Otx2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Otx2
Description: orthodenticle homeobox 2
Alias: E130306E05Rik, homeobox protein OTX2, orthodenticle homolog 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Otx2

Top Publications

  1. Koike C, Nishida A, Ueno S, Saito H, Sanuki R, Sato S, et al. Functional roles of Otx2 transcription factor in postnatal mouse retinal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8318-29 pubmed
    We previously reported that Otx2 is essential for photoreceptor cell fate determination; however, the functional role of Otx2 in postnatal retinal development is still unclear although it has been reported to be expressed in retinal ..
  2. Trokovic R, Trokovic N, Hernesniemi S, Pirvola U, Vogt Weisenhorn D, Rossant J, et al. FGFR1 is independently required in both developing mid- and hindbrain for sustained response to isthmic signals. EMBO J. 2003;22:1811-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, FGFR1 appears to modify cell adhesion properties critical for maintaining a coherent organizing center. This may be achieved by regulating expression of specific cell-adhesion molecules at the midbrain-hindbrain border. ..
  3. Joksimovic M, Yun B, Kittappa R, Anderegg A, Chang W, Taketo M, et al. Wnt antagonism of Shh facilitates midbrain floor plate neurogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate how the dynamic interplay of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and Shh may orchestrate floor plate neurogenesis or a lack thereof. ..
  4. Brennan J, Lu C, Norris D, Rodriguez T, Beddington R, Robertson E. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;411:965-9 pubmed
    ..Our experiments show that proximal-distal and subsequent anterior-posterior polarity of the pregastrulation embryo result from reciprocal cell-cell interactions between the epiblast and the two extra-embryonic tissues. ..
  5. Das G, Choi Y, Sicinski P, Levine E. Cyclin D1 fine-tunes the neurogenic output of embryonic retinal progenitor cells. Neural Dev. 2009;4:15 pubmed publisher
  6. Liguori G, Echevarria D, Improta R, Signore M, Adamson E, Martinez S, et al. Anterior neural plate regionalization in cripto null mutant mouse embryos in the absence of node and primitive streak. Dev Biol. 2003;264:537-49 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in mouse embryos, the specification of the anterior neural identities can be maintained without an absolute requirement for the embryonic mesoderm and the node. ..
  7. Acampora D, Boyl P, Signore M, Martinez Barbera J, Ilengo C, Puelles E, et al. OTD/OTX2 functional equivalence depends on 5' and 3' UTR-mediated control of Otx2 mRNA for nucleo-cytoplasmic export and epiblast-restricted translation. Development. 2001;128:4801-13 pubmed
    ..homology, Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) and murine Otx1 genes share functional equivalence and that translation of Otx2 mRNA in epiblast and neuroectoderm might require a cell type-specific post-transcriptional control depending on its ..
  8. Nguyen M, Arnheiter H. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in early mammalian eye development: a link between FGF and MITF. Development. 2000;127:3581-91 pubmed
  9. Acampora D, Avantaggiato V, Tuorto F, Briata P, Corte G, Simeone A. Visceral endoderm-restricted translation of Otx1 mediates recovery of Otx2 requirements for specification of anterior neural plate and normal gastrulation. Development. 1998;125:5091-104 pubmed
    Otx1 and Otx2, two murine homologs of the Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) gene, contribute to brain morphogenesis...
  10. Biben C, Stanley E, Fabri L, Kotecha S, Rhinn M, Drinkwater C, et al. Murine cerberus homologue mCer-1: a candidate anterior patterning molecule. Dev Biol. 1998;194:135-51 pubmed
    ..In embryos lacking Otx2, a homeogene with a demonstrated role in anterior patterning, mCer-1 was still expressed in an anterior zone, ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Koike C, Nishida A, Ueno S, Saito H, Sanuki R, Sato S, et al. Functional roles of Otx2 transcription factor in postnatal mouse retinal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8318-29 pubmed
    We previously reported that Otx2 is essential for photoreceptor cell fate determination; however, the functional role of Otx2 in postnatal retinal development is still unclear although it has been reported to be expressed in retinal ..
  2. Trokovic R, Trokovic N, Hernesniemi S, Pirvola U, Vogt Weisenhorn D, Rossant J, et al. FGFR1 is independently required in both developing mid- and hindbrain for sustained response to isthmic signals. EMBO J. 2003;22:1811-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, FGFR1 appears to modify cell adhesion properties critical for maintaining a coherent organizing center. This may be achieved by regulating expression of specific cell-adhesion molecules at the midbrain-hindbrain border. ..
  3. Joksimovic M, Yun B, Kittappa R, Anderegg A, Chang W, Taketo M, et al. Wnt antagonism of Shh facilitates midbrain floor plate neurogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate how the dynamic interplay of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and Shh may orchestrate floor plate neurogenesis or a lack thereof. ..
  4. Brennan J, Lu C, Norris D, Rodriguez T, Beddington R, Robertson E. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;411:965-9 pubmed
    ..Our experiments show that proximal-distal and subsequent anterior-posterior polarity of the pregastrulation embryo result from reciprocal cell-cell interactions between the epiblast and the two extra-embryonic tissues. ..
  5. Das G, Choi Y, Sicinski P, Levine E. Cyclin D1 fine-tunes the neurogenic output of embryonic retinal progenitor cells. Neural Dev. 2009;4:15 pubmed publisher
  6. Liguori G, Echevarria D, Improta R, Signore M, Adamson E, Martinez S, et al. Anterior neural plate regionalization in cripto null mutant mouse embryos in the absence of node and primitive streak. Dev Biol. 2003;264:537-49 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in mouse embryos, the specification of the anterior neural identities can be maintained without an absolute requirement for the embryonic mesoderm and the node. ..
  7. Acampora D, Boyl P, Signore M, Martinez Barbera J, Ilengo C, Puelles E, et al. OTD/OTX2 functional equivalence depends on 5' and 3' UTR-mediated control of Otx2 mRNA for nucleo-cytoplasmic export and epiblast-restricted translation. Development. 2001;128:4801-13 pubmed
    ..homology, Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) and murine Otx1 genes share functional equivalence and that translation of Otx2 mRNA in epiblast and neuroectoderm might require a cell type-specific post-transcriptional control depending on its ..
  8. Nguyen M, Arnheiter H. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in early mammalian eye development: a link between FGF and MITF. Development. 2000;127:3581-91 pubmed
  9. Acampora D, Avantaggiato V, Tuorto F, Briata P, Corte G, Simeone A. Visceral endoderm-restricted translation of Otx1 mediates recovery of Otx2 requirements for specification of anterior neural plate and normal gastrulation. Development. 1998;125:5091-104 pubmed
    Otx1 and Otx2, two murine homologs of the Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) gene, contribute to brain morphogenesis...
  10. Biben C, Stanley E, Fabri L, Kotecha S, Rhinn M, Drinkwater C, et al. Murine cerberus homologue mCer-1: a candidate anterior patterning molecule. Dev Biol. 1998;194:135-51 pubmed
    ..In embryos lacking Otx2, a homeogene with a demonstrated role in anterior patterning, mCer-1 was still expressed in an anterior zone, ..
  11. Bharti K, Gasper M, Ou J, Brucato M, Clore Gronenborn K, Pickel J, et al. A regulatory loop involving PAX6, MITF, and WNT signaling controls retinal pigment epithelium development. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002757 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that careful manipulation of the Pax6 regulatory circuit may facilitate the generation of retinal and pigment epithelium cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. ..
  12. Layman W, Hurd E, Martin D. Reproductive dysfunction and decreased GnRH neurogenesis in a mouse model of CHARGE syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3138-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression levels of GnRH1 and Otx2 in the hypothalamus and GnRHR in the pituitary are significantly reduced in adult Chd7(Gt/+) mice...
  13. Heimbucher T, Murko C, Bajoghli B, Aghaallaei N, Huber A, Stebegg R, et al. Gbx2 and Otx2 interact with the WD40 domain of Groucho/Tle corepressors. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:340-51 pubmed
    ..organizational decisions in the development of the vertebrate brain is the division of the neural plate into Otx2-positive anterior and Gbx2-positive posterior territories...
  14. Fossat N, Le Greneur C, Beby F, Vincent S, Godement P, Chatelain G, et al. A new GFP-tagged line reveals unexpected Otx2 protein localization in retinal photoreceptors. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:122 pubmed
    ..The paired-class homeodomain-containing transcription factor Otx2 is essential for normal head and brain development in vertebrates...
  15. Sawada A, Kiyonari H, Ukita K, Nishioka N, Imuta Y, Sasaki H. Redundant roles of Tead1 and Tead2 in notochord development and the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Tead1 and Tead2 are functionally redundant, use YAP as a major coactivator, and support notochord maintenance as well as cell proliferation and survival in mouse development. ..
  16. Germot A, Lecointre G, Plouhinec J, Le Mentec C, Girardot F, Mazan S. Structural evolution of Otx genes in craniates. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:1668-78 pubmed
    ..Two of the three genes identified in each of these species belong to the Otx1 and Otx2 orthology classes previously characterized in osteichthyans...
  17. Vernay B, Koch M, Vaccarino F, Briscoe J, Simeone A, Kageyama R, et al. Otx2 regulates subtype specification and neurogenesis in the midbrain. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4856-67 pubmed
    The transcription factor Otx2 is required to determine mesencephalic versus metencephalic (cerebellum/pons) territory during embryogenesis...
  18. Chilov D, Sinjushina N, Saarimäki Vire J, Taketo M, Partanen J. beta-Catenin regulates intercellular signalling networks and cell-type specific transcription in the developing mouse midbrain-rhombomere 1 region. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10881 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the role of beta-catenin in establishment of neuroectodermal signalling centers, promoting region-specific gene expression and regulation of cell fate determination. ..
  19. Suda Y, Nakabayashi J, Matsuo I, Aizawa S. Functional equivalency between Otx2 and Otx1 in development of the rostral head. Development. 1999;126:743-57 pubmed
    Mice have two Otx genes, Otx1 and Otx2. Prior to gastrulation, Otx2 is expressed in the epiblast and visceral endoderm. As the primitive streak forms, Otx2 expression is restricted to the anterior parts of all three germ layers...
  20. Bumsted K, Barnstable C. Dorsal retinal pigment epithelium differentiates as neural retina in the microphthalmia (mi/mi) mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:903-8 pubmed
    ..Most importantly, loss of mi function permits a change in cell fate from RPE to retina in the dorsal eye. ..
  21. Vitobello A, Ferretti E, Lampe X, Vilain N, Ducret S, Ori M, et al. Hox and Pbx factors control retinoic acid synthesis during hindbrain segmentation. Dev Cell. 2011;20:469-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a feed-forward mechanism linking Hox-Pbx-dependent RA synthesis during early axial patterning with the establishment of spatially restricted Hox-Pbx activity in the developing hindbrain. ..
  22. Sakurai Y, Kurokawa D, Kiyonari H, Kajikawa E, Suda Y, Aizawa S. Otx2 and Otx1 protect diencephalon and mesencephalon from caudalization into metencephalon during early brain regionalization. Dev Biol. 2010;347:392-403 pubmed publisher
    b>Otx2 is expressed in each step and site of head development. To dissect each Otx2 function we have identified a series of Otx2 enhancers...
  23. Fu J, Jiang M, Mirando A, Yu H, Hsu W. Reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177/mouse Wntless is required for embryonic axis formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..A reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the patterning of the anterior-posterior axis during mammalian development. ..
  24. Yu T, Yaguchi Y, Echevarria D, Martinez S, Basson M. Sprouty genes prevent excessive FGF signalling in multiple cell types throughout development of the cerebellum. Development. 2011;138:2957-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that FGF signalling levels have to be tightly controlled throughout cerebellar development in order to maintain the normal development of multiple cell types. ..
  25. Chen C, Ware S, Sato A, Houston Hawkins D, Habas R, Matzuk M, et al. The Vg1-related protein Gdf3 acts in a Nodal signaling pathway in the pre-gastrulation mouse embryo. Development. 2006;133:319-29 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that Gdf3 acts in a Nodal-like signaling pathway in pre-gastrulation development, and provide evidence for the functional conservation of Vg1 activity in mice. ..
  26. Guo C, Qiu H, Huang Y, Chen H, Yang R, Chen S, et al. Lmx1b is essential for Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression in the isthmic organizer during tectum and cerebellum development in mice. Development. 2007;134:317-25 pubmed
    ..By contrast, Otx2 and Pax6 expression was not affected in Lmx1b-/- embryos...
  27. Kimura C, Yoshinaga K, Tian E, Suzuki M, Aizawa S, Matsuo I. Visceral endoderm mediates forebrain development by suppressing posteriorizing signals. Dev Biol. 2000;225:304-21 pubmed
    ..Here we identified a 5'-flanking region of the mouse Otx2 gene (VEcis) that governs the transgene expression in the visceral endoderm...
  28. Panhuysen M, Vogt Weisenhorn D, Blanquet V, Brodski C, Heinzmann U, Beisker W, et al. Effects of Wnt1 signaling on proliferation in the developing mid-/hindbrain region. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;26:101-11 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Wnt1 acts as a regulator of proliferation of specific precursor populations in the developing mid-/hindbrain region and is only secondarily involved in maintenance of the mid-/hindbrain organizer. ..
  29. Fossat N, Chatelain G, Brun G, Lamonerie T. Temporal and spatial delineation of mouse Otx2 functions by conditional self-knockout. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:824-30 pubmed
    To identify the independent spatial and temporal activities of the essential developmental gene the Otx2, the germline mutation of which is lethal at embryonic day 8...
  30. Glaser S, Schaft J, Lubitz S, Vintersten K, van der Hoeven F, Tufteland K, et al. Multiple epigenetic maintenance factors implicated by the loss of Mll2 in mouse development. Development. 2006;133:1423-32 pubmed
    ..expression patterns were correctly established, they were not maintained in the absence of Mll2, whereas Wnt1 and Otx2 were...
  31. Ye W, Bouchard M, Stone D, Liu X, Vella F, Lee J, et al. Distinct regulators control the expression of the mid-hindbrain organizer signal FGF8. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:1175-81 pubmed
    ..A network of transcription and secreted factors, including En1, Otx2, Gbx2, Grg4 and Wnt1&4, that is established independently of Pax2, further refines the expression domain and ..
  32. Tang K, Xie X, Park J, Jamrich M, Tsai S, Tsai M. COUP-TFs regulate eye development by controlling factors essential for optic vesicle morphogenesis. Development. 2010;137:725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..that the expression of several regulatory genes essential for early optic vesicle development, including Pax6, Otx2, Mitf, Pax2 and Vax1/2, is altered in the corresponding compartments of the mutant eye...
  33. Chung C, Licznerski P, Alavian K, Simeone A, Lin Z, Martin E, et al. The transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 influences axonal projections and vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Brain. 2010;133:2022-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that orthodenticle homeobox 2 is important for establishing subgroup phenotypes of post-mitotic midbrain dopaminergic neurons and may alter neuronal vulnerability. ..
  34. Beddington R, Robertson E. Axis development and early asymmetry in mammals. Cell. 1999;96:195-209 pubmed
  35. Inoue F, Kurokawa D, Takahashi M, Aizawa S. Gbx2 directly restricts Otx2 expression to forebrain and midbrain, competing with class III POU factors. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2618-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Otx2 plays essential roles in rostral brain development, and its counteraction with Gbx2 has been suggested to determine the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) in vertebrates...
  36. Ang S, Rossant J. HNF-3 beta is essential for node and notochord formation in mouse development. Cell. 1994;78:561-74 pubmed
    ..HNF-3 beta is not required for the development of definitive endoderm cells, but foregut morphogenesis is severely affected in HNF-3 beta -/- embryos. ..
  37. Simeone A, Acampora D, Gulisano M, Stornaiuolo A, Boncinelli E. Nested expression domains of four homeobox genes in developing rostral brain. Nature. 1992;358:687-90 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of Otx1 and Otx2, which are related to orthodenticle...
  38. Basson M, Echevarria D, Ahn C, Sudarov A, Joyner A, Mason I, et al. Specific regions within the embryonic midbrain and cerebellum require different levels of FGF signaling during development. Development. 2008;135:889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a molecular explanation for this phenomenon by providing evidence that FGF signaling functions to inhibit the BMP signaling that promotes roof plate development. ..
  39. Frantz G, Weimann J, Levin M, McConnell S. Otx1 and Otx2 define layers and regions in developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum. J Neurosci. 1994;14:5725-40 pubmed
    ..in layered regions of the CNS, we have characterized the patterns of expression of two homeodomain genes, Otx1 and Otx2, by in situ hybridization during embryonic and postnatal development in the rat...
  40. Simeone A, Acampora D, Mallamaci A, Stornaiuolo A, D Apice M, Nigro V, et al. A vertebrate gene related to orthodenticle contains a homeodomain of the bicoid class and demarcates anterior neuroectoderm in the gastrulating mouse embryo. EMBO J. 1993;12:2735-47 pubmed
    We studied the expression of two vertebrate homeobox genes, Otx1 and Otx2, related to orthodenticle, a gene expressed in the developing head of Drosophila...
  41. Garel S, Huffman K, Rubenstein J. Molecular regionalization of the neocortex is disrupted in Fgf8 hypomorphic mutants. Development. 2003;130:1903-14 pubmed
    ..Overall, our study demonstrates the role of endogenous Fgf8 in regulating early gradients of transcription factors in cortical progenitor cells and in molecular regionalization of the cortical plate. ..
  42. Lagutin O, Zhu C, Kobayashi D, Topczewski J, Shimamura K, Puelles L, et al. Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:368-79 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that a Wnt signal gradient specifies posterior fates in the anterior neural plate. ..
  43. Song J, Oh S, Schrewe H, Nomura M, Lei H, Okano M, et al. The type II activin receptors are essential for egg cylinder growth, gastrulation, and rostral head development in mice. Dev Biol. 1999;213:157-69 pubmed
    ..These results provide genetic evidence that type II activin receptors are required for egg cylinder growth, primitive streak formation, and rostral head development in mice. ..
  44. Kurokawa D, Takasaki N, Kiyonari H, Nakayama R, Kimura Yoshida C, Matsuo I, et al. Regulation of Otx2 expression and its functions in mouse epiblast and anterior neuroectoderm. Development. 2004;131:3307-17 pubmed
    We have identified cis-regulatory sequences acting on Otx2 expression in epiblast (EP) and anterior neuroectoderm (AN) at about 90 kb 5' upstream. The activity of the EP enhancer is found in the inner cell mass at E3...
  45. Ang S, Jin O, Rhinn M, Daigle N, Stevenson L, Rossant J. A targeted mouse Otx2 mutation leads to severe defects in gastrulation and formation of axial mesoderm and to deletion of rostral brain. Development. 1996;122:243-52 pubmed
    Mouse Otx2 is a bicoid-class homeobox gene, related to the Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) gene. Expression of this gene is initially widespread in the epiblast at embryonic day 5...
  46. Haegel H, Larue L, Ohsugi M, Fedorov L, Herrenknecht K, Kemler R. Lack of beta-catenin affects mouse development at gastrulation. Development. 1995;121:3529-37 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that, although beta-catenin is expressed rather ubiquitously, it is specifically required in the ectodermal cell layer. ..
  47. Mallamaci A, Di Blas E, Briata P, Boncinelli E, Corte G. OTX2 homeoprotein in the developing central nervous system and migratory cells of the olfactory area. Mech Dev. 1996;58:165-78 pubmed
    We analyzed the distribution of OTX2 during mouse development. OTX2 is a homeoprotein encoded by Otx2, a vertebrate homeobox gene expressed in the developing brain and anterior head regions...
  48. Liu A, Losos K, Joyner A. FGF8 can activate Gbx2 and transform regions of the rostral mouse brain into a hindbrain fate. Development. 1999;126:4827-38 pubmed
    ..We also show that FGF8b-soaked beads can repress Otx2 in midbrain explants...
  49. Fujimura N, Taketo M, Mori M, Korinek V, Kozmik Z. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2009;334:31-45 pubmed publisher
    ..transdifferentiation of RPE to neural retina (NR) as documented by downregulation of RPE-specific markers Mitf and Otx2 and ectopic expression of NR-specific markers Chx10 and Rx, respectively...
  50. Lowe L, Yamada S, Kuehn M. Genetic dissection of nodal function in patterning the mouse embryo. Development. 2001;128:1831-43 pubmed
    ..We find that nodal signaling is required for correct positioning of the anteroposterior axis, normal anterior and midline patterning, and the left-right asymmetric development of the heart, vasculature, lungs and stomach. ..
  51. Larder R, Mellon P. Otx2 induction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone promoter is modulated by direct interactions with Grg co-repressors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that expression of Otx2, a homeodomain protein required for the formation of the forebrain, is dramatically up-regulated during GnRH ..
  52. Martinez Morales J, Signore M, Acampora D, Simeone A, Bovolenta P. Otx genes are required for tissue specification in the developing eye. Development. 2001;128:2019-30 pubmed
    ..Previous data suggest that both Otx1 and Otx2 might contribute to the establishment of the different eye territories...
  53. Vincent S, Dunn N, Hayashi S, Norris D, Robertson E. Cell fate decisions within the mouse organizer are governed by graded Nodal signals. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1646-62 pubmed
    ..These findings conclusively demonstrate that graded Nodal/Smad2 signals govern allocation of the axial mesendoderm precursors that selectively give rise to the ADE and PCP mesoderm...
  54. Broccoli V, Boncinelli E, Wurst W. The caudal limit of Otx2 expression positions the isthmic organizer. Nature. 1999;401:164-8 pubmed
    The homeobox gene Otx2 is expressed in the anterior neural tube with a sharp limit at the midbrain/hindbrain junction (the isthmic organizer)...
  55. Tian E, Kimura C, Takeda N, Aizawa S, Matsuo I. Otx2 is required to respond to signals from anterior neural ridge for forebrain specification. Dev Biol. 2002;242:204-23 pubmed
    Previous analysis employing chimeric and transgenic rescue experiments has suggested that Otx2 is required in the neuroectoderm for development of the forebrain region...
  56. Liu P, Wakamiya M, Shea M, Albrecht U, Behringer R, Bradley A. Requirement for Wnt3 in vertebrate axis formation. Nat Genet. 1999;22:361-5 pubmed
    ..These studies provide genetic proof for the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. ..
  57. Waldrip W, Bikoff E, Hoodless P, Wrana J, Robertson E. Smad2 signaling in extraembryonic tissues determines anterior-posterior polarity of the early mouse embryo. Cell. 1998;92:797-808 pubmed
    ..Chimera experiments demonstrate these essential activities are contributed by the extraembryonic tissues. Thus, the extraembryonic tissues play critical roles in establishing the body plan during early mouse development. ..
  58. Rhinn M, Dierich A, Shawlot W, Behringer R, Le Meur M, Ang S. Sequential roles for Otx2 in visceral endoderm and neuroectoderm for forebrain and midbrain induction and specification. Development. 1998;125:845-56 pubmed
    The homeobox gene Otx2 is a mouse cognate of the Drosophila orthodenticle gene, which is required for development of the brain, rostral to rhombomere three...
  59. Norris D, Brennan J, Bikoff E, Robertson E. The Foxh1-dependent autoregulatory enhancer controls the level of Nodal signals in the mouse embryo. Development. 2002;129:3455-68 pubmed
    ..The feedback loop is thus essential for maintenance of Nodal signals that selectively regulate target gene expression in a temporally and spatially controlled fashion in the mouse embryo. ..
  60. Hsieh J, Lee L, Zhang L, Wefer S, Brown K, DeRossi C, et al. Mesd encodes an LRP5/6 chaperone essential for specification of mouse embryonic polarity. Cell. 2003;112:355-67 pubmed
  61. Puelles E, Acampora D, Gogoi R, Tuorto F, Papalia A, Guillemot F, et al. Otx2 controls identity and fate of glutamatergic progenitors of the thalamus by repressing GABAergic differentiation. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5955-64 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the consequence of Otx2 (orthodenticle homolog) ablation in glutamatergic progenitors of the dorsal thalamus (referred to as thalamus)...
  62. Yang J, Brown A, Ellisor D, Paul E, Hagan N, Zervas M. Dynamic temporal requirement of Wnt1 in midbrain dopamine neuron development. Development. 2013;140:1342-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, an En1-derived domain persists after the early deletion of Wnt1 and mutant cells express OTX2. However, the En1-derived Wnt1-mutant domain does not contain LMX1a-expressing progenitors, and MbDA neurons are ..