Gene Symbol: Ntf5
Description: neurotrophin 5
Alias: 2900040K06Rik, AI462899, NT-4, NT-5, NT4, NT4/5, Ntf-5, Ntf4, neurotrophin-4, neutrophic factor 4
Species: mouse
Products:     Ntf5

Top Publications

  1. Schober A, Wolf N, Huber K, Hertel R, Krieglstein K, Minichiello L, et al. TrkB and neurotrophin-4 are important for development and maintenance of sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the adrenal medulla. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7272-84 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the notion that NT-4 from chromaffin cells operates through TrkB receptors to regulate development and maintenance of the preganglionic innervation of the adrenal medulla. ..
  2. Fan G, Egles C, Sun Y, Minichiello L, Renger J, Klein R, et al. Knocking the NT4 gene into the BDNF locus rescues BDNF deficient mice and reveals distinct NT4 and BDNF activities. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:350-7 pubmed
    To directly compare biological activities of the neurotrophins NT4 and BDNF in vivo, we replaced the BDNF coding sequence with the NT4 sequence in mice (Bdnfnt4-ki)...
  3. Fan G, Copray S, Huang E, Jones K, Yan Q, Walro J, et al. Formation of a full complement of cranial proprioceptors requires multiple neurotrophins. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:359-70 pubmed
    ..the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMN) require NT3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-4 (NT4) for their development...
  4. Xie C, Sayah D, Chen Q, Wei W, Smith D, Liu X. Deficient long-term memory and long-lasting long-term potentiation in mice with a targeted deletion of neurotrophin-4 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8116-21 pubmed
    We examined the learning and memory of neurotrophin-4 (NT4)-/- mice by using fear conditioning. In both cue and context conditioning, we found significant deficits in the NT4 mutants at 2 and 24 h after training but not at 30 min...
  5. Sutter A, Riopelle R, Harris Warrick R, Shooter E. Nerve growth factor receptors. Characterization of two distinct classes of binding sites on chick embryo sensory ganglia cells. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:5972-82 pubmed
    ..At the lowest concentration of 125I-beta NGF used for the analysis less than 10% of the 125I-beta NGF is degraded. Both kinetic and steady state binding data reveal the two NGF binding sites at 2 degrees C as well as at 37 degrees C. ..
  6. Krimm R, Miller K, Kitzman P, Davis B, Albers K. Epithelial overexpression of BDNF or NT4 disrupts targeting of taste neurons that innervate the anterior tongue. Dev Biol. 2001;232:508-21 pubmed
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) are essential for the survival of geniculate ganglion neurons, which provide the sensory afferents for taste buds of the anterior tongue and palate...
  7. Deppmann C, Mihalas S, Sharma N, Lonze B, Niebur E, Ginty D. A model for neuronal competition during development. Science. 2008;320:369-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that three target-initiated events are essential for rapid and robust competition between neurons: sensitization, paracrine apoptotic signaling, and protection from such effects. ..
  8. Hofer M, Pagliusi S, Hohn A, Leibrock J, Barde Y. Regional distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the adult mouse brain. EMBO J. 1990;9:2459-64 pubmed
    ..The BDNF mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in hippocampal neurons (pyramidal and granule cells). These data suggest that BDNF may play an important role in the CNS for a wide variety of adult neurons. ..
  9. Kawamura K, Kawamura N, Fukuda J, Kumagai J, Hsueh A, Tanaka T. Regulation of preimplantation embryo development by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dev Biol. 2007;311:147-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggested that BDNF signaling plays important paracrine roles during blastocyst development by promoting the development of preimplantation embryos. ..

More Information


  1. Liu X, Ernfors P, Wu H, Jaenisch R. Sensory but not motor neuron deficits in mice lacking NT4 and BDNF. Nature. 1995;375:238-41 pubmed
    Neurotrophins play important roles in neuronal survival during vertebrate development. Neurotrophin-4 (NT4), alone or in combination with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), has been suggested to be necessary for the survival of ..
  2. Ibanez C. Neurotrophin-4: the odd one out in the neurotrophin family. Neurochem Res. 1996;21:787-93 pubmed
    ..Is NT-4 a recent addition to the neurotrophic factor repertoire in search of a crucial function, or is it an evolutionary relic, a kind of wisdom tooth of the neurotrophin family? ..
  3. Stucky C, DeChiara T, Lindsay R, Yancopoulos G, Koltzenburg M. Neurotrophin 4 is required for the survival of a subclass of hair follicle receptors. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7040-6 pubmed
    Neurotrophin-4 (NT4) is the most recently discovered neurotrophic factor in mammals and, functionally, the least well understood...
  4. Ito A, Nosrat C. Gustatory papillae and taste bud development and maintenance in the absence of TrkB ligands BDNF and NT-4. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;337:349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A total loss of vallate taste cells also occurs in postnatal transgenic mice. Our data indicate an initial independence but a later permissive and essential role for innervation in taste bud development and maintenance. ..
  5. Patel A, Krimm R. Neurotrophin-4 regulates the survival of gustatory neurons earlier in development using a different mechanism than brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dev Biol. 2012;365:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, there was an increase in TUNEL-labeling, indicating an increase in cell death in Ntf4(-/-) mice compared with wild types...
  6. Liu Y, Rutlin M, Huang S, Barrick C, Wang F, Jones K, et al. Sexually dimorphic BDNF signaling directs sensory innervation of the mammary gland. Science. 2012;338:1357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sex hormone regulation of a neurotrophic factor signal directs sexually dimorphic axonal growth and maintenance, resulting in generation of a sex-specific neural circuit. ..
  7. Berkemeier L, Winslow J, Kaplan D, Nikolics K, Goeddel D, Rosenthal A. Neurotrophin-5: a novel neurotrophic factor that activates trk and trkB. Neuron. 1991;7:857-66 pubmed
    ..Receptor sharing could enable neurotrophic factors emanating from distinct targets to cooperate in regulating neurons with multiple connections. ..
  8. Conover J, Erickson J, Katz D, Bianchi L, Poueymirou W, McClain J, et al. Neuronal deficits, not involving motor neurons, in mice lacking BDNF and/or NT4. Nature. 1995;375:235-8 pubmed
    ..relatively promiscuous in vitro, acting as a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-4 (NT4) and, to a lesser extent, NT3 (refs 3-5)...
  9. Patel A, Huang T, Krimm R. Lingual and palatal gustatory afferents each depend on both BDNF and NT-4, but the dependence is greater for lingual than palatal afferents. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..About 50% of these neurons die in Bdnf(-/-) mice and Ntf4/5(-/-) mice. Bdnf(-/-)/Ntf4/5(-/-) double mutants lose 90-95% of geniculate ganglion neurons...
  10. ElShamy W, Ernfors P. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 complement and cooperate with each other sequentially during visceral neuron development. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8667-75 pubmed
    ..nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) are crucial target-derived factors controlling the survival of peripheral sensory neurons during the embryonic ..
  11. Spears N, Molinek M, Robinson L, Fulton N, Cameron H, Shimoda K, et al. The role of neurotrophin receptors in female germ-cell survival in mouse and human. Development. 2003;130:5481-91 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR showed that mRNA encoding TrkB and its two ligands, neurotrophin 4 (NT4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), were present throughout the period of follicle formation ..
  12. Chi M, Powley T. NT-4-deficient mice lack sensitivity to meal-associated preabsorptive feedback from lipids. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R2124-35 pubmed
  13. Jabbar S, Harada F, Aita M, Ohishi M, Saito I, Kawano Y, et al. Involvement of neurotrophin-4/5 in regeneration of the periodontal Ruffini endings at the early stage. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:400-12 pubmed
    ..2003] Arch Histol Cytol 66:183-194), these morphological and numerical data suggest that multiple neurotrophins such as NT-4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play roles in their regeneration in a stage-specific manner. ..
  14. Patel K, AVEN L, Shao F, Krishnamoorthy N, Duvall M, Levy B, et al. Mast cell-derived neurotrophin 4 mediates allergen-induced airway hyperinnervation in early life. Mucosal Immunol. 2016;9:1466-1476 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated previously that increased neurotrophin 4 (NT4) levels following early-life allergen exposure cause persistent changes in airway smooth muscle (ASM) ..
  15. Fundin B, Silos Santiago I, Ernfors P, Fagan A, Aldskogius H, DeChiara T, et al. Differential dependency of cutaneous mechanoreceptors on neurotrophins, trk receptors, and P75 LNGFR. Dev Biol. 1997;190:94-116 pubmed
    ..In the context of these findings, indications of competitive and suppressive interactions that appear to regulate the balance of innervation density among the various sets of innervation were evident. ..
  16. Nakanishi T, Takahashi K, Aoki C, Nishikawa K, Hattori T, Taniguchi S. Expression of nerve growth factor family neurotrophins in a mouse osteoblastic cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;198:891-7 pubmed
    ..These findings were further substantiated by identification of NGF-like neutrophils in the conditioned medium of the osteoblastic cells by an immunoblotting and neurite extension assay. ..
  17. Salehi A, Roux P, Kubu C, Zeindler C, Bhakar A, Tannis L, et al. NRAGE, a novel MAGE protein, interacts with the p75 neurotrophin receptor and facilitates nerve growth factor-dependent apoptosis. Neuron. 2000;27:279-88 pubmed
    ..Our results show that NRAGE contributes to p75NTR-dependent cell death and suggest novel functions for MAGE family proteins. ..
  18. Childs A, Bayne R, Murray A, Martins da Silva S, Collins C, Spears N, et al. Differential expression and regulation by activin of the neurotrophins BDNF and NT4 during human and mouse ovarian development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BDNF expression increased with increasing gestation, expression of human NTF4 and of both Ntf5 and Bdnf in the mouse was unchanged...
  19. Brunstrom J, Gray Swain M, Osborne P, Pearlman A. Neuronal heterotopias in the developing cerebral cortex produced by neurotrophin-4. Neuron. 1997;18:505-17 pubmed
    ..Although heterotopia production is TrkB mediated, BDNF is >10-fold less effective than NT4. Heterotopic neurons have the same birth date and phenotype as normal MZ neurons; they are not the result of NT4-..
  20. Maruyama Y, Harada F, Jabbar S, Saito I, Aita M, Kawano Y, et al. Neurotrophin-4/5-depletion induces a delay in maturation of the periodontal Ruffini endings in mice. Arch Histol Cytol. 2005;68:267-88 pubmed
  21. Wessels J, Wu L, Leyland N, Wang H, Foster W. The brain-uterus connection: brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor (Ntrk2) are conserved in the mammalian uterus. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94036 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that BDNF and Ntrk2 are transcribed, translated, and conserved across mammalian species including human, mouse, rat, pig, horse, and the bat. ..
  22. Heppenstall P, Lewin G. BDNF but not NT-4 is required for normal flexion reflex plasticity and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8107-12 pubmed
    ..Our data therefore are consistent with a direct role for presynaptic BDNF release from sensory neurons in the modulation of pain-related neurotransmission. ..
  23. Kim E, Hong Y, Go S, Lee B, Jung S. Downregulation of neurotrophic factors in the brain of a mouse model of Gaucher disease; implications for neuronal loss in Gaucher disease. Exp Mol Med. 2006;38:348-56 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a reduction in neurotrophic factors could be involved in neuronal loss in Gaucher disease. ..
  24. Calamusa M, Pattabiraman P, Pozdeyev N, Iuvone P, Cellerino A, Domenici L. Specific alterations of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive cells in the retina of NT-4 knock out mice. Vision Res. 2007;47:1523-36 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that retinal NT-4 plays a role in the morphological maturation of dopaminergic retinal cells. ..
  25. González Martínez T, Farinas I, Del Valle M, Feito J, Germanà G, Cobo J, et al. BDNF, but not NT-4, is necessary for normal development of Meissner corpuscles. Neurosci Lett. 2005;377:12-5 pubmed
    ..All wild-type animals as well as NT-4(-/-) animals and BDNF and NT4 heterozygous animals have Meissner corpuscles that are normal in number and size...
  26. Hilaire C, Lucas O, Valmier J, Scamps F. Neurotrophin-4 modulates the mechanotransducer Cav3.2 T-type calcium current in mice down-hair neurons. Biochem J. 2012;441:463-71 pubmed publisher
    ..2 T-current through TrkB activation and identify NT-4 as a target-derived factor that regulates the mechanosensitive function of D-hair neurons through expression of the T-current. ..
  27. Hibbert A, Morris S, Seidah N, Murphy R. Neurotrophin-4, alone or heterodimerized with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, is sorted to the constitutive secretory pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48129-36 pubmed
    ..In contrast, heterodimers of NT-3 and BDNF have been shown to be released through the regulated secretory pathway. Thus, NT-4, alone or when co-expressed with BDNF, is processed within and secreted by the constitutive secretory pathway. ..
  28. Huang T, Krimm R. Developmental expression of Bdnf, Ntf4/5, and TrkB in the mouse peripheral taste system. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2637-46 pubmed publisher
    ..when gustatory neurons come in contact with these important factors, temporospatial expression patterns of Bdnf, Ntf4/5, and TrkB in the peripheral taste system were examined using RT-PCR...
  29. Fox E, Phillips R, Baronowsky E, Byerly M, Jones S, Powley T. Neurotrophin-4 deficient mice have a loss of vagal intraganglionic mechanoreceptors from the small intestine and a disruption of short-term satiety. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8602-15 pubmed
  30. Rossi C, Angelucci A, Costantin L, Braschi C, Mazzantini M, Babbini F, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for the enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis following environmental enrichment. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1850-6 pubmed
    ..Failure to up-regulate BDNF accompanied the lack of a neurogenic response in enriched BDNF heterozygous mice. We conclude that BDNF but not NT-4 is required for the environmental induction of neurogenesis. ..
  31. Liu X, Jaenisch R. Severe peripheral sensory neuron loss and modest motor neuron reduction in mice with combined deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 and neurotrophin 4/5. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:94-101 pubmed
    ..But mice lacking individual neurotrophins or a combination of BDNF and NT4 did not show significant CNS neuronal loss...
  32. Gao W, Zheng J, Karihaloo M. Neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) act at later stages of cerebellar granule cell differentiation. J Neurosci. 1995;15:2656-67 pubmed
    ..Since no additive effects were seen with the combination of NT-4/5 and BDNF, it seems likely that the two neurotrophins activate the same receptor trkB for signal transduction. ..
  33. Lush M, Ma L, Parada L. TrkB signaling regulates the developmental maturation of the somatosensory cortex. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2005;23:523-36 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TrkB expression in thalamic axons is important for the appropriate timing of barrel cortex development. ..
  34. Dubreuil A, Boukhaddaoui H, Desmadryl G, Martinez Salgado C, Moshourab R, Lewin G, et al. Role of T-type calcium current in identified D-hair mechanoreceptor neurons studied in vitro. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8480-4 pubmed
    ..Indeed, the properties of the T-type amplifier are particularly well suited to explain the high sensitivity of D-hair mechanoreceptors to slowly moving stimuli. ..
  35. Reddy T, Kablar B. Evidence for the involvement of neurotrophins in muscle transdifferentiation and acetylcholine receptor transformation in the esophagus of Myf5(-/-):MyoD(-/-) and NT-3(-/-) embryos. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:683-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the esophageal muscle transdifferentiation. ..
  36. He X, Butler L, Liu X, McNamara J. The tyrosine receptor kinase B ligand, neurotrophin-4, is not required for either epileptogenesis or tyrosine receptor kinase B activation in the kindling model. Neuroscience. 2006;141:515-20 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that neurotrophin-4 (NT4) activates tyrosine receptor kinase B in the hippocampus during epileptogenesis and that NT4-mediated activation of ..
  37. Jones J, Estirado A, Redondo C, Martinez S. Stem cells from wildtype and Friedreich's ataxia mice present similar neuroprotective properties in dorsal root ganglia cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62807 pubmed publisher
    ..This coincided with an increase in oxidative stress-related markers and frataxin expression levels. BDNF, NT3 and NT4 trophic factors were detected in the conditioned medium of both wild-type and YG8 stem cells, all which bind to the ..
  38. Endres M, Fan G, Hirt L, Fujii M, Matsushita K, Liu X, et al. Ischemic brain damage in mice after selectively modifying BDNF or NT4 gene expression. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2000;20:139-44 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking both alleles for neurotrophin-4 (nt4-/-) or deficient in a single allele for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf+/-) exhibited larger cerebral ..
  39. Harada C, Harada T, Quah H, Namekata K, Yoshida K, Ohno S, et al. Role of neurotrophin-4/5 in neural cell death during retinal development and ischemic retinal injury in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:669-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NT-4/5, in combination with other trophic factors, is involved in the postnatal survival of retinal neurons during both development and degeneration. ..
  40. Rutlin M, Ho C, Abraira V, Cassidy C, Bai L, Woodbury C, et al. The cellular and molecular basis of direction selectivity of Aδ-LTMRs. Cell. 2014;159:1640-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, BDNF-TrkB signaling directs polarization of Aδ-LTMR lanceolate endings, which underlies direction-selective responsiveness of Aδ-LTMRs to hair deflection. ..
  41. Pollock G, Robichon R, Boyd K, Kerkel K, Kramer M, Lyles J, et al. TrkB receptor signaling regulates developmental death dynamics, but not final number, of retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10137-45 pubmed
    ..Null mutation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor [(BDNF) alone or in combination with neurotrophin 4 (NT4)] increases the peak rate of developmental RGC death as compared with normal...
  42. Agerman K, Baudet C, Fundin B, Willson C, Ernfors P. Attenuation of a caspase-3 dependent cell death in NT4- and p75-deficient embryonic sensory neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2000;16:258-68 pubmed
    ..We find that eliminating p75(NTR) or neurotrophin 4 (NT4) in mice leads to a marked attenuation of apoptosis during the programmed cell death period of the ..
  43. Gacek R, Khetarpal U. Neurotrophin 3, not brain-derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin 4, knockout mice have delay in vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Laryngoscope. 1998;108:671-8 pubmed
    ..heterozygous (+/-) neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) knockout mice and in two neurotrophin 4 (NT4) homozygous (-/-) knockout mice, each with a control (+/+) sibling, for a total of 26 mice...
  44. Roosen A, Schober A, Strelau J, Bottner M, Faulhaber J, Bendner G, et al. Lack of neurotrophin-4 causes selective structural and chemical deficits in sympathetic ganglia and their preganglionic innervation. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3073-84 pubmed
    ..Impairment of synaptic connectivity may consequently reduce impulse flow, causing a reduction in transmitter synthesis in postganglionic neurons. ..
  45. Alavian K, Sgadò P, Alberi L, Subramaniam S, Simon H. Elevated P75NTR expression causes death of engrailed-deficient midbrain dopaminergic neurons by Erk1/2 suppression. Neural Dev. 2009;4:11 pubmed publisher
  46. Krimm R, Davis B, Noel T, Albers K. Overexpression of neurotrophin 4 in skin enhances myelinated sensory endings but does not influence sensory neuron number. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:455-65 pubmed
    The growth factors neurotrophin 4 (NT4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are expressed in the developing skin, activate the trkB tyrosine kinase receptor, and influence the development and survival of specific types of sensory ..
  47. Huang T, Krimm R. BDNF and NT4 play interchangeable roles in gustatory development. Dev Biol. 2014;386:308-20 pubmed publisher
    ..for examining this issue because the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) have different developmental roles although both of them activate the same receptors, TrkB and p75...
  48. Fei D, Krimm R. Taste neurons consist of both a large TrkB-receptor-dependent and a small TrkB-receptor-independent subpopulation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83460 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared taste development in TrkB(-/-) and Bdnf(-/-)/Ntf4(-/-) mice to determine if these deficits were similar...
  49. Stephens H, Belliveau A, Gupta J, Mirkovic S, Kablar B. The role of neurotrophins in the maintenance of the spinal cord motor neurons and the dorsal root ganglia proprioceptive sensory neurons. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2005;23:613-20 pubmed
  50. Lucas G, Hendolin P, Harkany T, Agerman K, Paratcha G, Holmgren C, et al. Neurotrophin-4 mediated TrkB activation reinforces morphine-induced analgesia. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:221-2 pubmed
  51. English A, Cucoranu D, Mulligan A, Rodriguez J, Sabatier M. Neurotrophin-4/5 is implicated in the enhancement of axon regeneration produced by treadmill training following peripheral nerve injury. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:2265-71 pubmed publisher
  52. Zermeño V, Espindola S, Mendoza E, Hernandez Echeagaray E. Differential expression of neurotrophins in postnatal C57BL/6 mice striatum. Int J Biol Sci. 2009;5:118-27 pubmed
    ..Differences in temporal expression of neurotrophins may be related to the heterochronic development of neostriatal cell populations, but also with the specificity of each neurotrophin modulating different neuronal targets. ..
  53. Kioussi C, Gruss P. Differential induction of Pax genes by NGF and BDNF in cerebellar primary cultures. J Cell Biol. 1994;125:417-25 pubmed
    ..The changes in Pax expression were inductive rather than trophic. ..
  54. Kablar B, Belliveau A. Presence of neurotrophic factors in skeletal muscle correlates with survival of spinal cord motor neurons. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:659-69 pubmed
  55. Zhang C, Brandemihl A, Lau D, Lawton A, Oakley B. BDNF is required for the normal development of taste neurons in vivo. Neuroreport. 1997;8:1013-7 pubmed
    ..ligands for tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB): brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin (NT)3, NT4. The vallate gustatory epithelium of nt3-/- mice and of nt4-/- mice appeared normal...
  56. Byerly M, Fox E. High-fat hyperphagia in neurotrophin-4 deficient mice reveals potential role of vagal intestinal sensory innervation in long-term controls of food intake. Neurosci Lett. 2006;400:240-5 pubmed
    ..This raises the possibility that intestinal vagal sensory innervation contributes to long-term, as well as to short-term regulation of food intake. ..
  57. Liebl D, Klesse L, Tessarollo L, Wohlman T, Parada L. Loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent neural crest-derived sensory neurons in neurotrophin-4 mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2297-302 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with the model that precursor cells intended to become BDNF-dependent mechanoreceptors instead differentiate into NT-3-dependent proprioceptive neurons. ..
  58. Radzikinas K, Aven L, Jiang Z, Tran T, Paez Cortez J, Boppidi K, et al. A Shh/miR-206/BDNF cascade coordinates innervation and formation of airway smooth muscle. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our work uncovers a functional cascade that involves Shh, miR-206 and BDNF to coordinate ASM formation and innervation...
  59. Sedy J, Szeder V, Walro J, Ren Z, Nanka O, Tessarollo L, et al. Pacinian corpuscle development involves multiple Trk signaling pathways. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:551-63 pubmed
    ..nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or neurotrophin-4 (NT4), or their cognate Trk receptors...
  60. Bothwell M, Shooter E. Dissociation equilibrium constant of beta nerve growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1977;252:8532-6 pubmed
    ..Dissociation of heavily succinylated 125I-NGF was detected by gel filtration chromatography, and the equilibrium dissociation constant for this material is estimated to be 10 pM. ..
  61. Royo N, Conte V, Saatman K, Shimizu S, Belfield C, Soltesz K, et al. Hippocampal vulnerability following traumatic brain injury: a potential role for neurotrophin-4/5 in pyramidal cell neuroprotection. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1089-102 pubmed
  62. Hikawa S, Kobayashi H, Hikawa N, Kusakabe T, Hiruma H, Takenaka T, et al. Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in peripheral lung cells of mice. Histochem Cell Biol. 2002;118:51-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that a previously unknown signal trafficking occurs through neurotrophins in peripheral lung. ..
  63. D Mello S, Jiang C, Lamberti C, Martin S, Heinrich G. Differential regulation of the nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes in L929 mouse fibroblasts. J Neurosci Res. 1992;33:519-26 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that 2 genes which encode closely related neurotrophic factors are differentially regulated in L929 cells. The molecular mechanisms which bring about this differential regulation remain to be elucidated. ..
  64. Rice F, Albers K, Davis B, Silos Santiago I, Wilkinson G, LeMaster A, et al. Differential dependency of unmyelinated and A delta epidermal and upper dermal innervation on neurotrophins, trk receptors, and p75LNGFR. Dev Biol. 1998;198:57-81 pubmed
  65. Balkowiec A, Katz D. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for normal development of the central respiratory rhythm in mice. J Physiol. 1998;510 ( Pt 2):527-33 pubmed
    ..BDNF is thus the first growth factor identified that is required for normal development of the central respiratory rhythm, including the stabilization of central respiratory output that occurs after birth. ..
  66. Bianchi L, Conover J, Fritzsch B, DeChiara T, Lindsay R, Yancopoulos G. Degeneration of vestibular neurons in late embryogenesis of both heterozygous and homozygous BDNF null mutant mice. Development. 1996;122:1965-73 pubmed
    ..5-P15. These data indicate a late developmental requirement of vestibular neurons for BDNF and suggest competition among these neurons for limited supplies of this factor. ..
  67. Lopez G, Krimm R. Epithelial overexpression of BDNF and NT4 produces distinct gustatory axon morphologies that disrupt initial targeting. Dev Biol. 2006;292:457-68 pubmed
    Most fungiform taste buds fail to become innervated when BDNF or NT4 is overexpressed in the basal layer of tongue epithelium. Here, we examined when and how overexpression of BDNF and NT4 disrupt innervation to fungiform papillae...
  68. English A, Meador W, Carrasco D. Neurotrophin-4/5 is required for the early growth of regenerating axons in peripheral nerves. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2624-34 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with a requirement for NT-4/5 from within the pathway used by regenerating axons for the successful growth of those axons in peripheral nerves. ..
  69. Stucky C, Shin J, Lewin G. Neurotrophin-4: a survival factor for adult sensory neurons. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1401-4 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence that sensory neurons have a physiological requirement for a single neurotrophin for their continued survival in the adult. ..
  70. Yoshizaki K, Yamamoto S, Yamada A, Yuasa K, Iwamoto T, Fukumoto E, et al. Neurotrophic factor neurotrophin-4 regulates ameloblastin expression via full-length TrkB. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3385-91 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that NT-4 regulates proliferation and differentiation of the dental epithelium and promotes production of the enamel matrix. ..
  71. Aven L, Paez Cortez J, Achey R, Krishnan R, Ram Mohan S, Cruikshank W, et al. An NT4/TrkB-dependent increase in innervation links early-life allergen exposure to persistent airway hyperreactivity. FASEB J. 2014;28:897-907 pubmed publisher
    ..neurotrophin (NT)-4 signaling through the TrkB receptor and that early-life OVA exposure significantly elevated NT4 levels and TrkB signaling by 5- and 2-fold, respectively, to increase innervation...
  72. Berkemeier L, Ozcelik T, Francke U, Rosenthal A. Human chromosome 19 contains the neurotrophin-5 gene locus and three related genes that may encode novel acidic neurotrophins. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1992;18:233-45 pubmed
    ..In the human, both NTF5 and NTF6 gene loci were mapped to chromosome 19 by Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels...
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    ..Our data suggest that neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in a multifunctional system that regulates cell differentiation and innervation in the developing testis and epididymis. ..
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    ..Finally, we propose that Che-1 is a functional antagonist of NRAGE, because its overexpression completely reverts NRAGE-induced cell-death. ..