Gene Symbol: Nrp1
Description: neuropilin 1
Alias: C530029I03, NP-1, NPN-1, Npn1, Nrp, neuropilin-1, A5 protein, Neuropilin-1 precursor (A5 protein), transmembrane receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Nrp1

Top Publications

  1. Morishima M, Yanagisawa H, Yanagisawa M, Baldini A. Ece1 and Tbx1 define distinct pathways to aortic arch morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:95-104 pubmed
    ..The latter function is likely related to the known role of the Endothelin-1 pathway in neural crest function. ..
  2. Cariboni A, Davidson K, Dozio E, Memi F, Schwarz Q, Stossi F, et al. VEGF signalling controls GnRH neuron survival via NRP1 independently of KDR and blood vessels. Development. 2011;138:3723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that the class 3 semaphorin SEMA3A signals through its neuropilin receptors, NRP1 and NRP2, to organise the axons that guide migrating GnRH neurons from their birthplace into the brain...
  3. Hernández Miranda L, Cariboni A, Faux C, Ruhrberg C, Cho J, Cloutier J, et al. Robo1 regulates semaphorin signaling to guide the migration of cortical interneurons through the ventral forebrain. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6174-87 pubmed publisher the chemorepulsive cues of class 3 semaphorins expressed in the striatal mantle and acting through neuropilin (Nrp1 and Nrp2) receptors expressed in these cells...
  4. Solomon B, Mueller C, Chae W, Alabanza L, Bynoe M. Neuropilin-1 attenuates autoreactivity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2040-5 pubmed publisher
    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is a cell surface molecule originally identified for its role in neuronal development...
  5. Chen G, Sima J, Jin M, Wang K, Xue X, Zheng W, et al. Semaphorin-3A guides radial migration of cortical neurons during development. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:36-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, Sema3A may function as a chemoattractive guidance signal for the radial migration of newborn cortical neurons toward upper layers. ..
  6. Cao Y, Szabolcs A, Dutta S, Yaqoob U, Jagavelu K, Wang L, et al. Neuropilin-1 mediates divergent R-Smad signaling and the myofibroblast phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was reported to bind and activate the latent form of TGF-?1 (LAP-TGF-?1)...
  7. Ito T, Kagoshima M, Sasaki Y, Li C, Udaka N, Kitsukawa T, et al. Repulsive axon guidance molecule Sema3A inhibits branching morphogenesis of fetal mouse lung. Mech Dev. 2000;97:35-45 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that Sema3A inhibits branching morphogenesis in lung bud organ cultures via NP-1 as a receptor or a component of a possible multimeric Sema3A receptor complex. ..
  8. Fantin A, Schwarz Q, Davidson K, Normando E, Denti L, Ruhrberg C. The cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin 1 is dispensable for angiogenesis, but promotes the spatial separation of retinal arteries and veins. Development. 2011;138:4185-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is essential for blood vessel development in vertebrates...
  9. Yamagishi H, Olson E, Srivastava D. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, dHAND, is required for vascular development. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:261-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that dHAND is required for vascular development and regulates angiogenesis, possibly through a VEGF signaling pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Saint Geniez M, Maldonado A, D Amore P. VEGF expression and receptor activation in the choroid during development and in the adult. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3135-42 pubmed
    ..The observations suggest that VEGF signaling is involved, not only in choroidal vessel formation, but perhaps also in the maintenance of the choriocapillaris. ..
  2. Zimmer G, Schanuel S, Burger S, Weth F, Steinecke A, Bolz J, et al. Chondroitin sulfate acts in concert with semaphorin 3A to guide tangential migration of cortical interneurons in the ventral telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2411-22 pubmed publisher coexpressed with semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) in the striatal mantle zone (SMZ), a nontarget region of neuropilin (Nrp)-1-expressing cortical interneurons flanking their migratory route in the subpallium...
  3. Schwarz Q, Maden C, Vieira J, Ruhrberg C. Neuropilin 1 signaling guides neural crest cells to coordinate pathway choice with cell specification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the repulsive guidance cue SEMA3A and its receptor neuropilin 1 (NRP1) are essential to direct the intermediate wave NCC precursors of peripheral neurons from a default ..
  4. Kawakami A, Kitsukawa T, Takagi S, Fujisawa H. Developmentally regulated expression of a cell surface protein, neuropilin, in the mouse nervous system. J Neurobiol. 1996;29:1-17 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that neuropilin is involved in growth, fasciculation, and targeting for a particular groups of axons. ..
  5. Schwarting G, Kostek C, Ahmad N, Dibble C, Pays L, Puschel A. Semaphorin 3A is required for guidance of olfactory axons in mice. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7691-7 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that Sema3A expression by ensheathing cells plays an important role in guiding olfactory axons into specific compartments of the OB. ..
  6. Ulupinar E, Datwani A, Behar O, Fujisawa H, Erzurumlu R. Role of semaphorin III in the developing rodent trigeminal system. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999;13:281-92 pubmed
    ..Other molecular and cellular mechanisms must act in concert with semaphorins in ensuring target recognition, topographic order of projections, and patterning of neural connections. ..
  7. Fantin A, Herzog B, Mahmoud M, Yamaji M, Plein A, Denti L, et al. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) hypomorphism combined with defective VEGF-A binding reveals novel roles for NRP1 in developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Development. 2014;141:556-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a receptor for class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and is essential for cardiovascular development...
  8. Raimondi C, Fantin A, Lampropoulou A, Denti L, Chikh A, Ruhrberg C. Imatinib inhibits VEGF-independent angiogenesis by targeting neuropilin 1-dependent ABL1 activation in endothelial cells. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1167-83 pubmed publisher
    To enable new blood vessel growth, endothelial cells (ECs) express neuropilin 1 (NRP1), and NRP1 associates with the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 after binding the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) to enhance arteriogenesis...
  9. Kettunen P, Løes S, Furmanek T, Fjeld K, Kvinnsland I, Behar O, et al. Coordination of trigeminal axon navigation and patterning with tooth organ formation: epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and epithelial Wnt4 and Tgfbeta1 regulate semaphorin 3a expression in the dental mesenchyme. Development. 2005;132:323-34 pubmed
    ..By analyzing Sema3a and its receptor Npn1 knockout mouse embryos, we found that Sema3a regulates dental trigeminal axon navigation and patterning, as well as ..
  10. Jubb A, Strickland L, Liu S, Mak J, Schmidt M, Koeppen H. Neuropilin-1 expression in cancer and development. J Pathol. 2012;226:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Preclinical data suggest that blockade of NRP1 suppresses tumour growth by inhibiting angiogenesis, in addition to directly inhibiting tumour cell proliferation ..
  11. Suto F, Ito K, Uemura M, Shimizu M, Shinkawa Y, Sanbo M, et al. Plexin-a4 mediates axon-repulsive activities of both secreted and transmembrane semaphorins and plays roles in nerve fiber guidance. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3628-37 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that plexin-A4 mediates multiple semaphorin signals and regulates axon guidance in vivo. ..
  12. Bechara A, Nawabi H, Moret F, Yaron A, Weaver E, Bozon M, et al. FAK-MAPK-dependent adhesion disassembly downstream of L1 contributes to semaphorin3A-induced collapse. EMBO J. 2008;27:1549-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In the developing cerebral cortex, the Ig superfamily cell adhesion molecule L1 associates with Nrp1. Intriguingly, the genetic removal of L1 blocks axon responses of cortical neurons to Sema3A in vitro despite the ..
  13. Gerhardt H, Ruhrberg C, Abramsson A, Fujisawa H, Shima D, Betsholtz C. Neuropilin-1 is required for endothelial tip cell guidance in the developing central nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:503-9 pubmed
    ..Neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) is a transmembrane receptor with a repulsive function in axon guidance...
  14. Schwarz Q, Waimey K, Golding M, Takamatsu H, Kumanogoh A, Fujisawa H, et al. Plexin A3 and plexin A4 convey semaphorin signals during facial nerve development. Dev Biol. 2008;324:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of either SEMA3A/NRP1 or SEMA3F/NRP2 caused defasciculation and ectopic projection of facial branchiomotor axons...
  15. Schwarz Q, Vieira J, Howard B, Eickholt B, Ruhrberg C. Neuropilin 1 and 2 control cranial gangliogenesis and axon guidance through neural crest cells. Development. 2008;135:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors and their class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) ligands play well-established roles in axon guidance, with loss of NRP1, NRP2, SEMA3A or SEMA3F causing defasciculation and errors in growth cone guidance of peripherally projecting ..
  16. Fantin A, Vieira J, Gestri G, Denti L, Schwarz Q, Prykhozhij S, et al. Tissue macrophages act as cellular chaperones for vascular anastomosis downstream of VEGF-mediated endothelial tip cell induction. Blood. 2010;116:829-40 pubmed publisher
    ..those that promote the angiogenic switch in cancer, including the expression of the cell-surface proteins TIE2 and NRP1. Our findings suggest that tissue macrophages are a target for antiangiogenic therapies, but that they could ..
  17. Gu C, Rodriguez E, Reimert D, Shu T, Fritzsch B, Richards L, et al. Neuropilin-1 conveys semaphorin and VEGF signaling during neural and cardiovascular development. Dev Cell. 2003;5:45-57 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Npn-1 is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the activities of structurally distinct ligands during development of the heart, vasculature, and nervous system. ..
  18. Chen H, Chedotal A, He Z, Goodman C, Tessier Lavigne M. Neuropilin-2, a novel member of the neuropilin family, is a high affinity receptor for the semaphorins Sema E and Sema IV but not Sema III. Neuron. 1997;19:547-59 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that the specificity of action of different members of this subfamily may be determined by the complement of neuropilins expressed by responsive cells. ..
  19. Huettl R, Soellner H, Bianchi E, Novitch B, Huber A. Npn-1 contributes to axon-axon interactions that differentially control sensory and motor innervation of the limb. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001020 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, motor and sensory axons are mutually dependent on each other for the generation of their trajectories and interact in part through Npn-1-mediated fasciculation before and within the plexus region of the limbs...
  20. Beck B, Driessens G, Goossens S, Youssef K, Kuchnio A, Caauwe A, et al. A vascular niche and a VEGF-Nrp1 loop regulate the initiation and stemness of skin tumours. Nature. 2011;478:399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, deletion of neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), a VEGF co-receptor expressed in cutaneous CSCs, blocked VEGF's ability to promote cancer stemness and renewal...
  21. Pecho Vrieseling E, Sigrist M, Yoshida Y, Jessell T, Arber S. Specificity of sensory-motor connections encoded by Sema3e-Plxnd1 recognition. Nature. 2009;459:842-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that patterns of monosynaptic connectivity in this prototypic central nervous system circuit are constructed through a recognition program based on repellent signalling. ..
  22. Abbott B, Buckalew A. Placental defects in ARNT-knockout conceptus correlate with localized decreases in VEGF-R2, Ang-1, and Tie-2. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:526-38 pubmed
    ..5. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  23. Hatanaka Y, Matsumoto T, Yanagawa Y, Fujisawa H, Murakami F, Masu M. Distinct roles of neuropilin 1 signaling for radial and tangential extension of callosal axons. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined the role of neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in these developmental events...
  24. Salikhova A, Wang L, Lanahan A, Liu M, Simons M, Leenders W, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor and semaphorin induce neuropilin-1 endocytosis via separate pathways. Circ Res. 2008;103:e71-9 pubmed publisher
    The neuropilin (Nrp)1 receptor is essential for both nervous and vascular system development. Nrp1 is unusually versatile, because it transmits both chemoattractive and repulsive signals in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (..
  25. Prahst C, Heroult M, Lanahan A, Uziel N, Kessler O, Shraga Heled N, et al. Neuropilin-1-VEGFR-2 complexing requires the PDZ-binding domain of neuropilin-1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the experiments have identified a novel mechanism of NP-1 interaction with VEGFR-2, which involves the cytoplasmic domain of NP-1. ..
  26. Hayashi M, Nakashima T, Taniguchi M, Kodama T, Kumanogoh A, Takayanagi H. Osteoprotection by semaphorin 3A. Nature. 2012;485:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding of Sema3A to neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting ..
  27. Hanchate N, Giacobini P, Lhuillier P, Parkash J, Espy C, Fouveaut C, et al. SEMA3A, a gene involved in axonal pathfinding, is mutated in patients with Kallmann syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002896 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetics of KS involves various modes of transmission, including oligogenic inheritance. Here, we report that Nrp1(sema/sema) mutant mice that lack a functional semaphorin-binding domain in neuropilin-1, an obligatory coreceptor ..
  28. Lanahan A, Zhang X, Fantin A, Zhuang Z, Rivera Molina F, Speichinger K, et al. The neuropilin 1 cytoplasmic domain is required for VEGF-A-dependent arteriogenesis. Dev Cell. 2013;25:156-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) plays an important but ill-defined role in VEGF-A signaling and vascular morphogenesis...
  29. Glinka Y, Prud homme G. Neuropilin-1 is a receptor for transforming growth factor beta-1, activates its latent form, and promotes regulatory T cell activity. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:302-10 pubmed publisher
    Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is a multifunctional protein, identified principally as a receptor for the class 3 semaphorins and members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, but it is capable of other interactions...
  30. Li F, Zhao H, Liao Y, Takashima S, Asano Y, Shintani Y, et al. Higher mortality in heterozygous neuropilin-1 mice after cardiac pressure overload. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;370:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that NP-1 formed complexes with VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively, in cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that NP-1 should play beneficial role in heart failure. ..
  31. He Z, Tessier Lavigne M. Neuropilin is a receptor for the axonal chemorepellent Semaphorin III. Cell. 1997;90:739-51 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that neuropilin is a receptor or a component of a receptor complex that mediates the effects of Sema III on these axons. ..
  32. Sahay A, Kim C, Sepkuty J, Cho E, Huganir R, Ginty D, et al. Secreted semaphorins modulate synaptic transmission in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3613-20 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a novel role for semaphorins as synaptic modulators and illustrate the diverse repertoire of these guidance cues in both the formation and function of neural circuits. ..
  33. Giger R, Cloutier J, Sahay A, Prinjha R, Levengood D, Moore S, et al. Neuropilin-2 is required in vivo for selective axon guidance responses to secreted semaphorins. Neuron. 2000;25:29-41 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Npn-2 is a selective receptor for class 3 semaphorins in vivo and that Npn-1 and Npn-2 are required for development of an overlapping but distinct set of CNS and PNS projections. ..
  34. Cariboni A, Davidson K, Rakic S, Maggi R, Parnavelas J, Ruhrberg C. Defective gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron migration in mice lacking SEMA3A signalling through NRP1 and NRP2: implications for the aetiology of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, mice lacking SEMA3A or semaphorin signalling through both NRP1 and NRP2 recapitulate the anatomical features of a single case of KS analysed so far, and may therefore be used as ..
  35. Niquille M, Garel S, Mann F, Hornung J, Otsmane B, Chevalley S, et al. Transient neuronal populations are required to guide callosal axons: a role for semaphorin 3C. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000230 pubmed publisher
    ..By revealing a novel and essential role for these neuronal populations in the pathfinding of a major cerebral commissure, our study brings new perspectives to pathophysiological mechanisms altering CC formation. ..
  36. Kuwajima T, Yoshida Y, Takegahara N, Petros T, Kumanogoh A, Jessell T, et al. Optic chiasm presentation of Semaphorin6D in the context of Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM promotes retinal axon midline crossing. Neuron. 2012;74:676-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a mechanism by which a complex of Sema6D, Nr-CAM, and Plexin-A1 at the chiasm midline alters the sign of Sema6D and signals Nr-CAM/Plexin-A1 receptors on RGCs to implement the contralateral RGC projection. ..
  37. Yaqoob U, Cao S, Shergill U, Jagavelu K, Geng Z, Yin M, et al. Neuropilin-1 stimulates tumor growth by increasing fibronectin fibril assembly in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Res. 2012;72:4047-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) orchestrates communications between myofibroblasts and soluble fibronectin that promote ?5?1 integrin-dependent ..
  38. Valdembri D, Caswell P, Anderson K, Schwarz J, König I, Astanina E, et al. Neuropilin-1/GIPC1 signaling regulates alpha5beta1 integrin traffic and function in endothelial cells. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e25 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A164 in mice) and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A)...
  39. Hansen W, Hutzler M, Abel S, Alter C, Stockmann C, Kliche S, et al. Neuropilin 1 deficiency on CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells impairs mouse melanoma growth. J Exp Med. 2012;209:2001-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that Neuropilin 1 (Nrp-1), highly expressed by Foxp3(+) T reg cells, regulates the immunological anti-tumor control by guiding T ..
  40. Jones E, Yuan L, Breant C, Watts R, Eichmann A. Separating genetic and hemodynamic defects in neuropilin 1 knockout embryos. Development. 2008;135:2479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show how to distinguish between genetic defects caused by targeted inactivation of the neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) receptor and hemodynamic defects occurring in homozygous knockout embryos...
  41. Kitsukawa T, Shimizu M, Sanbo M, Hirata T, Taniguchi M, Bekku Y, et al. Neuropilin-semaphorin III/D-mediated chemorepulsive signals play a crucial role in peripheral nerve projection in mice. Neuron. 1997;19:995-1005 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that neuropilin-semaphorin III/D-mediated chemorepulsive signals play a major role in guidance of PNS efferents. ..
  42. Haupt C, Kloos K, Faus Kessler T, Huber A. Semaphorin 3A-Neuropilin-1 signaling regulates peripheral axon fasciculation and pathfinding but not developmental cell death patterns. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Sema3A-Npn-1 signaling plays an important role in the guidance and fasciculation of motor and sensory axons but does not contribute to the developmental elimination of these neurons. ..
  43. Cohen S, Funkelstein L, Livet J, Rougon G, Henderson C, Castellani V, et al. A semaphorin code defines subpopulations of spinal motor neurons during mouse development. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1767-76 pubmed
    ..These findings lead us to propose that semaphorins and their receptors might play important roles in the sorting of motor pools and the patterning of their afferent and efferent projections. ..
  44. Tran T, Rubio M, Clem R, Johnson D, Case L, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. Secreted semaphorins control spine distribution and morphogenesis in the postnatal CNS. Nature. 2009;462:1065-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are reflected in the restricted dendritic localization of Npn-2 to apical dendrites and of Npn-1 (also known as Nrp1) to all dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons...
  45. Riese A, Eilert Y, Meyer Y, Arin M, Baron J, Eming S, et al. Epidermal expression of neuropilin 1 protects murine keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50944 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is expressed on several cell types including neurons and endothelial cells, where it functions as an important regulator in development and during angiogenesis...
  46. Hillman R, Feng B, Ni J, Woo W, Milenkovic L, Hayden Gephart M, et al. Neuropilins are positive regulators of Hedgehog signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) and Nrp2, transmembrane proteins with roles in axon guidance and vascular endothelial growth factor (..
  47. Le A, Zielinski R, He C, Crow M, Biswal S, Tuder R, et al. Pulmonary epithelial neuropilin-1 deletion enhances development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:396-406 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), an integral component of receptor complexes mediating alveolar septation and vascular development, was involved ..
  48. Schwarz Q, Maden C, Davidson K, Ruhrberg C. Neuropilin-mediated neural crest cell guidance is essential to organise sensory neurons into segmented dorsal root ganglia. Development. 2009;136:1785-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, SEMA3A/NRP1 signalling first directs one population of NCCs from the intersomitic path into the sclerotome, and SEMA3F/NRP2 ..
  49. Marin O, Yaron A, Bagri A, Tessier Lavigne M, Rubenstein J. Sorting of striatal and cortical interneurons regulated by semaphorin-neuropilin interactions. Science. 2001;293:872-5 pubmed
  50. Kawasaki T, Kitsukawa T, Bekku Y, Matsuda Y, Sanbo M, Yagi T, et al. A requirement for neuropilin-1 in embryonic vessel formation. Development. 1999;126:4895-902 pubmed
    ..The vascular defects induced by neuropilin-1 deficiency in mouse embryos suggest that neuropilin-1 plays roles in embryonic vessel formation, as well as nerve fiber guidance. ..
  51. Wright A, Demyanenko G, Powell A, Schachner M, Enriquez Barreto L, Tran T, et al. Close homolog of L1 and neuropilin 1 mediate guidance of thalamocortical axons at the ventral telencephalon. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13667-79 pubmed
    ..between the neural adhesion molecule close homolog of L1 (CHL1) and the semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) receptor, neuropilin 1 (Npn1), important for establishment of area-specific thalamocortical projections...
  52. Erskine L, Reijntjes S, Pratt T, Denti L, Schwarz Q, Vieira J, et al. VEGF signaling through neuropilin 1 guides commissural axon crossing at the optic chiasm. Neuron. 2011;70:951-65 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining genetic analyses with in vitro assays, we show that neuropilin 1 (NRP1) promotes contralateral RGC projection in mammals...
  53. Corbel C, Lemarchandel V, Thomas Vaslin V, Pelus A, Agboton C, Romeo P. Neuropilin 1 and CD25 co-regulation during early murine thymic differentiation. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:1082-94 pubmed
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NP1) is a receptor for both semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor expressed by subpopulations of neuronal and endothelial cells. In the immune system, NP1 is present on dendritic and regulatory T cells...
  54. Gitler A, Lu M, Epstein J. PlexinD1 and semaphorin signaling are required in endothelial cells for cardiovascular development. Dev Cell. 2004;7:107-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, molecular programs that mediate axon guidance in the central nervous system also function in endothelial cells to orchestrate critical aspects of cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  55. Maden C, Gomes J, Schwarz Q, Davidson K, Tinker A, Ruhrberg C. NRP1 and NRP2 cooperate to regulate gangliogenesis, axon guidance and target innervation in the sympathetic nervous system. Dev Biol. 2012;369:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NRP1 and NRP2 are receptors for guidance cues of the class 3 semaphorin (SEMA) family and are expressed in partially ..
  56. Takahashi T, Fournier A, Nakamura F, Wang L, Murakami Y, Kalb R, et al. Plexin-neuropilin-1 complexes form functional semaphorin-3A receptors. Cell. 1999;99:59-69 pubmed
    ..Sema3A treatment leads to the redistribution of growth cone NP-1 and plexin into clusters. Thus, physiologic Sema3A receptors consist of NP-1/plexin complexes. ..
  57. Takashima S, Kitakaze M, Asakura M, Asanuma H, Sanada S, Tashiro F, et al. Targeting of both mouse neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes severely impairs developmental yolk sac and embryonic angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3657-62 pubmed
    ..Their abnormal vascular phenotype resembled those of VEGF and VEGFR-2 knockouts. These results suggest that NRPs are early genes in embryonic vessel development and that both NP1 and NP2 are required. ..
  58. Ruiz de Almodovar C, Fabre P, Knevels E, Coulon C, Segura I, Haddick P, et al. VEGF mediates commissural axon chemoattraction through its receptor Flk1. Neuron. 2011;70:966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to Shh and Netrin-1, VEGF-mediated commissural axon guidance requires the activity of Src family kinases. Our results identify VEGF and Flk1 as a novel ligand/receptor pair controlling commissural axon guidance. ..
  59. Imai T, Yamazaki T, Kobayakawa R, Kobayakawa K, Abe T, Suzuki M, et al. Pre-target axon sorting establishes the neural map topography. Science. 2009;325:585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, pre-target axon sorting plays an important role in establishing the topographic order based on the relative levels of guidance molecules expressed by axons. ..
  60. Roffers Agarwal J, Gammill L. Neuropilin receptors guide distinct phases of sensory and motor neuronal segmentation. Development. 2009;136:1879-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We now expand these results to show that Nrp2 patterns initial motor axon outgrowth as well. Later, Nrp1/Sema3A signaling is essential for segmental dorsal root gangliogenesis and motor axonal fasciculation into ventral ..
  61. Col J, Matsuo T, Storm D, Rodriguez I. Adenylyl cyclase-dependent axonal targeting in the olfactory system. Development. 2007;134:2481-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the cyclase depletion leads to the prevention of neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) expression in olfactory sensory neuron axonal projections...
  62. Vieira J, Schwarz Q, Ruhrberg C. Selective requirements for NRP1 ligands during neurovascular patterning. Development. 2007;134:1833-43 pubmed
    ..The transmembrane protein NRP1 is present on blood vessels and nerves...
  63. Tufro A, Teichman J, Woda C, Villegas G. Semaphorin3a inhibits ureteric bud branching morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2008;125:558-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that Sema3a is an endogenous antagonist of ureteric bud branching and hence, plays a role in patterning the renal collecting system as a negative regulator. ..
  64. Stalmans I, Lambrechts D, De Smet F, Jansen S, Wang J, Maity S, et al. VEGF: a modifier of the del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome?. Nat Med. 2003;9:173-82 pubmed
    ..These genetic data in mouse, fish and human indicate that VEGF is a modifier of cardiovascular birth defects in the del22q11 syndrome. ..
  65. Piper M, Plachez C, Zalucki O, Fothergill T, Goudreau G, Erzurumlu R, et al. Neuropilin 1-Sema signaling regulates crossing of cingulate pioneering axons during development of the corpus callosum. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19 Suppl 1:i11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that neuropilin 1 (Npn1) plays an integral role in the development of the CC...
  66. Sato Y, Hirata T, Ogawa M, Fujisawa H. Requirement for early-generated neurons recognized by monoclonal antibody lot1 in the formation of lateral olfactory tract. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7800-10 pubmed
    ..Ablation of lot cells prevented LOT formation in organotypic culture. These results suggest that lot cells are "guidepost cells" for mitral cell axons. ..
  67. Delgoffe G, Woo S, Turnis M, Gravano D, Guy C, Overacre A, et al. Stability and function of regulatory T cells is maintained by a neuropilin-1-semaphorin-4a axis. Nature. 2013;501:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that the immune-cell-expressed ligand semaphorin-4a (Sema4a) and the Treg-cell-expressed receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) interact both in vitro, to potentiate Treg-cell function and survival, and in vivo, at inflammatory sites...
  68. Cai C, Martin J, Sun Y, Cui L, Wang L, Ouyang K, et al. A myocardial lineage derives from Tbx18 epicardial cells. Nature. 2008;454:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pluripotency of Tbx18 proepicardial cells provides a theoretical framework for applying these progenitors to effect cardiac repair and regeneration. ..
  69. Huber A, Kania A, Tran T, Gu C, De Marco Garcia N, Lieberam I, et al. Distinct roles for secreted semaphorin signaling in spinal motor axon guidance. Neuron. 2005;48:949-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, Sema3A-Npn-1 and Sema3F-Npn-2 signaling control distinct steps of motor axon growth and guidance during the formation of spinal motor connections. ..
  70. Maes C, Stockmans I, Moermans K, Van Looveren R, Smets N, Carmeliet P, et al. Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:188-99 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF(188) isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation...
  71. Cimato T, Beers J, Ding S, Ma M, McCoy J, Boehm M, et al. Neuropilin-1 identifies endothelial precursors in human and murine embryonic stem cells before CD34 expression. Circulation. 2009;119:2170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that expression of the VEGF coreceptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) coincides with expression of Brachyury and VEGFR-2 and identifies endothelial precursors in murine and human ..
  72. Sarris M, Andersen K, Randow F, Mayr L, Betz A. Neuropilin-1 expression on regulatory T cells enhances their interactions with dendritic cells during antigen recognition. Immunity. 2008;28:402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1), which is expressed by most Treg cells but not naive Th cells, promoted prolonged interactions with immature DCs ..
  73. Fischer A, Schumacher N, Maier M, Sendtner M, Gessler M. The Notch target genes Hey1 and Hey2 are required for embryonic vascular development. Genes Dev. 2004;18:901-11 pubmed
    ..This indicates that Hey1/Hey2 are essential transducers of Notch signals in cardiovascular development that may mediate arterial cell fate decision. ..
  74. Meléndez Herrera E, Varela Echavarria A. Expression of secreted semaphorins and their receptors in specific neuromeres, boundaries, and neuronal groups in the developing mouse and chick brain. Brain Res. 2006;1067:126-37 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the expression patterns between mouse and chick embryos showed large similarities, but important differences were also detected. ..
  75. Mamluk R, Klagsbrun M, Detmar M, Bielenberg D. Soluble neuropilin targeted to the skin inhibits vascular permeability. Angiogenesis. 2005;8:217-27 pubmed
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)), an inducer of vascular permeability and angiogenesis...
  76. Shimizu M, Murakami Y, Suto F, Fujisawa H. Determination of cell adhesion sites of neuropilin-1. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1283-93 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrated that the cell adhesion ligands for neuropilin-1 were proteins and distributed in embryonic mesenchymal cells but distinct from the class 3 semaphorins, VEGF, or plexins. ..