Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Ntf3
Description: neurotrophin 3
Alias: AI316846, AI835689, HDNF, NGF-2, Nt3, Ntf-3, neurotrophin-3, nerve growth factor 2, neurotrophic factor
- Fundin B, Silos Santiago I, Ernfors P, Fagan A, Aldskogius H, DeChiara T, et al. Differential dependency of cutaneous mechanoreceptors on neurotrophins, trk receptors, and P75 LNGFR. Dev Biol. 1997;190:94-116 pubmed..in mystacial pads from mice with homozygous null mutations for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), the three tyrosine kinase receptors (trkA, trkB, trkC)..
- Airaksinen M, Koltzenburg M, Lewin G, Masu Y, Helbig C, Wolf E, et al. Specific subtypes of cutaneous mechanoreceptors require neurotrophin-3 following peripheral target innervation. Neuron. 1996;16:287-95 pubmed..Thus, NT-3 is essential for the maintenance of specific cutaneous afferents known to subserve fine tactile discrimination in humans. ..
- Klein R. Role of neurotrophins in mouse neuronal development. FASEB J. 1994;8:738-44 pubmed..Mice deficient for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, encoded by the trkB gene, display loss of sensory neurons responsive to tactile ..
- Ernfors P, Van de Water T, Loring J, Jaenisch R. Complementary roles of BDNF and NT-3 in vestibular and auditory development. Neuron. 1995;14:1153-64 pubmed..These results show that BDNF and NT-3 are crucial for inner ear development and, although largely coexpressed, have distinct and nonoverlapping roles in the vestibular and auditory systems. ..
- Metz M, Botchkarev V, Botchkareva N, Welker P, Tobin D, Knop J, et al. Neurotrophin-3 regulates mast cell functions in neonatal mouse skin. Exp Dermatol. 2004;13:273-81 pubmed..Our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the maturation of MCs, such as a TrkC-mediated stimulation of the differentiation of pre-existing, less mature MCs and/or by enhancing the migration of circulating MC precursors into the skin. ..
- Sadakata T, Mizoguchi A, Sato Y, Katoh Semba R, Fukuda M, Mikoshiba K, et al. The secretory granule-associated protein CAPS2 regulates neurotrophin release and cell survival. J Neurosci. 2004;24:43-52 pubmed..CAPS2 antibody from mouse cerebella contained significant amounts of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and chromogranin B but not marker proteins for synaptic vesicle synaptophysin and synaptotagmin...
- White F, Silos Santiago I, Molliver D, Nishimura M, Phillips H, Barbacid M, et al. Synchronous onset of NGF and TrkA survival dependence in developing dorsal root ganglia. J Neurosci. 1996;16:4662-72 pubmed..We suggest that the discrepancy in cell loss between NT-3(-/-) and trkC(-/-) mutants is attributable to the ability of NT-3 to support DRG neurons via TrkA in the artificial situation where TrkC is absent. ..
- Wang Z, Li L, Taylor M, Wright D, Frank E. Prenatal exposure to elevated NT3 disrupts synaptic selectivity in the spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3686-94 pubmed..In this study, we report that embryonic overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in muscles disrupts the development of these specific Ia-MN connections, using transgenic (mlc/NT3) mice that ..
- Bates B, Rios M, Trumpp A, Chen C, Fan G, Bishop J, et al. Neurotrophin-3 is required for proper cerebellar development. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:115-7 pubmed
- Raab M, Wörl J, Brehmer A, Neuhuber W. Reduction of NT-3 or TrkC results in fewer putative vagal mechanoreceptors in the mouse esophagus. Auton Neurosci. 2003;108:22-31 pubmed..This concurs with their proposed function as vagal mechanosensors crucial for reflex peristalsis. ..
- Morris J, Maklad A, Hansen L, Feng F, Sorensen C, Lee K, et al. A disorganized innervation of the inner ear persists in the absence of ErbB2. Brain Res. 2006;1091:186-99 pubmed..Reduction of overshooting afferents may be enhanced by a reduction of the neurotrophin Ntf3 transcript to about 25% of wild type...
- Maisonpierre P, Belluscio L, Friedman B, Alderson R, Wiegand S, Furth M, et al. NT-3, BDNF, and NGF in the developing rat nervous system: parallel as well as reciprocal patterns of expression. Neuron. 1990;5:501-9 pubmedTo obtain insight into the site and stage specificity of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) action in vivo, we compared the expression patterns of the genes for these three ..
- Kucera J, Cooney W, Que A, Szeder V, Stancz Szeder H, Walro J. Formation of supernumerary muscle spindles at the expense of Golgi tendon organs in ER81-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 2002;223:389-401 pubmed..Segmental differences in muscle spindle and GTO dependence on ER81 suggest that more than one ETS transcription factor may participate in the regulation of limb proprioceptive system assembly in the mouse. ..
- ElShamy W, Ernfors P. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4 complement and cooperate with each other sequentially during visceral neuron development. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8667-75 pubmedThe neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) are crucial target-derived factors controlling the survival of peripheral sensory neurons during the ..
- Tessarollo L, Tsoulfas P, Donovan M, Palko M, Blair Flynn J, Hempstead B, et al. Targeted deletion of all isoforms of the trkC gene suggests the use of alternate receptors by its ligand neurotrophin-3 in neuronal development and implicates trkC in normal cardiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14776-81 pubmed..The similarities in cardiac defects observed in the trkC and NT-3 null mutant mice indicate that the trkC receptor mediates most NT-3 effects on the cardiac neural crest. ..
- Kuruvilla R, Zweifel L, Glebova N, Lonze B, Valdez G, Ye H, et al. A neurotrophin signaling cascade coordinates sympathetic neuron development through differential control of TrkA trafficking and retrograde signaling. Cell. 2004;118:243-55 pubmed
- Ringstedt T, Kucera J, Lendahl U, Ernfors P, Ibanez C. Limb proprioceptive deficits without neuronal loss in transgenic mice overexpressing neurotrophin-3 in the developing nervous system. Development. 1997;124:2603-13 pubmedThe role of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) during sensory neuron development was investigated in transgenic mice overexpressing NT3 under the control of the promoter and enhancer regions of the nestin gene, an intermediate filament gene widely ..
- Farinas I, Yoshida C, Backus C, Reichardt L. Lack of neurotrophin-3 results in death of spinal sensory neurons and premature differentiation of their precursors. Neuron. 1996;17:1065-78 pubmed..Although deficits occur before final target innervation, we show that NT-3 is expressed at all stages in regions accessible to these neurons or their axons and is only restricted to final targets after innervation. ..
- Fritzsch B, Matei V, Nichols D, Bermingham N, Jones K, Beisel K, et al. Atoh1 null mice show directed afferent fiber growth to undifferentiated ear sensory epithelia followed by incomplete fiber retention. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:570-83 pubmed..as attractors for growing afferent fibers, possibly through the release of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
- O CONNOR R, Tessier Lavigne M. Identification of maxillary factor, a maxillary process-derived chemoattractant for developing trigeminal sensory axons. Neuron. 1999;24:165-78 pubmed..that Maxillary Factor activity is composed of two neurotrophins, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), which are produced by both target epithelium and pathway mesenchyme and which are therefore more ..
- Ritter A, Woodbury C, Davis B, Albers K, Koerber H. Excess target-derived neurotrophin-3 alters the segmental innervation of the skin. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:411-8 pubmed..boundaries were mapped in adult mice, it was found that those in nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor overexpressers were indistinguishable from wild-type animals but that overlap between adjacent segments was ..
- Breuskin I, Bodson M, Thelen N, Thiry M, Borgs L, Nguyen L, et al. Glial but not neuronal development in the cochleo-vestibular ganglion requires Sox10. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1827-39 pubmed publisher..Moreover, brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression is increased in the hair cells of Sox10-deficient mice, a compensatory mechanism that may ..
- Tessarollo L, Vogel K, Palko M, Reid S, Parada L. Targeted mutation in the neurotrophin-3 gene results in loss of muscle sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11844-8 pubmedb>Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is one of four related polypeptide growth factors that share structural and functional homology to nerve growth factor (NGF)...
- Liu X, Robinson M, Schreiber A, Wu V, Lavail M, Cang J, et al. Regulation of neonatal development of retinal ganglion cell dendrites by neurotrophin-3 overexpression. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:449-58 pubmed publisher..Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to regulate this laminar refinement, and to enhance the development of dendritic ..
- McIlwrath S, Lawson J, Anderson C, Albers K, Koerber H. Overexpression of neurotrophin-3 enhances the mechanical response properties of slowly adapting type 1 afferents and myelinated nociceptors. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:1801-12 pubmedConstitutive overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in murine skin results in an increased number of sensory neurons within the dorsal root ganglia, an increase of myelinated axons in cutaneous nerves, hyperinnervation of the skin, and ..
- Tauris J, Gustafsen C, Christensen E, Jansen P, Nykjaer A, Nyengaard J, et al. Proneurotrophin-3 may induce Sortilin-dependent death in inner ear neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:622-31 pubmed publisher..The NTs brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) and NT3 provide essential trophic support to auditory neurons...
- Taylor M, Vancura R, Patterson C, Williams J, Riekhof J, Wright D. Postnatal regulation of limb proprioception by muscle-derived neurotrophin-3. J Comp Neurol. 2001;432:244-58 pubmed..However, our results also show that NT-3 may be therapeutic for proprioceptive axons immediately after nerve injury by delaying axon degeneration. ..
- Chalazonitis A, Pham T, Rothman T, DiStefano P, Bothwell M, Blair Flynn J, et al. Neurotrophin-3 is required for the survival-differentiation of subsets of developing enteric neurons. J Neurosci. 2001;21:5620-36 pubmed..A neuropoietic cytokine (CNTF) interacted with NT-3 in vitro, and if applied sequentially, compensated for NT-3 withdrawal. These observations indicate that NT-3 is required for the normal development of the ENS. ..
- Pan N, Jahan I, Kersigo J, Kopecky B, Santi P, Johnson S, et al. Conditional deletion of Atoh1 using Pax2-Cre results in viable mice without differentiated cochlear hair cells that have lost most of the organ of Corti. Hear Res. 2011;275:66-80 pubmed publisher..This pattern of innervation by sensory neurons is maintained at least until P14, but fibers target the few Myo7a positive cells found in later stages. ..
- Bennett J, Zeiler S, Jones K. Patterned expression of BDNF and NT-3 in the retina and anterior segment of the developing mammalian eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:2996-3005 pubmedThe neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are hypothesized to play an important role in vertebrate eye development because of their patterned expression in the developing and adult neuroretina, ..
- Hossain W, D Sa C, Morest D. Interactive roles of fibroblast growth factor 2 and neurotrophin 3 in the sequence of migration, process outgrowth, and axonal differentiation of mouse cochlear ganglion cells. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:2376-91 pubmed publisher..We used immunohistochemistry to locate neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and its high-affinity receptor (TrkC) in the auditory system, along with FGF2 and its R1 receptor, at ..
- Fritzsch B, Farinas I, Reichardt L. Lack of neurotrophin 3 causes losses of both classes of spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea in a region-specific fashion. J Neurosci. 1997;17:6213-25 pubmedEssential functions of neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) in regulating afferent and efferent innervation of the cochlea have been characterized by comparison of normal and NT-3 mutant mice...
- Albers K, Perrone T, Goodness T, Jones M, Green M, Davis B. Cutaneous overexpression of NT-3 increases sensory and sympathetic neuron number and enhances touch dome and hair follicle innervation. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:487-97 pubmed..These results indicate that in vivo overexpression of NT-3 by the epidermis enhances the number of sensory and sympathetic neurons and the development of selected sensory endings of the skin. ..
- Tessarollo L, Coppola V, Fritzsch B. NT-3 replacement with brain-derived neurotrophic factor redirects vestibular nerve fibers to the cochlea. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2575-84 pubmed..Our data provide genetic evidence that neurotrophins in the ear exert both survival and axon guidance roles. ..
- Morsli H, Choo D, Ryan A, Johnson R, Wu D. Development of the mouse inner ear and origin of its sensory organs. J Neurosci. 1998;18:3327-35 pubmed..Based on the gene expression patterns, the anterior and lateral cristae may share a common origin. Similarly, three sensory organs, the macula utriculi, macula sacculi, and cochlea, seem to arise from a single region of the otocyst. ..
- Farinas I, Jones K, Tessarollo L, Vigers A, Huang E, Kirstein M, et al. Spatial shaping of cochlear innervation by temporally regulated neurotrophin expression. J Neurosci. 2001;21:6170-80 pubmed..development of the deficit in the NT-3 mutant to the spatial-temporal expression patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT-3, using lacZ reporters in each gene and with expression of the specific neurotrophin ..
- Kim W, Fritzsch B, Serls A, Bakel L, Huang E, Reichardt L, et al. NeuroD-null mice are deaf due to a severe loss of the inner ear sensory neurons during development. Development. 2001;128:417-26 pubmed
- Krimm R, Davis B, Woodbury C, Albers K. NT3 expressed in skin causes enhancement of SA1 sensory neurons that leads to postnatal enhancement of Merkel cells. J Comp Neurol. 2004;471:352-60 pubmedTo determine the role of NT3 in the postnatal maturation of Merkel cell (MC) sensory neurite complexes (touch domes), we examined the development of their neural and end-organ components in wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress ..
- Zhou X, Rush R. Functional roles of neurotrophin 3 in the developing and mature sympathetic nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 1996;13:185-97 pubmed..Thus, in addition to its role in the differentiation of sympathetic neurons, NT3, like NGF, is also an effector tissue-derived neurotrophic factor for these neurons in maturity.
- Stankovic K, Rio C, Xia A, Sugawara M, Adams J, Liberman M, et al. Survival of adult spiral ganglion neurons requires erbB receptor signaling in the inner ear. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8651-61 pubmed..Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of neurotrophic factor expression shows a specific downregulation in expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in the transgenic cochleas ..
- Genç B, Ozdinler P, Mendoza A, Erzurumlu R. A chemoattractant role for NT-3 in proprioceptive axon guidance. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e403 pubmed..Our results show that survival factor NT-3 acts as a short-distance axon guidance molecule for muscle sensory afferents as they approach their proper targets. ..
- Kucera J, Fan G, Jaenisch R, Linnarsson S, Ernfors P. Dependence of developing group Ia afferents on neurotrophin-3. J Comp Neurol. 1995;363:307-20 pubmed..Thus, developing Ia neurons may be dependent on NT-3 intrinsic to the DRGs before they reach a stage of potential dependence on NT-3 retrogradely derived from skeletal muscles or spinal motor neurons. ..
- Francis N, Farinas I, Brennan C, Rivas Plata K, Backus C, Reichardt L, et al. NT-3, like NGF, is required for survival of sympathetic neurons, but not their precursors. Dev Biol. 1999;210:411-27 pubmed..blood vessels, including those along which sympathetic axons grow, suggesting it may act as a retrograde neurotrophic factor, similar to nerve growth factor...
- Nosrat C, Blomlöf J, ElShamy W, Ernfors P, Olson L. Lingual deficits in BDNF and NT3 mutant mice leading to gustatory and somatosensory disturbances, respectively. Development. 1997;124:1333-42 pubmed..and physiological data from wild-type and null-mutated mice have established crucial roles for BDNF and NT3 in gustatory and somatosensory innervation of the tongue, and indeed for proper development of the papillary ..
- Fowler S, Zarcone T, Chen R, Taylor M, Wright D. Low grip strength, impaired tongue force and hyperactivity induced by overexpression of neurotrophin-3 in mouse skeletal muscle. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2002;20:303-8 pubmed
- Guha U, Gomes W, Samanta J, Gupta M, Rice F, Kessler J. Target-derived BMP signaling limits sensory neuron number and the extent of peripheral innervation in vivo. Development. 2004;131:1175-86 pubmed
- Palko M, Coppola V, Tessarollo L. Evidence for a role of truncated trkC receptor isoforms in mouse development. J Neurosci. 1999;19:775-82 pubmed..Taken together, these data suggest that truncated trkC receptor isoforms may have modulatory functions in development. ..
- Kim E, Hong Y, Go S, Lee B, Jung S. Downregulation of neurotrophic factors in the brain of a mouse model of Gaucher disease; implications for neuronal loss in Gaucher disease. Exp Mol Med. 2006;38:348-56 pubmed..The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor was reduced in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and cerebellum of Gaucher mice, ..
- Sekimoto M, Tsuji T, Matsuzaki J, Chamoto K, Koda T, Nemoto K, et al. Functional expression of the TrkC gene, encoding a high affinity receptor for NT-3, in antigen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Immunol Lett. 2003;88:221-6 pubmedNeurotrophins, including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are essential factors for the development of the nervous system...
- Agerman K, Hjerling Leffler J, Blanchard M, Scarfone E, Canlon B, Nosrat C, et al. BDNF gene replacement reveals multiple mechanisms for establishing neurotrophin specificity during sensory nervous system development. Development. 2003;130:1479-91 pubmed..However, despite overlapping expression of TrkB and TrkC in many sensory ganglia, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) null mutant mice display selective losses in neuronal subpopulations...
- Liebl D, Klesse L, Tessarollo L, Wohlman T, Parada L. Loss of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent neural crest-derived sensory neurons in neurotrophin-4 mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2297-302 pubmed..of neurons that differentiate primarily into proprioceptors whereas nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) support subpopulations that transmit nociception and mechanoreception, respectively...
- Sahenk Z, Oblinger J, Edwards C. Neurotrophin-3 deficient Schwann cells impair nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:552-6 pubmed publisherb>Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is an important autocrine factor supporting Schwann cell (SC) survival and differentiation in the absence of axons...
- Sun W, Salvi R. Brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophic factor 3 modulate neurotransmitter receptor expressions on developing spiral ganglion neurons. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1854-66 pubmed publisher..b>Neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released from hair cells and supporting cells exert a ..
- Wright D, Williams J, McDonald J, Carlsten J, Taylor M. Muscle-derived neurotrophin-3 reduces injury-induced proprioceptive degeneration in neonatal mice. J Neurobiol. 2002;50:198-208 pubmed..Our results demonstrate that in addition to its early actions on sensory neuron generation and naturally occurring cell death, NT-3 has important neuroprotective effects on muscle afferents during postnatal development. ..
- Baydyuk M, Xie Y, Tessarollo L, Xu B. Midbrain-derived neurotrophins support survival of immature striatal projection neurons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:3363-9 pubmed publisher..Here we report that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 are anterogradely transported from midbrain dopaminergic neurons and support the ..
- Wan G, GÃ³mez Casati M, Gigliello A, Liberman M, Corfas G. Neurotrophin-3 regulates ribbon synapse density in the cochlea and induces synapse regeneration after acoustic trauma. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisherNeurotrophin-3 (Ntf3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) are critical for sensory neuron survival and establishment of neuronal projections to sensory epithelia in the embryonic inner ear, but their postnatal functions remain ..
- Simpson P, Wang E, Moon C, Matarazzo V, Cohen D, Liebl D, et al. Neurotrophin-3 signaling maintains maturational homeostasis between neuronal populations in the olfactory epithelium. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;24:858-74 pubmed..These effects of NT-3 serve to maintain homeostasis between neuronal populations within the olfactory epithelium. ..
- Cupp A, Uzumcu M, Skinner M. Chemotactic role of neurotropin 3 in the embryonic testis that facilitates male sex determination. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:2033-7 pubmed..Sertoli cells are the first testicular cells to differentiate and have been shown to express neurotropin-3 (NT3), which can act on high-affinity trkC receptors expressed on migrating mesonephros cells...
- Stucky C, Shin J, Lewin G. Neurotrophin-4: a survival factor for adult sensory neurons. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1401-4 pubmed..Although these neurotrophins, which include Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), continue to be expressed into adulthood, there is ..
- Sheard P, Musaad K, Duxson M. Distribution of neurotrophin receptors in the mouse neuromuscular system. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:569-75 pubmed..We believe this result indicates that the neurotrophic relationship between alpha motoneurons and their target cells is not a simple one of neurotrophin supply by skeletal muscle cells and its uptake at the neuromuscular junction. ..