D, Postiglione M, Avantaggiato V, Di Bonito M, Vaccarino F, Michaud J, et al. Progressive impairment of developing neuroendocrine cell lineages in the hypothalamus of mice lacking the Orthopedia gene. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2787-800 pubmed
    ..PVN, SON, and aPV, act in parallel and are both required to maintain Brn2 expression which, in turn, is required for neuronal cell lineages secreting oxytocin (OT), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
  36. Ferguson J, Young L, Hearn E, Matzuk M, Insel T, Winslow J. Social amnesia in mice lacking the oxytocin gene. Nat Genet. 2000;25:284-8 pubmed
    ..Brain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) seem to modulate a range of social behaviour from parental care to mate guarding...
  37. Shah B, Vong L, Olson D, Koda S, Krashes M, Ye C, et al. MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons regulating feeding are SIM1(+), located in the PVH, glutamatergic and not GABAergic, and do not express oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or prodynorphin...
  38. Wang W, Lufkin T. The murine Otp homeobox gene plays an essential role in the specification of neuronal cell lineages in the developing hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2000;227:432-49 pubmed
    ..The Otp null hypothalamus fails to secrete neuropeptides somatostatin, arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in an appropriate spatial and temporal ..
  39. Colaianni G, Sun L, Di Benedetto A, Tamma R, Zhu L, Cao J, et al. Bone marrow oxytocin mediates the anabolic action of estrogen on the skeleton. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the anabolic action of estrogen in mice occurs, at least in part, through oxytocin (OT) produced by osteoblasts in bone marrow...
  40. Puryear R, Rigatto K, Amico J, Morris M. Enhanced salt intake in oxytocin deficient mice. Exp Neurol. 2001;171:323-8 pubmed
    The maternal roles of oxytocin (OT) are well known, but recent work suggests that OT is also a vital component in fluid balance regulation...
  41. Robinson D, Wei F, Wang G, Li P, Kim S, Vogt S, et al. Oxytocin mediates stress-induced analgesia in adult mice. J Physiol. 2002;540:593-606 pubmed
    As a neurohormone and as a neurotransmitter, oxytocin has been implicated in the stress response. Descending oxytocin-containing fibres project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, an area important for processing nociceptive inputs...
  42. Stefanidis K, Loutradis D, Anastasiadou V, Beretsos P, Bletsa R, Dinopoulou V, et al. Embryoid bodies from mouse stem cells express oxytocin receptor, Oct-4 and DAZL. Biosystems. 2009;98:122-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Oxytocin is a nine amino acid peptide involved in a wide spectrum of physiological functions; predominantly those concerning reproduction and differentiation are of interest...
  43. Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky I, Ross H, Kawamata M, Onaka T, et al. Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16096-101 pubmed
    The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and its ligand, oxytocin (OXT), regulate reproductive physiology (i.e., parturition and lactation) and sociosexual behaviors...
  44. Müller M, Landgraf R, Preil J, Sillaber I, Kresse A, Keck M, et al. Selective activation of the hypothalamic vasopressinergic system in mice deficient for the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 is dependent on glucocorticoids. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4262-9 pubmed
    ..We therefore studied the impact of the hypothalamic neuropeptides arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) on HPA system regulation in homozygous and heterozygous Crhr1 mutants under basal and different stress ..
  45. Dolen G, Darvishzadeh A, Huang K, Malenka R. Social reward requires coordinated activity of nucleus accumbens oxytocin and serotonin. Nature. 2013;501:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that in mice oxytocin acts as a social reinforcement signal within the nucleus accumbens core, where it elicits a presynaptically ..
  46. Akther S, Korshnova N, Zhong J, Liang M, Cherepanov S, Lopatina O, et al. CD38 in the nucleus accumbens and oxytocin are related to paternal behavior in mice. Mol Brain. 2013;6:41 pubmed publisher
    ..CD38, a membrane glycoprotein, catalyzes synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose and facilitates oxytocin (OT) secretion due to cyclic ADP-ribose-dependent increases in cytosolic free calcium concentrations in ..
  47. Babygirija R, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Takahashi T. Central oxytocin is involved in restoring impaired gastric motility following chronic repeated stress in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Central oxytocin has been shown to have antistress effects...
  48. Choleris E, Gustafsson J, Korach K, Muglia L, Pfaff D, Ogawa S. An estrogen-dependent four-gene micronet regulating social recognition: a study with oxytocin and estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6192-7 pubmed
    ..Female mice whose genes for the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) or the estrogen receptor (ER)-beta or ER-alpha had been selectively "knocked out" were deficient ..
  49. Sokolowski K, Esumi S, Hirata T, Kamal Y, Tran T, Lam A, et al. Specification of select hypothalamic circuits and innate behaviors by the embryonic patterning gene dbx1. Neuron. 2015;86:403-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activity of a single developmentally regulated gene, Dbx1, is a shared requirement for the specification of hypothalamic nuclei governing a subset of innate behaviors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  50. Ragnauth A, Devidze N, Moy V, Finley K, Goodwillie A, Kow L, et al. Female oxytocin gene-knockout mice, in a semi-natural environment, display exaggerated aggressive behavior. Genes Brain Behav. 2005;4:229-39 pubmed
    Compared to results from a generation of neuropharmacological work, the phenotype of mice lacking the oxytocin (OT) peptide gene was remarkably normal...
  51. Lin C, Huang T, Wang G, Kuo T, Yen T, Hsueh Y. Neural activity- and development-dependent expression and distribution of CASK interacting nucleosome assembly protein in mouse brain. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:606-19 pubmed
    ..CINAP may be regulated through changes in protein stability and nuclear translocation in neurons. ..
  52. Liu J, Conde K, Zhang P, Lilascharoen V, Xu Z, Lim B, et al. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Trafficking Mediates the Anorexigenic Effect of Endogenous Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in the Paraventricular Hypothalamus. Neuron. 2017;96:897-909.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a comprehensive multi-level (circuit, synaptic, and molecular) explanation of how food intake behavior and body weight are regulated by endogenous central GLP-1. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  53. Ryan P, Ross S, Campos C, Derkach V, Palmiter R. Oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus regulate fluid intake. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:1722-1733 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of mice (OxtrPBN neurons) are key regulators ..