Gene Symbol: Nrtn
Description: neurturin
Alias: NTN, neurturin
Species: mouse
Products:     Nrtn

Top Publications

  1. Kotzbauer P, Lampe P, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Creedon D, Johnson E, et al. Neurturin, a relative of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. Nature. 1996;384:467-70 pubmed
    ..This factor, neurturin, is structurally related to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
  2. Yan H, Keast J. Neurturin regulates postnatal differentiation of parasympathetic pelvic ganglion neurons, initial axonal projections, and maintenance of terminal fields in male urogenital organs. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1169-83 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the development of autonomic nerves in the urogenital tract of male mice and the effect of neurturin gene deletion on this process...
  3. Rossi J, Tomac A, Saarma M, Airaksinen M. Distinct roles for GFRalpha1 and GFRalpha2 signalling in different cranial parasympathetic ganglia in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:3944-52 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NRTN), signalling via the GDNF family receptor alpha2 (GFRalpha2) and Ret tyrosine kinase, has recently been identified as an essential target-derived factor for many parasympathetic neurons...
  4. Heuckeroth R, Enomoto H, Grider J, Golden J, Hanke J, Jackman A, et al. Gene targeting reveals a critical role for neurturin in the development and maintenance of enteric, sensory, and parasympathetic neurons. Neuron. 1999;22:253-63 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a neuronal survival factor that activates the Ret tyrosine kinase in the presence of a GPI-linked coreceptor (either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2)...
  5. Wanigasekara Y, Airaksinen M, Heuckeroth R, Milbrandt J, Keast J. Neurturin signalling via GFRalpha2 is essential for innervation of glandular but not muscle targets of sacral parasympathetic ganglion neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;25:288-300 pubmed
    b>Neurturin, a member of the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor familys of ligands, is important for development of many cranial parasympathetic ganglion neurons...
  6. Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R, Golden J, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Development of cranial parasympathetic ganglia requires sequential actions of GDNF and neurturin. Development. 2000;127:4877-89 pubmed
    ..Recently, neurturin has been found to provide trophic support to neurons of the cranial parasympathetic ganglion...
  7. Golden J, DeMaro J, Osborne P, Milbrandt J, Johnson E. Expression of neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF family-receptor mRNA in the developing and mature mouse. Exp Neurol. 1999;158:504-28 pubmed
    The GDNF family of neurotrophic factors currently has four members: neurturin (NRTN), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), persephin, and artemin...
  8. Klein R, Sherman D, Ho W, Stone D, Bennett G, Moffat B, et al. A GPI-linked protein that interacts with Ret to form a candidate neurturin receptor. Nature. 1997;387:717-21 pubmed
    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent survival factors for sympathetic, sensory and central nervous system neurons...
  9. Langsdorf A, Radzikinas K, Kroten A, Jain S, Ai X. Neural crest cell origin and signals for intrinsic neurogenesis in the mammalian respiratory tract. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons of intrinsic neurogenesis between wild-type, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)(-/-), neurturin(-/-), and tyrosine kinase receptor Ret(-/-) embryos, in combination with lung organ cultures, identified that ..

More Information


  1. Roussa E, Oehlke O, Rahhal B, Heermann S, Heidrich S, Wiehle M, et al. Transforming growth factor beta cooperates with persephin for dopaminergic phenotype induction. Stem Cells. 2008;26:1683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that neurturin and persephin (PSPN), but not GDNF, are capable of transient induction of dopaminergic neurons in vitro...
  2. Uesaka T, Nagashimada M, Enomoto H. GDNF signaling levels control migration and neuronal differentiation of enteric ganglion precursors. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16372-82 pubmed publisher
  3. Vohra B, Planer W, Armon J, Fu M, Jain S, Heuckeroth R. Reduced endothelin converting enzyme-1 and endothelin-3 mRNA in the developing bowel of male mice may increase expressivity and penetrance of Hirschsprung disease-like distal intestinal aganglionosis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:106-17 pubmed
    ..5 male RetDN heterozygous mouse gut explants in organ culture significantly increased the rate of ENS precursor migration through the bowel. ..
  4. Pozas E, Ibanez C. GDNF and GFRalpha1 promote differentiation and tangential migration of cortical GABAergic neurons. Neuron. 2005;45:701-13 pubmed
    ..The lack of involvement of RET or NCAM in these processes suggests the existence of additional transmembrane effectors for GDNF. ..
  5. Brantley M, Jain S, Barr E, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Neurturin-mediated ret activation is required for retinal function. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4123-35 pubmed publisher
    The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs) [GDNF, NRTN (neurturin), ARTN (artemin), and PSPN (persephin)] interact with GDNF family receptors (GFRalphas) and activate intracellular signaling through the ..
  6. Botchkareva N, Botchkarev V, Welker P, Airaksinen M, Roth W, Suvanto P, et al. New roles for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin: involvement in hair cycle control. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:1041-53 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NTN), and their receptors, GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1) and GDNF family receptor alpha-2 (GFRalpha-2), are critically important for kidney and nervous system ..
  7. Fundin B, Mikaels A, Westphal H, Ernfors P. A rapid and dynamic regulation of GDNF-family ligands and receptors correlate with the developmental dependency of cutaneous sensory innervation. Development. 1999;126:2597-610 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta family and have been shown to elicit neurotrophic effects upon several classes of neurons including dopaminergic ..
  8. Yuzwa S, Yang G, Borrett M, Clarke G, Cancino G, Zahr S, et al. Proneurogenic Ligands Defined by Modeling Developing Cortex Growth Factor Communication Networks. Neuron. 2016;91:988-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this communication model, focusing on neurogenesis, and identified IFN?, Neurturin (Nrtn), and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as ligands with unexpected roles in promoting neurogenic ..
  9. Simanainen U, Gao Y, Desai R, Jimenez M, Spaliviero J, Keast J, et al. Evidence for increased tissue androgen sensitivity in neurturin knockout mice. J Endocrinol. 2013;218:151-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family and signals through GDNF family receptor alpha 2 (GFR?2)...
  10. Stewart A, Anderson R, Kobayashi K, Young H. Effects of NGF, NT-3 and GDNF family members on neurite outgrowth and migration from pelvic ganglia from embryonic and newborn mice. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:73 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of NGF, NT-3, GDNF, neurturin and artemin on cell migration and neurite outgrowth from explants of the pelvic ganglia from embryonic and ..
  11. Honma Y, Kawano M, Kohsaka S, Ogawa M. Axonal projections of mechanoreceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons depend on Ret. Development. 2010;137:2319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ectopic expression of the Ret ligand neurturin, but not Gdnf, in the spinal cord induces aberrant projection of mechanoreceptive afferents...
  12. Downs A, Jalloh H, Prater K, Fregoso S, Bond C, Hampton T, et al. Deletion of neurturin impairs development of cholinergic nerves and heart rate control in postnatal mouse hearts. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    The neurotrophic factor neurturin is required for normal cholinergic innervation of adult mouse heart and bradycardic responses to vagal stimulation...
  13. Stucky C, Rossi J, Airaksinen M, Lewin G. GFR alpha2/neurturin signalling regulates noxious heat transduction in isolectin B4-binding mouse sensory neurons. J Physiol. 2002;545:43-50 pubmed
    The GFR alpha2 receptor is the cognate co-receptor for the neurotrophic factor neurturin and GFR alpha2 is selectively expressed by isolectin B(4) (IB(4))-binding nociceptive sensory neurons...
  14. Song X, Li D, Farley W, Luo L, Heuckeroth R, Milbrandt J, et al. Neurturin-deficient mice develop dry eye and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4223-9 pubmed
    b>Neurturin has been identified as a neurotrophic factor for parasympathetic neurons. Neurturin-deficient (NRTN(-/-)) mice have defective parasympathetic innervation of their lacrimal glands...
  15. Patel A, Harker N, Moreira Santos L, Ferreira M, Alden K, Timmis J, et al. Differential RET signaling pathways drive development of the enteric lymphoid and nervous systems. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that a trans RET response in LTin cells determines the initial phase of enteric lymphoid organ morphogenesis, and suggests that differential co-expression of Ret and Gfra can control the specificity of RET signaling. ..
  16. Mabe A, Hoover D. Structural and functional cardiac cholinergic deficits in adult neurturin knockout mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:93-9 pubmed publisher
    Previous work provided indirect evidence that the neurotrophic factor neurturin (NRTN) is required for normal cholinergic innervation of the heart...
  17. Michel T, Thérésine M, Poli A, Domingues O, Ammerlaan W, Brons N, et al. Increased Th2 cytokine secretion, eosinophilic airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness in neurturin-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2011;186:6497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Neurturin (NTN), another neurotrophin from the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family, was shown to be ..
  18. Hoover J, Bond C, Hoover D, Defoe D. Effect of neurturin deficiency on cholinergic and catecholaminergic innervation of the murine eye. Exp Eye Res. 2014;122:32-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NRTN) is a neurotrophic factor required for the development of many parasympathetic neurons and normal cholinergic innervation of the heart, lacrimal glands and numerous other tissues...
  19. Widenfalk J, Nosrat C, Tomac A, Westphal H, Hoffer B, Olson L. Neurturin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-beta (GDNFR-beta), novel proteins related to GDNF and GDNFR-alpha with specific cellular patterns of expression suggesting roles in the developing and adult nervous system and in peri. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8506-19 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization was then used to map cellular expression of the GDNF-related trophic factor neurturin (NTN) and GDNFR-beta mRNA in developing and adult mice, and comparisons with GDNFR-alpha and RET were made...
  20. Mauffray M, Domingues O, Hentges F, Zimmer J, Hanau D, Michel T. Neurturin influences inflammatory responses and airway remodeling in different mouse asthma models. J Immunol. 2015;194:1423-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NTN) was previously described for its neuronal activities, but recently, we have shown that this factor is also involved in asthma physiopathology. However, the underlying mechanisms of NTN are unclear...
  21. Fleming M, Vysochan A, Paixão S, Niu J, Klein R, Savitt J, et al. Cis and trans RET signaling control the survival and central projection growth of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. elife. 2015;4:e06828 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that trans and cis RET signaling could function in the same developmental process and that the availability of both forms of activation likely enhances but not diversifies outcomes of RET signaling. ..
  22. Rosenthal A. The GDNF protein family: gene ablation studies reveal what they really do and how. Neuron. 1999;22:201-3 pubmed
  23. Jankowski M, Baumbauer K, Wang T, Albers K, Davis B, Koerber H. Cutaneous neurturin overexpression alters mechanical, thermal, and cold responsiveness in physiologically identified primary afferents. J Neurophysiol. 2017;117:1258-1265 pubmed publisher
    ..The GDNF family member neurturin is one such factor that has been linked to modulating responsiveness to peripheral stimuli...
  24. Fonseca Pereira D, Arroz Madeira S, Rodrigues Campos M, Barbosa I, Domingues R, Bento T, et al. The neurotrophic factor receptor RET drives haematopoietic stem cell survival and function. Nature. 2014;514:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work shows that neurotrophic factors are novel components of the haematopoietic stem cell microenvironment, revealing that haematopoietic stem cells and neurons are regulated by similar signals. ..
  25. Heuckeroth R, Kotzbauer P, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Zimonjic D, et al. Neurturin, a novel neurotrophic factor, is localized to mouse chromosome 17 and human chromosome 19p13.3. Genomics. 1997;44:137-40 pubmed
    b>Neurturin is a potent neurotrophic factor closely related to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, 40% amino acid sequence identity) and, like GDNF, can promote the survival of numerous neuronal populations including ..
  26. Luo W, Enomoto H, Rice F, Milbrandt J, Ginty D. Molecular identification of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors and their developmental dependence on ret signaling. Neuron. 2009;64:841-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the early Ret(+) neurons are RA mechanoreceptors and Ret signaling is required for the assembly of neural circuits underlying touch perception. ..
  27. Luukko K, Saarma M, Thesleff I. Neurturin mRNA expression suggests roles in trigeminal innervation of the first branchial arch and in tooth formation. Dev Dyn. 1998;213:207-19 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) is a recently characterized member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-family which, like GDNF, can promote the survival of certain populations of neuronal cells in peripheral and central nervous ..
  28. Naveilhan P, Baudet C, Mikaels A, Shen L, Westphal H, Ernfors P. Expression and regulation of GFRalpha3, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:1295-300 pubmed
    ..factor (GDNF) family receptor, termed GFRalpha3, that is homologous to the previously identified GDNF and neurturin ligand binding receptors GFRalpha1 and GFRalpha2...
  29. Reyes Corona D, Vázquez Hernández N, Escobedo L, Orozco Barrios C, Ayala Davila J, Moreno M, et al. Neurturin overexpression in dopaminergic neurons induces presynaptic and postsynaptic structural changes in rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188239 pubmed publisher
    The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson's disease animal models...
  30. Wang T, Jing X, DeBerry J, Schwartz E, Molliver D, Albers K, et al. Neurturin overexpression in skin enhances expression of TRPM8 in cutaneous sensory neurons and leads to behavioral sensitivity to cool and menthol. J Neurosci. 2013;33:2060-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurturin (NRTN) is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands that exerts its actions via Ret tyrosine kinase and GFR?2...
  31. Jomary C, Thomas M, Grist J, Milbrandt J, Neal M, Jones S. Expression patterns of neurturin and its receptor components in developing and degenerative mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:568-74 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) and its receptor components (GFRalpha2 and Ret) play an important role in the survival of different populations of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems...
  32. Golden J, Baloh R, Kotzbauer P, Lampe P, Osborne P, Milbrandt J, et al. Expression of neurturin, GDNF, and their receptors in the adult mouse CNS. J Comp Neurol. 1998;398:139-50 pubmed
    b>Neurturin (NTN) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are the first two members of the GDNF family (GF) of neurotrophic factors...
  33. Baloh R, Gorodinsky A, Golden J, Tansey M, Keck C, Popescu N, et al. GFRalpha3 is an orphan member of the GDNF/neurturin/persephin receptor family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5801-6 pubmed
    GDNF, neurturin, and persephin are transforming growth factor beta-related neurotrophic factors known collectively as the GDNF family (GF)...
  34. Baloh R, Tansey M, Golden J, Creedon D, Heuckeroth R, Keck C, et al. TrnR2, a novel receptor that mediates neurturin and GDNF signaling through Ret. Neuron. 1997;18:793-802 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) comprise a family of TGF-beta-related neurotrophic factors (TRNs), which have trophic influences on a variety of neuronal populations...
  35. Rossi J, Luukko K, Poteryaev D, Laurikainen A, Sun Y, Laakso T, et al. Retarded growth and deficits in the enteric and parasympathetic nervous system in mice lacking GFR alpha2, a functional neurturin receptor. Neuron. 1999;22:243-52 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and a related protein, neurturin (NTN), require a GPI-linked coreceptor, either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2, for signaling via the transmembrane Ret tyrosine kinase...
  36. Baudet C, Mikaels A, Westphal H, Johansen J, Johansen T, Ernfors P. Positive and negative interactions of GDNF, NTN and ART in developing sensory neuron subpopulations, and their collaboration with neurotrophins. Development. 2000;127:4335-44 pubmed
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NTN) and neublastin/artemin (ART) are distant members of the transforming growth factor beta family, and have been shown to elicit neurotrophic effects upon several classes ..
  37. Ishida H, Saba R, Kokkinopoulos I, Hashimoto M, Yamaguchi O, Nowotschin S, et al. GFRA2 Identifies Cardiac Progenitors and Mediates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation in a RET-Independent Signaling Pathway. Cell Rep. 2016;16:1026-1038 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings establish a platform for investigating the biology of CPs as a foundation for future development of CP transplantation for treating heart failure. ..
  38. Gianino S, Grider J, Cresswell J, Enomoto H, Heuckeroth R. GDNF availability determines enteric neuron number by controlling precursor proliferation. Development. 2003;130:2187-98 pubmed
    ..These analyses demonstrate that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin are important for different aspects of ENS development...
  39. Davies J, Millar C, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Neurturin: an autocrine regulator of renal collecting duct development. Dev Genet. 1999;24:284-92 pubmed
    ..We report that neurturin, a neurotrophin related to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and expressed in the developing kidney, ..
  40. Baudet C, Pozas E, Adameyko I, Andersson E, Ericson J, Ernfors P. Retrograde signaling onto Ret during motor nerve terminal maturation. J Neurosci. 2008;28:963-75 pubmed publisher the presynaptic membrane with its ligands, GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor)/NTN (neurturin), expressed in skeletal muscle tissue...