Opn4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Opn4
Description: opsin 4 (melanopsin)
Alias: 1110007J02Rik, Gm533, melanopsin, opsin-4
Species: mouse
Products:     Opn4

Top Publications

  1. Ruby N, Brennan T, Xie X, Cao V, Franken P, Heller H, et al. Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light. Science. 2002;298:2211-3 pubmed
    b>Melanopsin has been proposed as an important photoreceptive molecule for the mammalian circadian system. Its importance in this role was tested in melanopsin knockout mice...
  2. Hatori M, Le H, Vollmers C, Keding S, Tanaka N, Buch T, et al. Inducible ablation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells reveals their central role in non-image forming visual responses. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2451 pubmed publisher
    Rod/cone photoreceptors of the outer retina and the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) of the inner retina mediate non-image forming visual responses including entrainment of the circadian clock to the ambient light, the ..
  3. Doyle S, Yoshikawa T, Hillson H, Menaker M. Retinal pathways influence temporal niche. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..diurnal entrainment of circadian activity rhythms in double-knockout mice lacking the inner-retinal photopigment melanopsin (OPN4) and RPE65, a key protein used in retinal chromophore recycling...
  4. Pickard G, Baver S, Ogilvie M, Sollars P. Light-induced fos expression in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in melanopsin knockout (opn4) mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4984 pubmed publisher
    Retinal ganglion cells that express the photopigment melanopsin are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) and exhibit robust synaptically driven ON-responses to light, yet they will continue to depolarize in response to light when all ..
  5. Perez Leighton C, Schmidt T, Abramowitz J, Birnbaumer L, Kofuji P. Intrinsic phototransduction persists in melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells lacking diacylglycerol-sensitive TRPC subunits. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:856-67 pubmed publisher
    ..ipRGCs directly respond to environmental light by activation of the photopigment melanopsin followed by the opening of an unidentified cation-selective channel...
  6. van Oosterhout F, Fisher S, van Diepen H, Watson T, Houben T, VanderLeest H, et al. Ultraviolet light provides a major input to non-image-forming light detection in mice. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Irradiance detection has been ascribed largely to melanopsin-based phototransduction [1-5]...
  7. Hannibal J. Regulation of melanopsin expression. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:159-66 pubmed
    ..The RGCs of the RHT are intrinsically photosensitive due to the expression of melanopsin, an opsin-like photopigment...
  8. Tsai J, Hannibal J, Hagiwara G, Colas D, Ruppert E, Ruby N, et al. Melanopsin as a sleep modulator: circadian gating of the direct effects of light on sleep and altered sleep homeostasis in Opn4(-/-) mice. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000125 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Melanopsin (Opn4) is a retinal photopigment crucial for conveying nonvisual light information to the brain...
  9. Allen A, Cameron M, Brown T, Vugler A, Lucas R. Visual responses in mice lacking critical components of all known retinal phototransduction cascades. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15063 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian visual system relies upon light detection by outer-retinal rod/cone photoreceptors and melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells...

More Information

Publications63

  1. Bellingham J, Whitmore D, Philp A, Wells D, Foster R. Zebrafish melanopsin: isolation, tissue localisation and phylogenetic position. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;107:128-36 pubmed
    ..b>Melanopsin has been proposed as the photopigment mediating many of these non-rod, non-cone responses to light...
  2. Qiu X, Kumbalasiri T, Carlson S, Wong K, Krishna V, Provencio I, et al. Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin. Nature. 2005;433:745-9 pubmed
    b>Melanopsin has been proposed to be the photopigment of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs); these photoreceptors of the mammalian eye drive circadian and pupillary adjustments through direct projections to the ..
  3. Hattar S, Liao H, Takao M, Berson D, Yau K. Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity. Science. 2002;295:1065-70 pubmed
    ..The visual pigment for this photoreceptor may be melanopsin, an opsin-like protein whose coding messenger RNA is found in a subset of mammalian RGCs...
  4. Cahill H, Nathans J. The optokinetic reflex as a tool for quantitative analyses of nervous system function in mice: application to genetic and drug-induced variation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2055 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments show that the mouse OKR is well suited for neurologic testing in the context of drug discovery and large-scale phenotyping programs. ..
  5. Panda S, Sato T, Castrucci A, Rollag M, DeGrip W, Hogenesch J, et al. Melanopsin (Opn4) requirement for normal light-induced circadian phase shifting. Science. 2002;298:2213-6 pubmed
    ..b>Melanopsin (Opn4), an opsin-based photopigment, is a primary candidate for photoreceptor-mediated entrainment...
  6. Semo M, Peirson S, Lupi D, Lucas R, Jeffery G, Foster R. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells and the maintenance of circadian and pupillary responses to light in aged rodless/coneless (rd/rd cl) mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1793-801 pubmed
    b>Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells have been proposed as the photoreceptors mediating non-rod, non-cone ocular responses to light...
  7. Mrosovsky N, Hattar S. Impaired masking responses to light in melanopsin-knockout mice. Chronobiol Int. 2003;20:989-99 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of the newly discovered opsin-like protein melanopsin in masking, we used 1 h and 3 h pulses of light given in the night, and also a 3.5:3.5 h light-dark (LD) cycle...
  8. Fu Y, Zhong H, Wang M, Luo D, Liao H, Maeda H, et al. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells detect light with a vitamin A-based photopigment, melanopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10339-44 pubmed
    ..This photosensitivity requires melanopsin, an invertebrate opsin-like protein expressed by the ipRGCs. The precise role of melanopsin remains uncertain...
  9. Lucas R, Hattar S, Takao M, Berson D, Foster R, Yau K. Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice. Science. 2003;299:245-7 pubmed
    ..a small subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive, express the opsin-like protein melanopsin, and project to brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and ..
  10. Giesbers M, Shirzad Wasei N, Bosman G, de Grip W. Functional expression, targeting and Ca2+ signaling of a mouse melanopsin-eYFP fusion protein in a retinal pigment epithelium cell line. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:990-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin, first discovered in Xenopus melanophores, is now established as a functional sensory photopigment of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells...
  11. Provencio I, Rodriguez I, Jiang G, Hayes W, Moreira E, Rollag M. A novel human opsin in the inner retina. J Neurosci. 2000;20:600-5 pubmed
    Here we report the identification of a novel human opsin, melanopsin, that is expressed in cells of the mammalian inner retina. The human melanopsin gene consists of 10 exons and is mapped to chromosome 10q22...
  12. Legates T, Altimus C, Wang H, Lee H, Yang S, Zhao H, et al. Aberrant light directly impairs mood and learning through melanopsin-expressing neurons. Nature. 2012;491:594-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the ability of light to influence cognitive and mood functions directly through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. ..
  13. Dkhissi Benyahya O, Gronfier C, De Vanssay W, Flamant F, Cooper H. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light. Neuron. 2007;53:677-87 pubmed
    ..responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light-sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors...
  14. Tarttelin E, Bellingham J, Bibb L, Foster R, Hankins M, Gregory Evans K, et al. Expression of opsin genes early in ocular development of humans and mice. Exp Eye Res. 2003;76:393-6 pubmed
    ..Mouse Rgr-opsin, peropsin, encephalopsin and melanopsin are all expressed in foetal development by E11...
  15. Sekaran S, Lupi D, Jones S, Sheely C, Hattar S, Yau K, et al. Melanopsin-dependent photoreception provides earliest light detection in the mammalian retina. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1099-107 pubmed
    ..also involves intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which express the photopigment melanopsin. In the mouse retina, the rod and cone photoreceptors become light responsive from postnatal day 10 (P10); ..
  16. Panda S, Nayak S, Campo B, Walker J, Hogenesch J, Jegla T. Illumination of the melanopsin signaling pathway. Science. 2005;307:600-4 pubmed
    ..These ipRGCs also express melanopsin (Opn4), a putative opsin-family photopigment that has been shown to play a role in mediating these nonvisual ..
  17. Lupi D, Oster H, Thompson S, Foster R. The acute light-induction of sleep is mediated by OPN4-based photoreception. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1068-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the direct photic regulation of sleep in mice is predominantly mediated by melanopsin (OPN4)-based photoreception of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs)...
  18. Cameron M, Pozdeyev N, Vugler A, Cooper H, Iuvone P, Lucas R. Light regulation of retinal dopamine that is independent of melanopsin phototransduction. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:761-7 pubmed publisher
    Light-dependent release of dopamine (DA) in the retina is an important component of light-adaptation mechanisms. Melanopsin-containing inner retinal photoreceptors have been shown to make physical contacts with DA amacrine cells, and have ..
  19. Hughes S, Pothecary C, Jagannath A, Foster R, Hankins M, Peirson S. Profound defects in pupillary responses to light in TRPM-channel null mice: a role for TRPM channels in non-image-forming photoreception. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..in the pupillary response that is far in excess of that observed in mice lacking rods and cones (rd/rd cl) or melanopsin, and cannot be explained by defects in bipolar cell function alone...
  20. Barnard A, Hattar S, Hankins M, Lucas R. Melanopsin regulates visual processing in the mouse retina. Curr Biol. 2006;16:389-95 pubmed
    The discovery of melanopsin-dependent inner retinal photoreceptors in mammals has precipitated a fundamental reassessment of such non-image forming (NIF) light responses as circadian photoentrainment and the pupil light reflex...
  21. Johnson J, Wu V, Donovan M, Majumdar S, RENTERIA R, Porco T, et al. Melanopsin-dependent light avoidance in neonatal mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17374-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) form a light-sensitive system separate from rods and cones...
  22. Do M, Kang S, Xue T, Zhong H, Liao H, Bergles D, et al. Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. Nature. 2009;457:281-7 pubmed publisher
    A subset of retinal ganglion cells has recently been discovered to be intrinsically photosensitive, with melanopsin as the pigment...
  23. Xue T, Do M, Riccio A, Jiang Z, Hsieh J, Wang H, et al. Melanopsin signalling in mammalian iris and retina. Nature. 2011;479:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse, this intrinsic PLR requires the visual pigment melanopsin; it also requires PLC?4, a vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila NorpA phospholipase C which mediates ..
  24. Schmidt T, Kofuji P. Differential cone pathway influence on intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell subtypes. J Neurosci. 2010;30:16262-71 pubmed publisher
    A small subset of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina express the photopigment melanopsin and are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs)...
  25. Baver S, Pickard G, Sollars P, Pickard G. Two types of melanopsin retinal ganglion cell differentially innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and the olivary pretectal nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1763-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), providing irradiance information for entrainment of ..
  26. McNeill D, Sheely C, Ecker J, Badea T, Morhardt D, Guido W, et al. Development of melanopsin-based irradiance detecting circuitry. Neural Dev. 2011;6:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 2% of RGCs are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs), express melanopsin and are necessary for light to modulate specific physiological processes in mice...
  27. Brown T, Tsujimura S, Allen A, Wynne J, Bedford R, Vickery G, et al. Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..to a small number of intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), expressing the photopigment melanopsin. ipRGCs are known to support various accessory visual functions including circadian photoentrainment and ..
  28. Hattar S, Lucas R, Mrosovsky N, Thompson S, Douglas R, Hankins M, et al. Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice. Nature. 2003;424:76-81 pubmed
    In the mammalian retina, besides the conventional rod-cone system, a melanopsin-associated photoreceptive system exists that conveys photic information for accessory visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photo-..
  29. Wong K. A retinal ganglion cell that can signal irradiance continuously for 10 hours. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) generate endogenous, melanopsin-based photoresponses as well as extrinsic, rod/cone-driven responses...
  30. Delwig A, Majumdar S, Ahern K, Lavail M, Edwards R, Hnasko T, et al. Glutamatergic neurotransmission from melanopsin retinal ganglion cells is required for neonatal photoaversion but not adult pupillary light reflex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83974 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) in the eye play an important role in many light-activated non-image-forming functions including neonatal photoaversion and the adult pupillary light reflex (PLR)...
  31. Pires S, Hughes S, Turton M, Melyan Z, Peirson S, Zheng L, et al. Differential expression of two distinct functional isoforms of melanopsin (Opn4) in the mammalian retina. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12332-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin is the photopigment that confers photosensitivity to a subset of retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that regulate many non-image-forming tasks such as the detection of light for circadian entrainment...
  32. Lin B, Koizumi A, Tanaka N, Panda S, Masland R. Restoration of visual function in retinal degeneration mice by ectopic expression of melanopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16009-14 pubmed publisher
    ..we used a viral vector to express in a large number of retinal ganglion cells the light sensitive protein melanopsin, normally present in only a specialized subset of the cells...
  33. Tu D, Zhang D, Demas J, Slutsky E, Provencio I, Holy T, et al. Physiologic diversity and development of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Neuron. 2005;48:987-99 pubmed
    ..We find that all ipRGC photosensitivity is melanopsin dependent...
  34. Brown T, Gias C, Hatori M, Keding S, Semo M, Coffey P, et al. Melanopsin contributions to irradiance coding in the thalamo-cortical visual system. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000558 pubmed publisher
    ..not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a subset of retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs)...
  35. Walker M, Brown R, Cronin T, Robinson P. Photochemistry of retinal chromophore in mouse melanopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8861-5 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, melanopsin is exclusively expressed in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which play an important role in circadian photoentrainment and other nonimage-forming functions...
  36. Panda S, Provencio I, Tu D, Pires S, Rollag M, Castrucci A, et al. Melanopsin is required for non-image-forming photic responses in blind mice. Science. 2003;301:525-7 pubmed
    ..These cells express melanopsin, a photopigment that confers this photosensitivity...
  37. Guler A, Ecker J, Lall G, Haq S, Altimus C, Liao H, et al. Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod-cone input to non-image-forming vision. Nature. 2008;453:102-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, NIF functions are mediated by rods, cones and the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs)...
  38. Ecker J, Dumitrescu O, Wong K, Alam N, Chen S, LeGates T, et al. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision. Neuron. 2010;67:49-60 pubmed publisher
    Using the photopigment melanopsin, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light to drive circadian clock resetting and pupillary constriction...
  39. Peirson S, Bovee Geurts P, Lupi D, Jeffery G, DeGrip W, Foster R. Expression of the candidate circadian photopigment melanopsin (Opn4) in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;123:132-5 pubmed
    ..The photopigment gene(s) that mediate these effects of irradiance remain unidentified, although melanopsin (Opn4) has emerged as a strong candidate...
  40. Blasic J, Brown R, Robinson P. Phosphorylation of mouse melanopsin by protein kinase A. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45387 pubmed publisher
    The visual pigment melanopsin is expressed in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in the mammalian retina, where it is involved in non-image forming light responses including circadian photoentrainment, pupil ..
  41. Schmidt T, Taniguchi K, Kofuji P. Intrinsic and extrinsic light responses in melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells during mouse development. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:371-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin (Opn4) is a photopigment found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that project to various brain areas...
  42. Chen S, Badea T, Hattar S. Photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex are mediated by distinct populations of ipRGCs. Nature. 2011;476:92-5 pubmed publisher
    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and regulate a wide array of light-dependent physiological processes...
  43. Doyle S, Castrucci A, McCall M, Provencio I, Menaker M. Nonvisual light responses in the Rpe65 knockout mouse: rod loss restores sensitivity to the melanopsin system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10432-10437 pubmed publisher
    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4), together with rods and cones, provide light information driving nonvisual light responses...
  44. Blasic J, Lane Brown R, Robinson P. Light-dependent phosphorylation of the carboxy tail of mouse melanopsin. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1551-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin-based phototransduction is involved in non-image forming light responses including circadian entrainment, pupil constriction, suppression of pineal melatonin synthesis, and direct photic regulation of sleep in vertebrates...
  45. Zhu Y, Tu D, Denner D, Shane T, Fitzgerald C, Van Gelder R. Melanopsin-dependent persistence and photopotentiation of murine pupillary light responses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1268-75 pubmed
    ..Wild-type, retinal degenerate (rd/rd), and melanopsin mutant (opn4(-/-)) mice were tested for pupillary light responsiveness by video pupillometry before, during, and ..
  46. Altimus C, Guler A, Alam N, Arman A, Prusky G, Sampath A, et al. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, rods use two distinct retinal circuits to drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. ..
  47. Lupi D, Sekaran S, Jones S, Hankins M, Foster R. Light-evoked FOS induction within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of melanopsin knockout (Opn4-/-) mice: a developmental study. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:167-79 pubmed
    ..FOS induction within the murine SCN at P4? (3) How does light-evoked FOS induction within the SCN of melanopsin knockout (Opn4-/-) mice differ at P4 and P14? Our approaches took advantage of the published descriptions of ..
  48. Altimus C, Güler A, Villa K, McNeill D, Legates T, Hattar S. Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19998-20003 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) convey rod-cone and melanopsin-driven light input to the brain...
  49. Jagannath A, Butler R, Godinho S, Couch Y, Brown L, Vasudevan S, et al. The CRTC1-SIK1 pathway regulates entrainment of the circadian clock. Cell. 2013;154:1100-1111 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus SIK1 provides negative feedback, acting to suppress the effects of light on the clock. This pathway provides a potential target for the regulation of circadian rhythms. ..
  50. Allen A, Brown T, Lucas R. A distinct contribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones to light-evoked activity in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16833-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) combine inputs from outer-retinal rod/cone photoreceptors with their intrinsic phototransduction machinery to drive a wide range of so-called non-image-..
  51. Hughes S, Welsh L, Katti C, González Menéndez I, Turton M, Halford S, et al. Differential expression of melanopsin isoforms Opn4L and Opn4S during postnatal development of the mouse retina. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34531 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously identified two distinct isoforms of mouse melanopsin, Opn4L and Opn4S, which are generated by alternate splicing of the Opn4 locus...
  52. Semo M, Gias C, Ahmado A, Sugano E, Allen A, Lawrence J, et al. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15009 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance...
  53. Semo M, Gias C, Ahmado A, Vugler A. A role for the ciliary marginal zone in the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic pupillary light reflex. Exp Eye Res. 2014;119:8-18 pubmed publisher
    ..traditionally been thought to involve a reflex between retina, brain and iris, with recent work identifying the melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) as the major conduits for retinal input ..
  54. Somasundaram P, Wyrick G, Fernandez D, Ghahari A, Pinhal C, Simmonds Richardson M, et al. C-terminal phosphorylation regulates the kinetics of a subset of melanopsin-mediated behaviors in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:2741-2746 pubmed publisher
    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and mediate several non-image-forming visual functions, including circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex (PLR)...