Gene Symbol: Opn1mw
Description: opsin 1 (cone pigments), medium-wave-sensitive (color blindness, deutan)
Alias: Gcp, medium-wave-sensitive opsin 1, MWS opsin, green LWS photopigment, green cone photoreceptor pigment, green long wavelength sensitive cone opsin, green-sensitive opsin, medium wavelength-sensitive cone opsin, midwavelength sensitive opsin
Species: mouse
Products:     Opn1mw

Top Publications

  1. Applebury M, Antoch M, Baxter L, Chun L, Falk J, Farhangfar F, et al. The murine cone photoreceptor: a single cone type expresses both S and M opsins with retinal spatial patterning. Neuron. 2000;27:513-23 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that two different mechanisms control M and S opsin expression. We suggest that a common cone type is patterned across the retinal surface to produce phenotypic cone subtypes. ..
  2. Roberts M, Hendrickson A, McGuire C, Reh T. Retinoid X receptor (gamma) is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2897-904 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for RXRs in regulating cell differentiation in the CNS and highlight a remarkable conservation of opsin regulation from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  3. Yokoyama S, Radlwimmer F. The molecular genetics and evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates. Genetics. 2001;158:1697-710 pubmed
    ..It is most likely that this "five-sites" rule is the molecular basis of spectral tuning in the MWS and LWS pigments during vertebrate evolution. ..
  4. Satoh S, Tang K, Iida A, Inoue M, Kodama T, Tsai S, et al. The spatial patterning of mouse cone opsin expression is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein signaling through downstream effector COUP-TF nuclear receptors. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose a new molecular cascade involving BMP and COUP-TFs that conveys dorsoventral information to direct the expression of cone opsins during retinal development. ..
  5. Fujieda H, Bremner R, Mears A, Sasaki H. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha regulates a subset of cone genes during mouse retinal development. J Neurochem. 2009;108:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the Opn1sw and Opn1mw genes, encoding S-opsin and M-opsin, respectively, is under the control of nuclear receptors, including thyroid ..
  6. Lall G, Revell V, Momiji H, Al Enezi J, Altimus C, Guler A, et al. Distinct contributions of rod, cone, and melanopsin photoreceptors to encoding irradiance. Neuron. 2010;66:417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide new insight into retinal circuitry upstream of mRGCs and optimal stimuli for eliciting irradiance responses. ..
  7. Ng L, Hurley J, Dierks B, Srinivas M, Salto C, Vennstrom B, et al. A thyroid hormone receptor that is required for the development of green cone photoreceptors. Nat Genet. 2001;27:94-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings raise the possibility that Thrb mutations may be associated with human cone disorders. ..
  8. Allen A, Brown T, Lucas R. A distinct contribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones to light-evoked activity in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..responses to short (460 nm) and longer (600/655 nm) wavelengths in mice carrying a red shifted cone population (Opn1mw®) or lacking melanopsin (Opn4⁻/⁻)...
  9. Smallwood P, Olveczky B, Williams G, Jacobs G, Reese B, Meister M, et al. Genetically engineered mice with an additional class of cone photoreceptors: implications for the evolution of color vision. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:11706-11 pubmed

More Information


  1. Jacobs G, Williams G, Cahill H, Nathans J. Emergence of novel color vision in mice engineered to express a human cone photopigment. Science. 2007;315:1723-5 pubmed
    ..An inherent plasticity in the mammalian visual system thus permits the emergence of a new dimension of sensory experience based solely on gene-driven changes in receptor organization. ..
  2. Nikonov S, Kholodenko R, Lem J, Pugh E. Physiological features of the S- and M-cone photoreceptors of wild-type mice from single-cell recordings. J Gen Physiol. 2006;127:359-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, the three types of mouse opsin appear distinctive in the degree to which their bleached, unregenerated opsins generate "dark light." ..
  3. Mao C, Tsai W, Cho J, Pan P, Barton M, Klein W. Neuronal transcriptional repressor REST suppresses an Atoh7-independent program for initiating retinal ganglion cell development. Dev Biol. 2011;349:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an Atoh7-independent program for initial activation of RGC genes and suggest a novel role for REST in preventing premature expression in RPCs. ..
  4. Alfano G, Conte I, Caramico T, Avellino R, Arnò B, Pizzo M, et al. Vax2 regulates retinoic acid distribution and cone opsin expression in the vertebrate eye. Development. 2011;138:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..inactivation led to alterations of the regional expression of the cone photoreceptor genes Opn1sw (S-Opsin) and Opn1mw (M-Opsin), which were significantly rescued after RA administration...
  5. Brzezinski J, Lamba D, Reh T. Blimp1 controls photoreceptor versus bipolar cell fate choice during retinal development. Development. 2010;137:619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Blimp1 regulates the decision between photoreceptor and bipolar cell fates in the Otx2(+) cell population during retinal development. ..
  6. Ahmedli N, Gribanova Y, Njoku C, Naidu A, Young A, Mendoza E, et al. Dynamics of the rhomboid-like protein RHBDD2 expression in mouse retina and involvement of its human ortholog in retinitis pigmentosa. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9742-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the RHBDD2 protein plays important roles in the development and normal function of the retina. ..
  7. Jadhav A, Mason H, Cepko C. Notch 1 inhibits photoreceptor production in the developing mammalian retina. Development. 2006;133:913-23 pubmed
    ..These cone enriched mutant mice should prove to be a valuable resource for the study of this relatively rare mammalian photoreceptor cell type. ..
  8. Keenan W, Rupp A, Ross R, Somasundaram P, Hiriyanna S, Wu Z, et al. A visual circuit uses complementary mechanisms to support transient and sustained pupil constriction. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight a temporal switch in the coding mechanisms of a neural circuit to support proper behavioral dynamics. ..
  9. Zhang Y, Deng W, Du W, Zhu P, Li J, Xu F, et al. Gene-based Therapy in a Mouse Model of Blue Cone Monochromacy. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6690 pubmed publisher
    ..monochromacy (BCM) is characterized by functional loss of both L- and M-cone opsins due to mutations in the OPN1LW/OPN1MW gene cluster on the X chromosome...
  10. Tasheva E, Ke A, Deng Y, Jun C, Takemoto L, Koester A, et al. Differentially expressed genes in the lens of mimecan-null mice. Mol Vis. 2004;10:403-16 pubmed
    ..Our results provide insight into the function of mimecan in the lens and enable further characterization of molecular mechanisms by which this protein exerts its biological roles. ..
  11. Mao W, Miyagishima K, Yao Y, Soreghan B, Sampath A, Chen J. Functional comparison of rod and cone G?(t) on the regulation of light sensitivity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reduced sensitivity in cones cannot be explained by reduced coupling efficiency between the GPCR and G protein or a lower concentration of G protein in cones versus rods. ..
  12. Greenwald S, Kuchenbecker J, Roberson D, Neitz M, Neitz J. S-opsin knockout mice with the endogenous M-opsin gene replaced by an L-opsin variant. Vis Neurosci. 2014;31:25-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the creation and validation of two lines of genetically engineered mice that can be used to study disease-causing variants of human L/M-opsins, in vivo, are described. ..
  13. de Melo J, Peng G, Chen S, Blackshaw S. The Spalt family transcription factor Sall3 regulates the development of cone photoreceptors and retinal horizontal interneurons. Development. 2011;138:2325-36 pubmed publisher
  14. Nguyen O, Böhm S, Gießl A, Butz E, Wolfrum U, Brandstätter J, et al. Peripherin-2 differentially interacts with cone opsins in outer segments of cone photoreceptors. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:2367-2377 pubmed
    ..Finally, our results provide a proof-of-principle for quantitative FRET measurements of protein-protein interactions in cone OS. ..
  15. Hong D, Pawlyk B, Shang J, Sandberg M, Berson E, Li T. A retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)-deficient mouse model for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3649-54 pubmed
    ..The function of RPGR is essential for the long-term maintenance of photoreceptor viability. ..
  16. Yamashita T, Nakamura S, Tsutsui K, Morizumi T, Shichida Y. Chloride-dependent spectral tuning mechanism of L-group cone visual pigments. Biochemistry. 2013;52:1192-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we concluded that these three amino acid residues are the main determinants of the chloride-dependent spectral shift in L-group pigments. ..
  17. Karunakaran D, Congdon S, Guerrette T, Banday A, Lemoine C, Chhaya N, et al. The expression analysis of Sfrs10 and Celf4 during mouse retinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, our data suggests an important role for AS and mRNA localization/translation in retinal neuron differentiation. ..
  18. Alves C, Sanz A, Park B, Pellissier L, Tanimoto N, Beck S, et al. Loss of CRB2 in the mouse retina mimics human retinitis pigmentosa due to mutations in the CRB1 gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:35-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest an essential role for CRB2 in proper lamination of the photoreceptor layer and suppression of proliferation of late-born retinal progenitor cells...
  19. Brown T, Tsujimura S, Allen A, Wynne J, Bedford R, Vickery G, et al. Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data represent the first direct evidence that an aspect of visual discrimination in normally sighted subjects can be supported by inner retinal photoreceptors. ..
  20. Fu Y, Liu H, Ng L, Kim J, Hao H, Swaroop A, et al. Feedback induction of a photoreceptor-specific isoform of retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β by the rod transcription factor NRL. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, NRL activated the RORβ2-specific promoter of Rorb, indicating that NRL activates Rorb, its own inducer gene. We suggest that feedback activation between Nrl and Rorb genes reinforces the commitment to rod differentiation. ..
  21. David Gray Z, Cooper H, Janssen J, Nevo E, Foster R. Spectral tuning of a circadian photopigment in a subterranean 'blind' mammal (Spalax ehrenbergi). FEBS Lett. 1999;461:343-7 pubmed
  22. Liu H, Etter P, Hayes S, Jones I, Nelson B, Hartman B, et al. NeuroD1 regulates expression of thyroid hormone receptor 2 and cone opsins in the developing mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2008;28:749-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results thus connect the proneural pathway with opsin selection to ensure correct cone patterning during retinal development. ..
  23. Omori Y, Chaya T, Katoh K, Kajimura N, Sato S, Muraoka K, et al. Negative regulation of ciliary length by ciliary male germ cell-associated kinase (Mak) is required for retinal photoreceptor survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Mak is essential for the regulation of ciliary length and is required for the long-term survival of photoreceptors. ..
  24. Yanagi Y, Takezawa S, Kato S. Distinct functions of photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor, thyroid hormone receptor beta2 and CRX in one photoreceptor development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:3489-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results partly disclosed the molecular mechanism of cone photoreceptor development, highlighting the distinct functions of PNR and TRbeta2. ..
  25. Applebury M, Farhangfar F, Glösmann M, Hashimoto K, Kage K, Robbins J, et al. Transient expression of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor TRbeta2 sets S opsin patterning during cone photoreceptor genesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1203-12 pubmed
    ..The transient, embryonic action of TR beta 2 is consistent with a role (direct and/or indirect) in chromatin remodeling that leads to permanent gene silencing in terminally differentiated, dorsal cone photoreceptors. ..
  26. Ng L, Lu A, Swaroop A, Sharlin D, Swaroop A, Forrest D. Two transcription factors can direct three photoreceptor outcomes from rod precursor cells in mouse retinal development. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11118-25 pubmed publisher
  27. Prasov L, Glaser T. Pushing the envelope of retinal ganglion cell genesis: context dependent function of Math5 (Atoh7). Dev Biol. 2012;368:214-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that Math5 is not sufficient to stimulate RGC fate. Our findings highlight the robust homeostatic mechanisms, and role of pioneering neurons in RGC development. ..
  28. Storchi R, Bedford R, Martial F, Allen A, Wynne J, Montemurro M, et al. Modulation of Fast Narrowband Oscillations in the Mouse Retina and dLGN According to Background Light Intensity. Neuron. 2017;93:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..At bright backgrounds, narrowband coherence allows pooling of single-unit responses to become a viable strategy for enhancing visual signals within its frequency range. ..
  29. Nash Z, Naash M. Light/dark translocation of alphatransducin in mouse photoreceptor cells expressing G90D mutant opsin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;572:125-31 pubmed
  30. Cheng H, Aleman T, Cideciyan A, Khanna R, Jacobson S, Swaroop A. In vivo function of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 in establishing photoreceptor identity during mammalian retinal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2588-602 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal a critical role of NR2E3 in establishing functional specificity of NRL-expressing photoreceptor precursors during retinal neurogenesis. ..
  31. Sun X, Haley J, Bulgakov O, Cai X, McGinnis J, Li T. Tubby is required for trafficking G protein-coupled receptors to neuronal cilia. Cilia. 2012;1:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus tubby-like proteins may be generally involved in transciliary trafficking of GPCRs. ..
  32. Srinivas M, Ng L, Liu H, Jia L, Forrest D. Activation of the blue opsin gene in cone photoreceptor development by retinoid-related orphan receptor beta. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1728-41 pubmed
    ..The results identify Opn1sw as a target gene for RORbeta and suggest a key role for RORbeta in regulating opsin expression in the color visual system. ..
  33. Olivares A, Han Y, Soto D, Flattery K, Marini J, Mollema N, et al. The nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr2c1 (Tr2) is a critical regulator of early retina cell patterning. Dev Biol. 2017;429:343-355 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports a role for Nr2c1 in defining the biphasic period of retinal development and specifically influencing the early phase of retinal cell fate. ..
  34. Zhao Y, Hong D, Pawlyk B, Yue G, Adamian M, Grynberg M, et al. The retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)- interacting protein: subserving RPGR function and participating in disk morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3965-70 pubmed
    ..A defect in RPGRIP encompasses loss of both functions, hence the more severe clinical manifestation as LCA. ..
  35. Saghizadeh M, Gribanova Y, Akhmedov N, Farber D. ZBED4, a cone and Müller cell protein in human retina, has a different cellular expression in mouse. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2011-8 pubmed
    ..The patterns of spatial and temporal expression of Zbed4 in the mouse retina suggest a possible involvement of this protein in retinal morphogenesis and Müller cell function. ..
  36. Ekesten B, Gouras P, Hargitai J. Co-expression of murine opsins facilitates identifying the site of cone adaptation. Vis Neurosci. 2002;19:389-93 pubmed
    ..It also reveals the time course of a transient desensitization of cones due to post-opsin factors in the transduction cascade. ..
  37. Storchi R, Milosavljevic N, Eleftheriou C, Martial F, Orlowska Feuer P, Bedford R, et al. Melanopsin-driven increases in maintained activity enhance thalamic visual response reliability across a simulated dawn. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E5734-43 pubmed publisher
  38. Lu A, Ng L, Ma M, Kefas B, Davies T, Hernandez A, et al. Retarded developmental expression and patterning of retinal cone opsins in hypothyroid mice. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1536-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotype is similar to, although milder than, that caused by loss of TRbeta2 and indicates the necessity for thyroid hormone for cone maturation. ..
  39. Katti C, Dalal J, Dose A, Burnside B, Battelle B. Cloning and distribution of myosin 3B in the mouse retina: differential distribution in cone outer segments. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:224-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Myo3B may have diverse roles in retinal neurons. In photoreceptor inner segments Myo3B is positioned appropriately to prevent photoreceptor loss of function caused by Myo3A defects. ..
  40. Mori M, Metzger D, Picaud S, Hindelang C, Simonutti M, Sahel J, et al. Retinal dystrophy resulting from ablation of RXR alpha in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:701-10 pubmed
  41. Brown T, Wynne J, Piggins H, Lucas R. Multiple hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct visual information. J Physiol. 2011;589:1173-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings reveal unexpectedly widespread hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct qualities of visual information. ..
  42. Sun H, Macke J, Nathans J. Mechanisms of spectral tuning in the mouse green cone pigment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8860-5 pubmed
  43. Aavani T, Tachibana N, Wallace V, Biernaskie J, Schuurmans C. Temporal profiling of photoreceptor lineage gene expression during murine retinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2017;23-24:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5 in the developing outer nuclear layer, while transcripts for the cone opsins Opn1mw and Opn1sw and Recoverin protein were detected in photoreceptors by P0...
  44. Tikidji Hamburyan A, Reinhard K, Storchi R, Dietter J, Seitter H, Davis K, et al. Rods progressively escape saturation to drive visual responses in daylight conditions. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1813 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, bleaching adaptation renders mouse rods responsive to modest contrast at any irradiance. Paradoxically, raising irradiance across the photopic range increases the robustness of rod responses. ..
  45. Smiley S, Nickerson P, Comanita L, Daftarian N, El Sehemy A, Tsai E, et al. Establishment of a cone photoreceptor transplantation platform based on a novel cone-GFP reporter mouse line. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22867 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the amenability of the adult retina to cone transplantation using a novel transgenic resource that can advance therapeutic cone transplantation in models of age-related macular degeneration. ..
  46. Iwagawa T, Tanaka Y, Iida A, Itoh T, Watanabe S. Enhancer/promoter activities of the long/middle wavelength-sensitive opsins of vertebrates mediated by thyroid hormone receptor ?2 and COUP-TFII. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72065 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, immunostaining of common marmoset retinal sections revealed expression of COUP-TFII and red opsin in the cone cells. ..
  47. Keady B, Le Y, Pazour G. IFT20 is required for opsin trafficking and photoreceptor outer segment development. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Since IFT20 dynamically moves between the Golgi complex and the connecting cilium, the current work suggests that rhodopsin and opsins are cargo for IFT transport. ..
  48. Bibb L, Holt J, Tarttelin E, Hodges M, Gregory Evans K, Rutherford A, et al. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of the CRX transcription factor and its downstream targets. Critical differences during human and mouse eye development. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:1571-9 pubmed
    ..These data support concerns about the extent to which we can extrapolate from rodent models regarding embryonic development and disease pathophysiology. ..
  49. Ng L, Lyubarsky A, Nikonov S, Ma M, Srinivas M, Kefas B, et al. Type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid-hormone-inactivating enzyme, controls survival and maturation of cone photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that type 3 deiodinase limits hormonal exposure of the cone to levels that safeguard both cone survival and the patterning of opsins that is required for cone function. ..