Gene Symbol: Oxtr
Description: oxytocin receptor
Alias: OTR, oxytocin receptor, OT-R
Species: mouse
Products:     Oxtr

Top Publications

  1. Lee H, Caldwell H, Macbeth A, Tolu S, Young W. A conditional knockout mouse line of the oxytocin receptor. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Its receptor (Oxtr) is present in peripheral tissues and brain, so a conditional knockout (KO, -/-) would be useful to allow ..
  2. Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky I, Ross H, Kawamata M, Onaka T, et al. Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16096-101 pubmed
    The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and its ligand, oxytocin (OXT), regulate reproductive physiology (i.e., parturition and lactation) and sociosexual behaviors...
  3. Lee H, Caldwell H, Macbeth A, Young W. Behavioural studies using temporal and spatial inactivation of the oxytocin receptor. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In both the periphery and CNS, Oxt actions are transduced by the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr)...
  4. Pagani J, Lee H, Young W. Postweaning, forebrain-specific perturbation of the oxytocin system impairs fear conditioning. Genes Brain Behav. 2011;10:710-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in three lines of transgenic mice: mice that constitutively lack vasopressin 1a (Avpr1a(-/-)) or Oxt receptors (Oxtr(-/-)) and mice that have Oxt receptor loss restricted to the forebrain that begins postweaning (Oxtr(FB/FB))...
  5. Paquin J, Danalache B, Jankowski M, McCann S, Gutkowska J. Oxytocin induces differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9550-5 pubmed
    We recently discovered the existence of the oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OT/OTR) system in the heart...
  6. Macbeth A, Lee H, Edds J, Young W. Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor underlie intrastrain, but not interstrain, social recognition. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:558-67 pubmed publisher
    We studied three lines of oxytocin (Oxt) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) knockout (KO) male mice [Oxt(-/-), total Oxtr(-/-) and partial forebrain Oxtr (Oxtr(FB/FB))] with established deficits in social recognition to further refine our ..
  7. Tamma R, Colaianni G, Zhu L, DiBenedetto A, Greco G, Montemurro G, et al. Oxytocin is an anabolic bone hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of OT or the OT receptor (Oxtr) in male or female mice causes osteoporosis resulting from reduced bone formation...
  8. Yoshida M, Takayanagi Y, Inoue K, Kimura T, Young L, Onaka T, et al. Evidence that oxytocin exerts anxiolytic effects via oxytocin receptor expressed in serotonergic neurons in mice. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2259-71 pubmed publisher
    The oxytocin receptor has been implicated in the regulation of reproductive physiology as well as social and emotional behaviors...
  9. Dhakar M, Rich M, Reno E, Lee H, Caldwell H. Heightened aggressive behavior in mice with lifelong versus postweaning knockout of the oxytocin receptor. Horm Behav. 2012;62:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are reports of heightened aggression in Oxt knockout and Oxt receptor (Oxtr) knockout male mice when they are born to null mutant mothers; suggesting that intrauterine exposure to Oxt may be ..

More Information


  1. Beretsos P, Loutradis D, Koussoulakos S, Margaritis L, Kiapekou E, Mastorakos G, et al. Oxytocin receptor is differentially expressed in mouse endometrium and embryo during blastocyst implantation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1092:466-79 pubmed
    The oxytocin (OT)-oxytocin receptor (OTR) system of the mammalian uterus has mainly been studied in relation to its involvement in the onset of labor...
  2. Kaluz S, Kaluzova M, Flint A. Heterogeneity in the third intracytoplasmic region of the oxytocin receptor-encoding gene. Gene. 1996;172:313-4 pubmed
    The oxytocin receptor (OTR), a member of the seven-transmembrane domain guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptor family plays a central role in lactation, ovarian cyclicity and reproductive behaviour...
  3. Leonzino M, Busnelli M, Antonucci F, Verderio C, Mazzanti M, Chini B. The Timing of the Excitatory-to-Inhibitory GABA Switch Is Regulated by the Oxytocin Receptor via KCC2. Cell Rep. 2016;15:96-103 pubmed publisher
    Oxytocin and its receptor (Oxtr) play a crucial role in the postnatal transition of neuronal GABA neurotransmission from excitatory to inhibitory, a developmental process known as the GABA switch...
  4. Murakami G, Hunter R, Fontaine C, Ribeiro A, Pfaff D. Relationships among estrogen receptor, oxytocin and vasopressin gene expression and social interaction in male mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Social interaction was positively correlated with: oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) mRNA expression in the medial amygdala; and OT and AVP mRNA expression ..
  5. Oettl L, Ravi N, Schneider M, Scheller M, Schneider P, Mitre M, et al. Oxytocin Enhances Social Recognition by Modulating Cortical Control of Early Olfactory Processing. Neuron. 2016;90:609-21 pubmed publisher
  6. Sala M, Braida D, Donzelli A, Martucci R, Busnelli M, Bulgheroni E, et al. Mice heterozygous for the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr(+/-)) show impaired social behaviour but not increased aggression or cognitive inflexibility: evidence of a selective haploinsufficiency gene effect. J Neuroendocrinol. 2013;25:107-18 pubmed publisher
    We characterised the behavioural phenotype of mice heterozygous (Oxtr(+/-)) for the oxytocin receptor gene (Oxtr) and compared it with that of Oxtr null mice (Oxtr(-/-)), which display autistic-like behaviours, including impaired ..
  7. Guzman Y, Tronson N, Jovasevic V, Sato K, Guedea A, Mizukami H, et al. Fear-enhancing effects of septal oxytocin receptors. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1185-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using region-specific manipulations of the mouse oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene (Oxtr), we identified the lateral septum as the brain region mediating fear-enhancing effects of ..
  8. Pagani J, Williams Avram S, Cui Z, Song J, Mezey Ã, Senerth J, et al. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only. Genes Brain Behav. 2015;14:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may ..
  9. Harony Nicolas H, Mamrut S, Brodsky L, Shahar Gold H, Barki Harrington L, Wagner S. Brain region-specific methylation in the promoter of the murine oxytocin receptor gene is involved in its expression regulation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;39:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The actions of both central and peripheral oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), which is encoded by a single gene...
  10. Campos C, Bowen A, Roman C, Palmiter R. Encoding of danger by parabrachial CGRP neurons. Nature. 2018;555:617-622 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in addition to transducing primary sensory danger signals, CGRPPBN neurons promote affective-behavioural states that limit harm in response to potential threats. ..
  11. Di Benedetto A, Sun L, Zambonin C, Tamma R, Nico B, Calvano C, et al. Osteoblast regulation via ligand-activated nuclear trafficking of the oxytocin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:16502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..or isolated nucleoplasts stripped of the outer nuclear membrane showed progressive nuclear localization of the Oxtr; this nuclear translocation was confirmed by monitoring the movement of Oxtr-EGFP as well as by immunogold labeling...
  12. Mesic I, Guzman Y, Guedea A, Jovasevic V, Corcoran K, Leaderbrand K, et al. Double Dissociation of the Roles of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 and Oxytocin Receptor in Discrete Social Behaviors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:2337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated how Gq-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) affect social affiliation and social memory...
  13. Sun L, Tamma R, Yuen T, Colaianni G, Ji Y, Cuscito C, et al. Functions of vasopressin and oxytocin in bone mass regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored whether Avp and Oxtr can share their receptors in the regulation of bone formation by osteoblasts...
  14. Colaianni G, Sun L, Di Benedetto A, Tamma R, Zhu L, Cao J, et al. Bone marrow oxytocin mediates the anabolic action of estrogen on the skeleton. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the absence of OT receptors (OTRs) in OTR(-/-) osteoblasts or attenuation of OTR expression in silenced cells inhibits estrogen-induced osteoblast ..
  15. Maejima Y, Sakuma K, Santoso P, Gantulga D, Katsurada K, Ueta Y, et al. Oxytocinergic circuit from paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to arcuate POMC neurons in hypothalamus. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:4404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrograde tracer study revealed the projection of PVN and SON Oxt neurons to ARC. These results demonstrate the novel oxytocinergic signaling from PVN/SON to ARC POMC, possibly regulating feeding. ..
  16. Rich M, deCárdenas E, Lee H, Caldwell H. Impairments in the initiation of maternal behavior in oxytocin receptor knockout mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98839 pubmed publisher
    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care...
  17. Pobbe R, Pearson B, Defensor E, Bolivar V, Young W, Lee H, et al. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors. Horm Behav. 2012;61:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the expression of autism-related behaviors in mice that lack the ability to synthesize the oxytocin receptor itself, Oxtr knockout (KO) mice, as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates...
  18. Xiao L, Priest M, Nasenbeny J, Lu T, Kozorovitskiy Y. Biased Oxytocinergic Modulation of Midbrain Dopamine Systems. Neuron. 2017;95:368-384.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Since hypothalamic oxytocinergic projections also target the striatum, oxytocin is poised to bias the balance of DA tone through multiple sites in vertebrate reward circuits. ..
  19. Gross G, Imamura T, Luedke C, Vogt S, Olson L, Nelson D, et al. Opposing actions of prostaglandins and oxytocin determine the onset of murine labor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11875-9 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that COX-1 is essential for normal labor in the mouse, with a critical function being to overcome the luteotrophic action of oxytocin in late gestation. ..
  20. Miyazaki S, Hiraoka Y, Hidema S, Nishimori K. Prenatal minocycline treatment alters synaptic protein expression, and rescues reduced mother call rate in oxytocin receptor-knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:319-23 pubmed publisher
    ..symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients...
  21. Szeto A, Sun Suslow N, Mendez A, Hernandez R, Wagner K, McCabe P. Regulation of the macrophage oxytocin receptor in response to inflammation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;312:E183-E189 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we examined the role of inflammation on the expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR)...
  22. Liu H, Lopatina O, Higashida C, Tsuji T, Kato I, Takasawa S, et al. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2008;448:67-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT. ..
  23. Gould B, Zingg H. Mapping oxytocin receptor gene expression in the mouse brain and mammary gland using an oxytocin receptor-LacZ reporter mouse. Neuroscience. 2003;122:155-67 pubmed
    ..hormone but can also act as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator by interacting with its central OT receptor (OTR)...
  24. Lin Y, Chen C, Huang C, Nishimori K, Hsu K. Oxytocin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis via oxytocin receptor expressed in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Nat Commun. 2017;8:537 pubmed publisher
  25. Vega E, Rudolph M. Characterization of oxytocin receptors and serotonin transporters in mast cells. Endocrine. 2002;18:167-72 pubmed
    ..In this study, OTR and SERT were characterized in murine peritoneal mast cells by radioligand-binding studies...
  26. Lesse A, Rether K, Gröger N, Braun K, Bock J. Chronic Postnatal Stress Induces Depressive-like Behavior in Male Mice and Programs second-Hit Stress-Induced Gene Expression Patterns of OxtR and AvpR1a in Adulthood. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:4813-4819 pubmed publisher
    ..if postnatal CS (maternal separation + social isolation) induces depressive-like behavior and alters oxytocin receptor (OxtR) and arginine vasopressin receptor type 1a (AvpR1a) gene expression in the hippocampus (HC) of male ..
  27. Li K, Nakajima M, Ibanez Tallon I, Heintz N. A Cortical Circuit for Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin-Dependent Anxiety Behaviors. Cell. 2016;167:60-72.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that oxytocin receptor interneurons (OxtrINs) modulate female sociosexual behavior...
  28. Huang W, Ferris E, Cheng T, Hörndli C, Gleason K, Tamminga C, et al. Diverse Non-genetic, Allele-Specific Expression Effects Shape Genetic Architecture at the Cellular Level in the Mammalian Brain. Neuron. 2017;93:1094-1109.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that diverse non-genetic allelic effects that impact mental illness risk genes exist in the macaque and human brain. Our findings have potential implications for mammalian brain genetics. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  29. Kubota Y, Kimura T, Hashimoto K, Tokugawa Y, Nobunaga K, Azuma C, et al. Structure and expression of the mouse oxytocin receptor gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1996;124:25-32 pubmed
    To determine the structure of the mouse oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene, we have screened a mouse genomic library and confirmed cDNA sequence with rapid amplification of cDNA ends...
  30. Hollon T, Bek M, Lachowicz J, Ariano M, Mezey E, Ramachandran R, et al. Mice lacking D5 dopamine receptors have increased sympathetic tone and are hypertensive. J Neurosci. 2002;22:10801-10 pubmed
  31. Ho J, Anekonda V, Thompson B, Zhu M, Curry R, Hwang B, et al. Hindbrain oxytocin receptors contribute to the effects of circulating oxytocin on food intake in male rats. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2845-57 pubmed publisher
    ..determine whether circulating OT inhibits food intake by acting at hindbrain OTRs, we pretreated rats with an OTR antagonist administered into the fourth ventricle (4V) followed by either central or systemic OT administration...
  32. Kasahara Y, Sato K, Takayanagi Y, Mizukami H, Ozawa K, Hidema S, et al. Oxytocin receptor in the hypothalamus is sufficient to rescue normal thermoregulatory function in male oxytocin receptor knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4305-15 pubmed publisher
    Oxytocin (OXT) and OXT receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear...
  33. Curley J, Jensen C, Franks B, Champagne F. Variation in maternal and anxiety-like behavior associated with discrete patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptor density in the lateral septum. Horm Behav. 2012;61:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we quantified oxytocin (OTR) and vasopressin (V1a) receptor density within the lateral septum to determine the possible correlation with ..
  34. Chang E, Zhang J, Sullivan S, Newman R, Singh I. N-acetylcysteine prevents preterm birth by attenuating the LPS-induced expression of contractile associated proteins in an animal model. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:2395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..COX-2, connexin 43, and oxytocin receptor expression was determined...
  35. Branchi I, Curley J, D Andrea I, Cirulli F, Champagne F, Alleva E. Early interactions with mother and peers independently build adult social skills and shape BDNF and oxytocin receptor brain levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..e. facing an unfamiliar conspecific during five 20-min daily encounters, and for oxytocin receptor and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels...
  36. Arend L, Smart A, Briggs J. Metanephric rat-mouse chimeras to study cell lineage of the nephron. Dev Genet. 1999;24:230-40 pubmed
    ..evaluated the expression of four relatively well-localized molecules--renin, Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), oxytocin receptor (OTR), and the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R)--in cultured mouse-rat chimeric metanephric kidneys using ..
  37. Siebel A, Gehring H, Reytomas I, Parry L. Inhibition of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha expression, but not relaxin receptors (LGR7), in the myometrium of late pregnant relaxin gene knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4272-5 pubmed
    This study used relaxin (RLX) gene knockout mice (Rlx-/-) to investigate the effects of RLX on myometrial oxytocin receptor (OTR) and estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene expression in late gestation...
  38. Takayanagi Y, Kasahara Y, Onaka T, Takahashi N, Kawada T, Nishimori K. Oxytocin receptor-deficient mice developed late-onset obesity. Neuroreport. 2008;19:951-5 pubmed publisher
    The oxytocin receptor has been suggested to be involved in energy metabolism, such as food intake and energy consumption...
  39. Schorscher Petcu A, Sotocinal S, Ciura S, Dupré A, Ritchie J, Sorge R, et al. Oxytocin-induced analgesia and scratching are mediated by the vasopressin-1A receptor in the mouse. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterized the phenotype of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin-1A receptor (V1AR) null mutant mice in a battery of pain assays...
  40. Mitre M, Marlin B, Schiavo J, Morina E, Norden S, Hackett T, et al. A Distributed Network for Social Cognition Enriched for Oxytocin Receptors. J Neurosci. 2016;36:2517-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that oxytocin receptor signaling in the brain is critical for these behaviors, but it is unknown precisely when and where oxytocin ..
  41. Bahi A, Al Mansouri S, Al Maamari E. Nucleus accumbens lentiviral-mediated gain of function of the oxytocin receptor regulates anxiety- and ethanol-related behaviors in adult mice. Physiol Behav. 2016;164:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study implicated a potential role for the oxytocin receptor (OxtR) in regulating ethanol-conditioned place preference...
  42. Grotegut C, Feng L, Mao L, Heine R, Murtha A, Rockman H. ?-Arrestin mediates oxytocin receptor signaling, which regulates uterine contractility and cellular migration. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E468-77 pubmed publisher
    Desensitization of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in the setting of prolonged oxytocin exposure may lead to dysfunctional labor, which increases the risk for cesarean delivery, and uterine atony, which may result in postpartum hemorrhage...
  43. Bahi A. The oxytocin receptor impairs ethanol reward in mice. Physiol Behav. 2015;139:321-7 pubmed publisher
    It is well established that oxytocin, and its receptor (OxtR), play a crucial role in addiction and that the stimulation of oxytocin neurotransmission reduces addictive behaviors to ethanol in laboratory animals...
  44. Welch M, Margolis K, Li Z, Gershon M. Oxytocin regulates gastrointestinal motility, inflammation, macromolecular permeability, and mucosal maintenance in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;307:G848-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Although OT (with secretin) opposes intestinal inflammation, physiological roles played by enteric OT/OTR signaling have not previously been determined...
  45. Hattori T, Kanno K, Nagasawa M, Nishimori K, Mogi K, Kikusui T. Impairment of interstrain social recognition during territorial aggressive behavior in oxytocin receptor-null mice. Neurosci Res. 2015;90:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, we examined whether the interstrain recognition was regulated by the oxytocin system using oxytocin receptor (OTR)-null mice...
  46. Hidema S, Fukuda T, Hiraoka Y, Mizukami H, Hayashi R, Otsuka A, et al. Generation of Oxtr cDNA(HA)-Ires-Cre Mice for Gene Expression in an Oxytocin Receptor Specific Manner. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:1099-111 pubmed publisher
    The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) have critical roles in the regulation of pro-social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, parental behavior, and stress-related responses...
  47. Gao L, Rabbitt E, Condon J, Renthal N, Johnston J, Mitsche M, et al. Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2808-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that fetal lungs produce signals to initiate labor when mature and that SRC-1/-2-dependent production of SP-A and PAF is crucial for this process. ..
  48. Iwakura H, Ariyasu H, Hosoda H, Yamada G, Hosoda K, Nakao K, et al. Oxytocin and dopamine stimulate ghrelin secretion by the ghrelin-producing cell line, MGN3-1 in vitro. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Because MGN3-1 cells express only oxytocin receptor mRNA, not vasopressin receptor mRNA, oxytocin is the likely regulator, with the effect of vasopressin ..
  49. Amrani Y, Syed F, Huang C, Li K, Liu V, Jain D, et al. Expression and activation of the oxytocin receptor in airway smooth muscle cells: Regulation by TNFalpha and IL-13. Respir Res. 2010;11:104 pubmed publisher
    ..that oxytocin regulates inflammatory processes in other tissues given the ubiquitous expression of the oxytocin receptor. The purpose of this study was to define the role of oxytocin in modulating human airway smooth muscle (..
  50. Crawley J. Translational animal models of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012;14:293-305 pubmed
    ..The field is now poised to employ the most robust phenotypes in the most replicable mouse models for preclinical screening of novel therapeutics. ..
  51. Kim J, Frey W, He H, Kim H, Ekram M, Bakshi A, et al. Peg3 mutational effects on reproduction and placenta-specific gene families. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83359 pubmed publisher
  52. Sanathara N, Garau C, Alachkar A, Wang L, Wang Z, Nishimori K, et al. Melanin concentrating hormone modulates oxytocin-mediated marble burying. Neuropharmacology. 2018;128:22-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel role for the MCH system as a mediator of the role of oxytocin in regulating marble-burying behavior in mice. ..
  53. Yao S, BERGAN J, Lanjuin A, Dulac C. Oxytocin signaling in the medial amygdala is required for sex discrimination of social cues. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female ..