Gene Symbol: Ntrk3
Description: neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3
Alias: AW125844, Ntrk3_tv3, TrkC, NT-3 growth factor receptor, GP145-TrkC, neurotrophin-3, trk-C, trkC tyrosine kinase
Species: mouse
Products:     Ntrk3

Top Publications

  1. Zhong J, Li X, McNamee C, Chen A, Baccarini M, Snider W. Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:598-607 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Raf function is crucial for several aspects of DRG neuron development, including differentiation and axon growth. ..
  2. Cronk K, Wilkinson G, Grimes R, Wheeler E, Jhaveri S, Fundin B, et al. Diverse dependencies of developing Merkel innervation on the trkA and both full-length and truncated isoforms of trkC. Development. 2002;129:3739-50 pubmed
    ..at least one kinase-lacking trkC isoform is transiently expressed on all the follicle cells, while neurotrophin 3 is transiently expressed only in the cells at the middle third of the follicle where the Merkel endings and ..
  3. Farinas I, Jones K, Tessarollo L, Vigers A, Huang E, Kirstein M, et al. Spatial shaping of cochlear innervation by temporally regulated neurotrophin expression. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6170-80 pubmed
    Previous work suggested qualitatively different effects of neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) in cochlear innervation patterning in different null mutants...
  4. Kim W, Fritzsch B, Serls A, Bakel L, Huang E, Reichardt L, et al. NeuroD-null mice are deaf due to a severe loss of the inner ear sensory neurons during development. Development. 2001;128:417-26 pubmed
    ..The affected inner ear sensory neurons fail to express neurotrophin receptors, TrkB and TrkC, suggesting that the ability of NeuroD to support neuronal survival may be directly mediated through regulation of ..
  5. Huang E, Zang K, Schmidt A, Saulys A, Xiang M, Reichardt L. POU domain factor Brn-3a controls the differentiation and survival of trigeminal neurons by regulating Trk receptor expression. Development. 1999;126:2869-82 pubmed
    ..In this ganglion, neurons expressing the neurotrophin receptors, TrkB and TrkC, are born between E9.5 and E11.5...
  6. Fritzsch B, Barbacid M, Silos Santiago I. The combined effects of trkB and trkC mutations on the innervation of the inner ear. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1998;16:493-505 pubmed
    ..In the vestibular system, trkC+/- heterozygosity aggravates the trkB-/- mutation effect and causes almost complete loss of vestibular neurons...
  7. Schimmang T, Minichiello L, Vazquez E, San Jose I, Giraldez F, Klein R, et al. Developing inner ear sensory neurons require TrkB and TrkC receptors for innervation of their peripheral targets. Development. 1995;121:3381-91 pubmed
    The trkB and trkC genes are expressed during the formation of the vestibular and auditory system...
  8. Kramer I, Sigrist M, de Nooij J, Taniuchi I, Jessell T, Arber S. A role for Runx transcription factor signaling in dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron diversification. Neuron. 2006;49:379-93 pubmed
    ..promoting the differentiation of proprioceptive sensory neurons through erosion of TrkB expression in prospective TrkC+ sensory neurons...
  9. Von Bohlen Und Halbach O, Minichiello L, Unsicker K. Haploinsufficiency for trkB and trkC receptors induces cell loss and accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra. FASEB J. 2005;19:1740-2 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with their expression and that of their cognate receptors, trkB and trkC, in the nigrostriatal system...

More Information


  1. Hossain W, D Sa C, Morest D. Interactive roles of fibroblast growth factor 2 and neurotrophin 3 in the sequence of migration, process outgrowth, and axonal differentiation of mouse cochlear ganglion cells. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:2376-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We used immunohistochemistry to locate neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and its high-affinity receptor (TrkC) in the auditory system, along with FGF2 and its R1 receptor, at ..
  2. Hippenmeyer S, Shneider N, Birchmeier C, Burden S, Jessell T, Arber S. A role for neuregulin1 signaling in muscle spindle differentiation. Neuron. 2002;36:1035-49 pubmed
  3. Senzaki K, Ozaki S, Yoshikawa M, Ito Y, Shiga T. Runx3 is required for the specification of TrkC-expressing mechanoreceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..In Runx3-deficient (Runx3(-/-)) mice, TrkB-expressing TG neurons were increased, whereas TrkC-expressing TG neurons were decreased during TG neuron development...
  4. Huang E, Liu W, Fritzsch B, Bianchi L, Reichardt L, Xiang M. Brn3a is a transcriptional regulator of soma size, target field innervation and axon pathfinding of inner ear sensory neurons. Development. 2001;128:2421-32 pubmed
    ..abnormal neuronal migration and downregulation of gene expression, including that of the neurotrophin receptor TrkC, parvalbumin and Brn3b...
  5. Eng S, Gratwick K, Rhee J, Fedtsova N, Gan L, Turner E. Defects in sensory axon growth precede neuronal death in Brn3a-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:541-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show, however, that sensory neurons are able to express neuropilin-1 in the absence of Brn3a. ..
  6. Gascon E, Gaillard S, Malapert P, Liu Y, Rodat Despoix L, Samokhvalov I, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor-Met signaling is required for Runx1 extinction and peptidergic differentiation in primary nociceptive neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our novel findings support a model in which peptidergic versus nonpeptidergic specification depends on a balance between HGF-Met signaling and Runx1 extinction/maintenance. ..
  7. Abdo H, Li L, Lallemend F, Bachy I, Xu X, Rice F, et al. Dependence on the transcription factor Shox2 for specification of sensory neurons conveying discriminative touch. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1529-41 pubmed publisher
    ..is necessary for TrkB expression, and that these interactions are necessary for diversification of TrkB(+) and TrkC(+) mechanoreceptive neurons...
  8. George L, Chaverra M, Wolfe L, Thorne J, Close Davis M, Eibs A, et al. Familial dysautonomia model reveals Ikbkap deletion causes apoptosis of Pax3+ progenitors and peripheral neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:18698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..By the end of sensory development, the number of TrkC neurons is significantly increased, which may result from an increase in Runx3(+) cells...
  9. Tessarollo L, Vogel K, Palko M, Reid S, Parada L. Targeted mutation in the neurotrophin-3 gene results in loss of muscle sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11844-8 pubmed
    b>Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is one of four related polypeptide growth factors that share structural and functional homology to nerve growth factor (NGF)...
  10. Postigo A, Calella A, Fritzsch B, Knipper M, Katz D, Eilers A, et al. Distinct requirements for TrkB and TrkC signaling in target innervation by sensory neurons. Genes Dev. 2002;16:633-45 pubmed
    Signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via the TrkB receptor, or by neurotrophin-3 (NT3) through the TrkC receptor support distinct populations of sensory neurons...
  11. Lamballe F, Smeyne R, Barbacid M. Developmental expression of trkC, the neurotrophin-3 receptor, in the mammalian nervous system. J Neurosci. 1994;14:14-28 pubmed
    The mammalian trkC gene encodes a tyrosine protein kinase that serves as a functional receptor for neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Here, we report that trkC is widely expressed in the developing and adult nervous system...
  12. Luo W, Enomoto H, Rice F, Milbrandt J, Ginty D. Molecular identification of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors and their developmental dependence on ret signaling. Neuron. 2009;64:841-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the early Ret(+) neurons are RA mechanoreceptors and Ret signaling is required for the assembly of neural circuits underlying touch perception. ..
  13. Nikoletopoulou V, Lickert H, Frade J, Rencurel C, Giallonardo P, Zhang L, et al. Neurotrophin receptors TrkA and TrkC cause neuronal death whereas TrkB does not. Nature. 2010;467:59-63 pubmed publisher
    ..here that the neurotrophin receptors TrkA and TrkC (tropomyosin receptor kinase A and C, also known as Ntrk1 and Ntrk3, respectively) instruct developing neurons to die, both in vitro and in vivo...
  14. Molliver D, Wright D, Leitner M, Parsadanian A, Doster K, Wen D, et al. IB4-binding DRG neurons switch from NGF to GDNF dependence in early postnatal life. Neuron. 1997;19:849-61 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that IB4-binding neurons switch from dependence on NGF in embryonic life to dependence on GDNF in postnatal life and are likely regulated by GDNF in maturity. ..
  15. Dykes I, Tempest L, Lee S, Turner E. Brn3a and Islet1 act epistatically to regulate the gene expression program of sensory differentiation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9789-99 pubmed publisher
  16. Funfschilling U, Ng Y, Zang K, Miyazaki J, Reichardt L, Rice F. TrkC kinase expression in distinct subsets of cutaneous trigeminal innervation and nonneuronal cells. J Comp Neurol. 2004;480:392-414 pubmed
    ..To permanently mark cells that ever express TrkC-kinase, mice with lacZ and GFP reporters of Cre recombinase activity were crossed with mice having IRES-cre ..
  17. Klein R, Silos Santiago I, Smeyne R, Lira S, Brambilla R, Bryant S, et al. Disruption of the neurotrophin-3 receptor gene trkC eliminates la muscle afferents and results in abnormal movements. Nature. 1994;368:249-51 pubmed
    The trkC gene is expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system and encodes a series of tyrosine protein kinase isoforms that serve as receptors for neurotrophin-3 (NT3), a member of the nerve growth factor (NGF) family of neurotrophic ..
  18. Arber S, Ladle D, Lin J, Frank E, Jessell T. ETS gene Er81 controls the formation of functional connections between group Ia sensory afferents and motor neurons. Cell. 2000;101:485-98 pubmed
    ..ER81 therefore controls a late step in the establishment of functional sensory-motor circuitry in the developing spinal cord. ..
  19. Ringstedt T, Kucera J, Lendahl U, Ernfors P, Ibanez C. Limb proprioceptive deficits without neuronal loss in transgenic mice overexpressing neurotrophin-3 in the developing nervous system. Development. 1997;124:2603-13 pubmed
    ..a normal proportion of neurons expressing substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and the NT3 receptor trkC. Transgenic dorsal roots exhibited an increased number of axons at birth, indicating that all sensory neurons in ..
  20. Minichiello L, Klein R. TrkB and TrkC neurotrophin receptors cooperate in promoting survival of hippocampal and cerebellar granule neurons. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2849-58 pubmed
    ..However, in double mutant mice, we now show that reducing the expression of both TrkB and TrkC causes massive cell death of postnatal hippocampal and cerebellar granule neurons...
  21. Rice F, Albers K, Davis B, Silos Santiago I, Wilkinson G, LeMaster A, et al. Differential dependency of unmyelinated and A delta epidermal and upper dermal innervation on neurotrophins, trk receptors, and p75LNGFR. Dev Biol. 1998;198:57-81 pubmed
    ..neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), tyrosine kinase (trk) A, trkB, trkC, or p75...
  22. Pinon L, Minichiello L, Klein R, Davies A. Timing of neuronal death in trkA, trkB and trkC mutant embryos reveals developmental changes in sensory neuron dependence on Trk signalling. Development. 1996;122:3255-61 pubmed
    ..of neuronal death in the trigeminal ganglia of embryos that are homozygous for null mutations in the trkA, trkB and trkC genes, which encode receptor tyrosine kinases for NGF, BDNF and NT3, respectively...
  23. Hasegawa H, Wang F. Visualizing mechanosensory endings of TrkC-expressing neurons in HS3ST-2-hPLAP mice. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:543-56 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS3ST-2) is a marker for specific subsets of TrkC-expressing cutaneous low-threshold mechanosensory and proprioceptive mechanosensory neurons...
  24. Maro G, Vermeren M, Voiculescu O, Melton L, Cohen J, Charnay P, et al. Neural crest boundary cap cells constitute a source of neuronal and glial cells of the PNS. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:930-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that BC cells constitute a source of peripheral nervous system (PNS) components that, after the major neural crest ventrolateral migratory stream, feeds a secondary wave of migration to the PNS. ..
  25. Moqrich A, Earley T, Watson J, Andahazy M, Backus C, Martin Zanca D, et al. Expressing TrkC from the TrkA locus causes a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons to switch fate. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:812-8 pubmed
    ..classes of these sensory neurons: TrkA is expressed in neurons that sense temperature and noxious stimuli, and TrkC is expressed in proprioceptive neurons that sense body position...
  26. Tourtellotte W, Milbrandt J. Sensory ataxia and muscle spindle agenesis in mice lacking the transcription factor Egr3. Nat Genet. 1998;20:87-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that type I myotubes are dependent upon Egr3-mediated transcription for proper spindle development. ..
  27. Levanon D, Bettoun D, Harris Cerruti C, Woolf E, Negreanu V, Eilam R, et al. The Runx3 transcription factor regulates development and survival of TrkC dorsal root ganglia neurons. EMBO J. 2002;21:3454-63 pubmed
    ..that within the DRGs, Runx3 is specifically expressed in a subset of neurons, the tyrosine kinase receptor C (TrkC) proprioceptive neurons...
  28. Lee J, Friese A, Mielich M, Sigrist M, Arber S. Scaling proprioceptor gene transcription by retrograde NT3 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45551 pubmed publisher
    ..Voluntary running experiments in adult mice further demonstrate the maintenance of transcriptional adjustability of genes expressed by DRG neurons, pointing to life-long gene expression plasticity in sensory neurons. ..
  29. Bourane S, Garces A, Venteo S, Pattyn A, Hubert T, Fichard A, et al. Low-threshold mechanoreceptor subtypes selectively express MafA and are specified by Ret signaling. Neuron. 2009;64:857-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions involving Ret and MafA progressively promote the differentiation and diversification of LTMs. ..
  30. Gatto G, Dudanova I, Suetterlin P, Davies A, Drescher U, Bixby J, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O inhibits trigeminal axon growth and branching by repressing TrkB and Ret signaling. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5399-410 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of Eph receptor-mediated developmental processes by protein tyrosine phosphatases has diverged between chick and mouse. ..
  31. McEvilly R, Erkman L, Luo L, Sawchenko P, Ryan A, Rosenfeld M. Requirement for Brn-3.0 in differentiation and survival of sensory and motor neurons. Nature. 1996;384:574-7 pubmed
    ..Deletion of Brn-3.0 also alters either differentiation, migration or survival of specific central neuronal populations. ..
  32. Inoue K, Ito K, Osato M, Lee B, Bae S, Ito Y. The transcription factor Runx3 represses the neurotrophin receptor TrkB during lineage commitment of dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24175-84 pubmed
    ..In contrast, RUNX3 did not play a significant role in TRKC regulation even under the relevant BMP signaling pathway...
  33. Fundin B, Silos Santiago I, Ernfors P, Fagan A, Aldskogius H, DeChiara T, et al. Differential dependency of cutaneous mechanoreceptors on neurotrophins, trk receptors, and P75 LNGFR. Dev Biol. 1997;190:94-116 pubmed
    ..factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), the three tyrosine kinase receptors (trkA, trkB, trkC), and the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75...
  34. Liebl D, Tessarollo L, Palko M, Parada L. Absence of sensory neurons before target innervation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-, neurotrophin 3-, and TrkC-deficient embryonic mice. J Neurosci. 1997;17:9113-21 pubmed
    ..We have analyzed embryonic and neonatal mice with mutations in the BDNF, neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), and TrkC genes...
  35. Vrieseling E, Arber S. Target-induced transcriptional control of dendritic patterning and connectivity in motor neurons by the ETS gene Pea3. Cell. 2006;127:1439-52 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that target-induced transcriptional programs control MN dendrite orientation and play a crucial role in the establishment of sensory-motor connections in the spinal cord. ..
  36. Farinas I, Wilkinson G, Backus C, Reichardt L, Patapoutian A. Characterization of neurotrophin and Trk receptor functions in developing sensory ganglia: direct NT-3 activation of TrkB neurons in vivo. Neuron. 1998;21:325-34 pubmed
    ..brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) via TrkB, and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) via TrkC. In the present paper, we use antibodies to TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC to characterize their expression patterns and to ..
  37. Inoue K, Ozaki S, Shiga T, Ito K, Masuda T, Okado N, et al. Runx3 controls the axonal projection of proprioceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:946-54 pubmed
    ..found no changes in the fate specification of Runx3(-/-) DRG neurons or in the number of DRG neurons that expressed trkC. Our data demonstrate that Runx3 is critical in regulating the axonal projections of a specific subpopulation of ..
  38. Chen X, Ye H, Kuruvilla R, Ramanan N, Scangos K, Zhang C, et al. A chemical-genetic approach to studying neurotrophin signaling. Neuron. 2005;46:13-21 pubmed
    ..Moreover, oral administration of 1NMPP1 leads to specific inhibition of TrkA(F592A), TrkB(F616A), and TrkC(F167A) signaling in vivo...
  39. Huang E, Wilkinson G, Farinas I, Backus C, Zang K, Wong S, et al. Expression of Trk receptors in the developing mouse trigeminal ganglion: in vivo evidence for NT-3 activation of TrkA and TrkB in addition to TrkC. Development. 1999;126:2191-203 pubmed
    ..5 and E13.5. In order to identify the mechanisms for this deficit, we used antisera specific for TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC to characterize and compare the expression patterns of each Trk receptor in trigeminal ganglia of wild type and NT-..
  40. Ma Q, Fode C, Guillemot F, Anderson D. Neurogenin1 and neurogenin2 control two distinct waves of neurogenesis in developing dorsal root ganglia. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1717-28 pubmed
    Different classes of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are generated in two waves: large-diameter trkC+ and trkB+ neurons are born first, followed by small-diameter trkA+ neurons...
  41. Nakamura S, Senzaki K, Yoshikawa M, Nishimura M, Inoue K, Ito Y, et al. Dynamic regulation of the expression of neurotrophin receptors by Runx3. Development. 2008;135:1703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, TrkC-positive DRG neurons differentiate normally at embryonic day (E) 11.5, but disappear by E13.5 in Runx3(-/-) mice...
  42. White F, Silos Santiago I, Molliver D, Nishimura M, Phillips H, Barbacid M, et al. Synchronous onset of NGF and TrkA survival dependence in developing dorsal root ganglia. J Neurosci. 1996;16:4662-72 pubmed
    ..however, in that NT-3(-/-) mutant mice show far greater neuron loss than mice deficient in the NT-3 receptor TrkC, suggesting that NT-3 may support many DRG neurons via actions on the NGF receptor TrkA...
  43. Fan G, Copray S, Huang E, Jones K, Yan Q, Walro J, et al. Formation of a full complement of cranial proprioceptors requires multiple neurotrophins. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:359-70 pubmed
    ..Although more than 90% of TMN neurons expressed TrkB as well as TrkC receptor proteins by immunocytochemistry in wild-type newborns, TrkC or TrkB null mice exhibited only partial ..
  44. Stubbusch J, Narasimhan P, Hennchen M, Huber K, Unsicker K, Ernsberger U, et al. Lineage and stage specific requirement for Dicer1 in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla formation and maintenance. Dev Biol. 2015;400:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings demonstrate distinct stage and lineage specific functions of Dicer1 signaling in differentiation and survival of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. ..
  45. Qi L, Huang C, Wu X, Tao Y, Yan J, Shi T, et al. Hierarchical Specification of Pruriceptors by Runt-Domain Transcription Factor Runx1. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5549-5561 pubmed publisher
    ..Such hierarchical control mechanisms may provide a developmental solution for the formation of sensory circuits that transmit distinct modalities. ..
  46. Inoue K, Ozaki S, Ito K, Iseda T, Kawaguchi S, Ogawa M, et al. Runx3 is essential for the target-specific axon pathfinding of trkc-expressing dorsal root ganglion neurons. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2003;30:157-60 pubmed
    ..of knockout mice deficient in neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) (Cell 77 (1994), 503; Nature 369 (1994), 658) and its receptor, trkC, (Nature 368 (1994), 249), which show proprioceptive afferent loss through selective neuronal cell death, Runx3-/- ..
  47. Chao M. Neurotrophin receptors: a window into neuronal differentiation. Neuron. 1992;9:583-93 pubmed
  48. Russo M, Giustizieri M, Favale A, Fantini M, Campagnolo L, Konda D, et al. Spatiotemporal patterns of expression of neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in mice suggest functional roles in testicular and epididymal morphogenesis. Biol Reprod. 1999;61:1123-32 pubmed
    ..has shown intense immunoreactivity of mesenchymal cells to antibodies for neurotrophin receptors p75, trk A, and trk C, and their ligands NGF and NT-3...
  49. Stenqvist A, Agerman K, Marmigere F, Minichiello L, Ernfors P. Genetic evidence for selective neurotrophin 3 signalling through TrkC but not TrkB in vivo. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:973-8 pubmed
    ..However, several in vitro and in vivo studies of null mutant mice have suggested that neurotrophin 3 (NT 3) also signals through the non-preferred TrkB receptor...
  50. Wyatt S, Pinon L, Ernfors P, Davies A. Sympathetic neuron survival and TrkA expression in NT3-deficient mouse embryos. EMBO J. 1997;16:3115-23 pubmed
    ..The expression of transcripts encoding catalytic TrkC is negligible at this stage, suggesting that NT3 acts mainly via TrkA.
  51. Reddy T, Kablar B. Evidence for the involvement of neurotrophins in muscle transdifferentiation and acetylcholine receptor transformation in the esophagus of Myf5(-/-):MyoD(-/-) and NT-3(-/-) embryos. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:683-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the esophageal muscle transdifferentiation. ..
  52. Gresset A, Coulpier F, Gerschenfeld G, Jourdon A, Matesic G, Richard L, et al. Boundary Caps Give Rise to Neurogenic Stem Cells and Terminal Glia in the Skin. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;5:278-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides genetic tools to study and manipulate this population of high interest for medical applications. ..
  53. Metz M, Botchkarev V, Botchkareva N, Welker P, Tobin D, Knop J, et al. Neurotrophin-3 regulates mast cell functions in neonatal mouse skin. Exp Dermatol. 2004;13:273-81 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that TrkC, the high affinity NT-3 receptor, is expressed by virtually all neonatal skin MCs in C57BL/6 mice, which indicates ..
  54. Abraira V, Kuehn E, Chirila A, Springel M, Toliver A, Zimmerman A, et al. The Cellular and Synaptic Architecture of the Mechanosensory Dorsal Horn. Cell. 2017;168:295-310.e19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the LTMR-RZ is a somatosensory processing region endowed with a neuronal complexity that rivals the retina and functions to pattern the activity of ascending touch pathways that underlie tactile perception. ..
  55. Donovan M, Hahn R, Tessarollo L, Hempstead B. Identification of an essential nonneuronal function of neurotrophin 3 in mammalian cardiac development. Nat Genet. 1996;14:210-3 pubmed
    b>Neurotrophin 3 (Nt3) is one of five neurotrophin growth factors which shape the development of the nervous system by regulating neuronal survival and differentiation...
  56. Martinez A, Alcantara S, Borrell V, Del Rio J, Blasi J, Otal R, et al. TrkB and TrkC signaling are required for maturation and synaptogenesis of hippocampal connections. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7336-50 pubmed
    ..development of neural connections in the CNS, we studied the ontogeny of hippocampal afferents in trkB (-/-) and trkC (-/-) mice...
  57. Farinas I. Neurotrophin actions during the development of the peripheral nervous system. Microsc Res Tech. 1999;45:233-42 pubmed
    ..Many of these deficits occur before final target encounter. ..
  58. Gross M, Dottori M, Goulding M. Lbx1 specifies somatosensory association interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Neuron. 2002;34:535-49 pubmed
    ..Lbx1, therefore, plays a critical role in the development of sensory pathways in the spinal cord that relay pain and touch. ..
  59. Tanaka T, Wakabayashi T, Oizumi H, Nishio S, Sato T, Harada A, et al. CLAC-P/collagen type XXV is required for the intramuscular innervation of motoneurons during neuromuscular development. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1370-9 pubmed publisher
  60. Tseng Y, Kokkotou E, Schulz T, Huang T, Winnay J, Taniguchi C, et al. New role of bone morphogenetic protein 7 in brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure. Nature. 2008;454:1000-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an important role of BMP7 in promoting brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis in vivo and in vitro, and provide a potential new therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity. ..
  61. Gratacos M, SahĂșn I, Gallego X, Amador Arjona A, Estivill X, Dierssen M. Candidate genes for panic disorder: insight from human and mouse genetic studies. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6 Suppl 1:2-23 pubmed
    ..The integration of human and animal studies targeting behavioral, systems-level, cellular and molecular levels will most probably help identify new molecules with potential impact on the pathogenetic aspects of the disease. ..
  62. Blecher R, Krief S, Galili T, Biton I, Stern T, Assaraf E, et al. The Proprioceptive System Masterminds Spinal Alignment: Insight into the Mechanism of Scoliosis. Dev Cell. 2017;42:388-399.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Null mutants for Runx3 transcription factor, which lack TrkC neurons connecting between proprioceptive mechanoreceptors and spinal cord, developed peripubertal scoliosis not ..