Gene Symbol: Nrl
Description: neural retina leucine zipper gene
Alias: D14H14S46E, neural retina-specific leucine zipper protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Nrl

Top Publications

  1. Kawauchi S, Takahashi S, Nakajima O, Ogino H, Morita M, Nishizawa M, et al. Regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation by transcription factor c-Maf. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19254-60 pubmed
    ..for members of the large Maf family, which are expressed in the mouse lens, and found three, c-Maf, MafB, and Nrl. Of these, the earliest factor expressed in the lens was c-Maf...
  2. Wenzel A, von Lintig J, Oberhauser V, Tanimoto N, Grimm C, Seeliger M. RPE65 is essential for the function of cone photoreceptors in NRL-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:534-42 pubmed
    ..In the current study, neural retina leucine zipper-deficient (Nrl(-/-)) and rod opsin (Rho(-/-))-deficient mice were used, two mouse models that have been described as having a &..
  3. Kautzmann M, Kim D, Felder Schmittbuhl M, Swaroop A. Combinatorial regulation of photoreceptor differentiation factor, neural retina leucine zipper gene NRL, revealed by in vivo promoter analysis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The bZIP transcription factor NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is critical for rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate choice during retinal ..
  4. Mears A, Kondo M, Swain P, Takada Y, Bush R, Saunders T, et al. Nrl is required for rod photoreceptor development. Nat Genet. 2001;29:447-52 pubmed
    The protein neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) is a basic motif-leucine zipper transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in rod photoreceptors. It acts synergistically with Crx to regulate rhodopsin transcription...
  5. Peng G, Ahmad O, Ahmad F, Liu J, Chen S. The photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor Nr2e3 interacts with Crx and exerts opposing effects on the transcription of rod versus cone genes. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:747-64 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our findings suggest that Nr2e3 is a dual-function transcriptional regulator that acts in concert with Crx to promote and maintain the function of rod photoreceptors. ..
  6. Corbo J, Lawrence K, Karlstetter M, Myers C, Abdelaziz M, Dirkes W, et al. CRX ChIP-seq reveals the cis-regulatory architecture of mouse photoreceptors. Genome Res. 2010;20:1512-25 pubmed publisher
    ..CRX ChIP-seq was also performed on Nrl(-/-) retinas, which represent an enriched source of cone photoreceptors...
  7. Corbo J, Myers C, Lawrence K, Jadhav A, Cepko C. A typology of photoreceptor gene expression patterns in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12069-74 pubmed, we carried out microarray and in situ hybridization analyses of the mouse Neural retina leucine zipper gene (Nrl) mutant, which shows an en masse conversion of rods into cones, to establish a typology of photoreceptor gene ..
  8. Cheng H, Aleman T, Cideciyan A, Khanna R, Jacobson S, Swaroop A. In vivo function of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 in establishing photoreceptor identity during mammalian retinal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2588-602 pubmed
    Rod and cone photoreceptors in mammalian retina are generated from common pool(s) of neuroepithelial progenitors. NRL, CRX and NR2E3 are key transcriptional regulators that control photoreceptor differentiation...
  9. Farjo R, Skaggs J, Nagel B, Quiambao A, Nash Z, Fliesler S, et al. Retention of function without normal disc morphogenesis occurs in cone but not rod photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:59-68 pubmed
    ..This study provides novel insight into the distinct role of Rds in the OS development of rods and cones. ..

More Information


  1. Peng G, Chen S. Crx activates opsin transcription by recruiting HAT-containing co-activators and promoting histone acetylation. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:2433-52 pubmed
    ..of HATs, (iii) the acetylation of histone H3, then (iv) binding of other photoreceptor transcription factors (Nrl and Nr2e3) and RNA polymerase II...
  2. Pittler S, Zhang Y, Chen S, Mears A, Zack D, Ren Z, et al. Functional analysis of the rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase alpha-subunit gene promoter: Nrl and Crx are required for full transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19800-7 pubmed
    ..The most active segment contained a 177-bp upstream sequence including apparent Crx and Nrl transcription factor binding sites...
  3. Cideciyan A, Rachel R, Aleman T, Swider M, Schwartz S, Sumaroka A, et al. Cone photoreceptors are the main targets for gene therapy of NPHP5 (IQCB1) or NPHP6 (CEP290) blindness: generation of an all-cone Nphp6 hypomorph mouse that mimics the human retinal ciliopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To produce a model of the all-cone human fovea in NPHP6-LCA, we generated rd16;Nrl-/- double-mutant mice...
  4. Daniele L, Lillo C, Lyubarsky A, Nikonov S, Philp N, Mears A, et al. Cone-like morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological features of the photoreceptors of the Nrl knockout mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2156-67 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that Nrl(-)(/)(-) photoreceptors are cones, by comparing them with WT rods and cones using morphological, molecular, histochemical, and electrophysiological criteria...
  5. Chakraborty D, Conley S, Stuck M, Naash M. Differences in RDS trafficking, assembly and function in cones versus rods: insights from studies of C150S-RDS. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4799-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we express oligomerization-incompetent RDS (C150S-RDS) in the cone-dominant nrl(-/-) mouse...
  6. Farjo R, Fliesler S, Naash M. Effect of Rds abundance on cone outer segment morphogenesis, photoreceptor gene expression, and outer limiting membrane integrity. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:619-30 pubmed
    ..structural, and functional consequences on cone photoreceptors of the neural retinal leucine zipper knockout (Nrl(-/-)) mice when only one allele of retinal degeneration slow (Rds) is present (Rds(+/-)/Nrl(-/-))...
  7. Yu J, He S, Friedman J, Akimoto M, Ghosh D, Mears A, et al. Altered expression of genes of the Bmp/Smad and Wnt/calcium signaling pathways in the cone-only Nrl-/- mouse retina, revealed by gene profiling using custom cDNA microarrays. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42211-20 pubmed
    ..the gene expression profile of the rod-dominated retina of wild type mouse with that of the cone-only retina of Nrl(-/-) (Neural retina leucine zipper knockout) mouse...
  8. Conley S, Cai X, Makkia R, Wu Y, Sparrow J, Naash M. Increased cone sensitivity to ABCA4 deficiency provides insight into macular vision loss in Stargardt's dystrophy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:1169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..rods. Here we utilize the cone-dominant Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) double knockout mouse to study this issue...
  9. Zhu X, Brown B, Li A, Mears A, Swaroop A, Craft C. GRK1-dependent phosphorylation of S and M opsins and their binding to cone arrestin during cone phototransduction in the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6152-60 pubmed
    ..Using the "pure-cone" retinas of the neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) knock-out (KO, -/-) mice (Mears et al...
  10. Mustafi D, Kevany B, Genoud C, Okano K, Cideciyan A, Sumaroka A, et al. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration. FASEB J. 2011;25:3157-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor-knockout (Nrl(-/-)) mouse model demonstrates many phenotypic features of human ESCS, including unstable S-cone-positive ..
  11. Cheng H, Khan N, Roger J, Swaroop A. Excess cones in the retinal degeneration rd7 mouse, caused by the loss of function of orphan nuclear receptor Nr2e3, originate from early-born photoreceptor precursors. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4102-15 pubmed publisher
    The orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 is a direct transcriptional target of NRL, the key basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor that dictates rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate in the mammalian retina...
  12. Feathers K, Lyubarsky A, Khan N, Teofilo K, Swaroop A, Williams D, et al. Nrl-knockout mice deficient in Rpe65 fail to synthesize 11-cis retinal and cone outer segments. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1126-35 pubmed publisher terms of visual cycle mechanism, the retinal phenotype resulting from Rpe65 (retinoid isomerase I) deficiency in Nrl(-)(/)(-) mice having a single class of photoreceptors resembling wild-type cones was characterized and outcomes of ..
  13. Hsiau T, Diaconu C, Myers C, Lee J, Cepko C, Corbo J. The cis-regulatory logic of the mammalian photoreceptor transcriptional network. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e643 pubmed
    ..and computational analysis of the network controlled by the mammalian photoreceptor transcription factors, Crx, Nrl, and Nr2e3...
  14. Ng L, Lu A, Swaroop A, Sharlin D, Swaroop A, Forrest D. Two transcription factors can direct three photoreceptor outcomes from rod precursor cells in mouse retinal development. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deleted for thyroid hormone receptor β2 (TRβ2) and neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) lack M cones and rods, respectively, but gain S cones...
  15. Roger J, Ranganath K, Zhao L, Cojocaru R, Brooks M, Gotoh N, et al. Preservation of cone photoreceptors after a rapid yet transient degeneration and remodeling in cone-only Nrl-/- mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2012;32:528-41 pubmed publisher
    ..and homeostasis are dependent on the basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor neural retina leucine zipper (NRL)...
  16. Oh E, Khan N, Novelli E, Khanna H, Strettoi E, Swaroop A. Transformation of cone precursors to functional rod photoreceptors by bZIP transcription factor NRL. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1679-84 pubmed
    ..Rod photoreceptor differentiation requires the basic motif-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor NRL, because loss of Nrl in mice (Nrl-/-) results in complete transformation of rods to functional cones...
  17. Akimoto M, Cheng H, Zhu D, Brzezinski J, Khanna R, Filippova E, et al. Targeting of GFP to newborn rods by Nrl promoter and temporal expression profiling of flow-sorted photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3890-5 pubmed
    The Maf-family transcription factor Nrl is a key regulator of photoreceptor differentiation in mammals. Ablation of the Nrl gene in mice leads to functional cones at the expense of rods. We show that a 2...
  18. Nikonov S, Daniele L, Zhu X, Craft C, Swaroop A, Pugh E. Photoreceptors of Nrl -/- mice coexpress functional S- and M-cone opsins having distinct inactivation mechanisms. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:287-304 pubmed
    The retinas of mice null for the neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor (Nrl-/-) contain no rods but are populated instead with photoreceptors that on ultrastructural, histochemical, and molecular criteria appear cone like...
  19. Swain P, Hicks D, Mears A, Apel I, Smith J, John S, et al. Multiple phosphorylated isoforms of NRL are expressed in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36824-30 pubmed
    b>NRL, a bZIP transcription factor of the Maf subfamily, interacts with the homeodomain protein CRX and synergistically regulates rhodopsin expression...
  20. Fischer M, Huber G, Beck S, Tanimoto N, Muehlfriedel R, Fahl E, et al. Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7507 pubmed publisher
    ..In Nrl knockout mice, the layer involvement in the formation of rosette-like structures was similarly clear as in ..
  21. Bespalova I, Farjo Q, Mortlock D, Jackson A, Meisler M, Swaroop A, et al. Mapping of the neural retina leucine zipper gene, Nrl, to mouse chromosome 14. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:618-20 pubmed
  22. Ma H, Yang F, Butler M, Belcher J, Redmond T, Placzek A, et al. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. FASEB J. 2017;31:3425-3438 pubmed publisher
    ..Ma, H., Yang, F., Butler, M. R., Belcher, J., Redmond, T. M., Placzek, A. T., Scanlan, T. S., Ding, X.-Q. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. ..
  23. Fu Y, Liu H, Ng L, Kim J, Hao H, Swaroop A, et al. Feedback induction of a photoreceptor-specific isoform of retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β by the rod transcription factor NRL. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:32469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) transcription factor critically controls photoreceptor fates as it stimulates rod differentiation and suppresses ..
  24. Raven M, Oh E, Swaroop A, Reese B. Afferent control of horizontal cell morphology revealed by genetic respecification of rods and cones. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3540-7 pubmed innervation from their respective afferents: genetic respecification of all cones to become rods, in Crxp-Nrl transgenic mice, produces an atrophic dendritic field yet leaves the axon terminal system largely intact...
  25. Puller C, Arbogast P, Keeley P, Reese B, Haverkamp S. Dendritic stratification differs among retinal OFF bipolar cell types in the absence of rod photoreceptors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173455 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore dendritic stratification of OFF bipolar cells in the absence of rods, we made use of the 'cone-full' Nrl-/- mouse retina in which all photoreceptor precursor cells commit to a cone fate including those which would have ..
  26. Kunchithapautham K, Coughlin B, Crouch R, Rohrer B. Cone outer segment morphology and cone function in the Rpe65-/- Nrl-/- mouse retina are amenable to retinoid replacement. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4858-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determine the consequences of 11-cis retinal withdrawal and supplementation on cone development in the all-cone Nrl(-/-) retina.
  27. Hackler L, Wan J, Swaroop A, Qian J, Zack D. MicroRNA profile of the developing mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusions. Global expression profiling revealed dozens of miRNAs with significant expression changes in the developing retina. Precise patterns of expression of miRNAs suggest their specific roles in development. ..
  28. Kolandaivelu S, Singh R, Ramamurthy V. AIPL1, A protein linked to blindness, is essential for the stability of enzymes mediating cGMP metabolism in cone photoreceptor cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:1002-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate mechanistic differences behind the death of rods and cones in retinal degenerative disease caused by deficiencies in AIPL1. ..
  29. Chrispell J, Feathers K, KANE M, Kim C, Brooks M, Khanna R, et al. Rdh12 activity and effects on retinoid processing in the murine retina. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..were greater than in Rpe65-Met(450) mice and increased during postnatal development in wild-type mice and Nrl-deficient mice having an all-cone retina...
  30. Ronquillo C, Hanke Gogokhia C, Revelo M, Frederick J, Jiang L, Baehr W. Ciliopathy-associated IQCB1/NPHP5 protein is required for mouse photoreceptor outer segment formation. FASEB J. 2016;30:3400-3412 pubmed
    ..photoreceptor degeneration was complete at 1 mo of age but was delayed significantly in Nphp5-/-;Nrl-/- (cone only) retina...
  31. Ding X, Thapa A, Ma H, Xu J, Elliott M, Rodgers K, et al. The B3 Subunit of the Cone Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel Regulates the Light Responses of Cones and Contributes to the Channel Structural Flexibility. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:8721-34 pubmed publisher
    ..As cones comprise only 2-3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, we used Cngb3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice with CNGB3 deficiency on a cone-dominant background in our study...
  32. Montana C, Lawrence K, Williams N, Tran N, Peng G, Chen S, et al. Transcriptional regulation of neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl), a photoreceptor cell fate determinant. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36921-31 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) is a critical determinant of rod photoreceptor cell fate and a key regulator of rod differentiation...
  33. Kolandaivelu S, Chang B, Ramamurthy V. Rod phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) catalytic subunits restore cone function in a mouse model lacking cone PDE6 catalytic subunit. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study this issue, we generated a cone-dominated mouse model lacking cone PDE6 (Nrl(-/-) cpfl1)...
  34. Peng G, Chen S. Active opsin loci adopt intrachromosomal loops that depend on the photoreceptor transcription factor network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..binding by three key photoreceptor transcription factors-cone--rod homeobox (CRX), neural retina leucine zipper (NRL), and nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 3 (NR2E3)--is required for the appropriate local chromosomal ..
  35. Decembrini S, Martin C, Sennlaub F, Chemtob S, Biel M, Samardzija M, et al. Cone Genesis Tracing by the Chrnb4-EGFP Mouse Line: Evidences of Cellular Material Fusion after Cone Precursor Transplantation. Mol Ther. 2017;25:634-653 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this cell material fusion is of significant therapeutic advantage requires further thorough investigations. The Chrnb4-EGFP mouse line definitely opens new research perspectives in cone genesis and retina repair. ..
  36. Boyer N, Tang P, Higbee D, Ablonczy Z, Crouch R, Koutalos Y. Lipofuscin and A2E accumulate with age in the retinal pigment epithelium of Nrl-/- mice. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:1373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of the visual pigment and photoreceptor cell type on lipofuscin accumulation, we analyzed the RPE from Nrl(-/-) mice of various ages for lipofuscin fluorescence and A2E levels...
  37. Xu J, Morris L, Thapa A, Ma H, Michalakis S, Biel M, et al. cGMP accumulation causes photoreceptor degeneration in CNG channel deficiency: evidence of cGMP cytotoxicity independently of enhanced CNG channel function. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The time course study showed that the retinal cGMP level in Cnga3(-/-);Nrl(-/-) mice with CNGA3 deficiency on a cone-dominant background was sharply increased at postnatal day 8 (P8), peaked ..
  38. Boye S, Huang W, Roman A, Sumaroka A, Boye S, Ryals R, et al. Natural history of cone disease in the murine model of Leber congenital amaurosis due to CEP290 mutation: determining the timing and expectation of therapy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92928 pubmed publisher
    ..A cone-only mouse model carrying a Cep290 gene mutation, rd16;Nrl-/-, was engineered to mimic the human disease...
  39. Shawki H, Oishi H, Usui T, Kitadate Y, Basha W, Abdellatif A, et al. MAFB is dispensable for the fetal testis morphogenesis and the maintenance of spermatogenesis in adult mice. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0190800 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that MAFB and c-MAF are the only large MAF transcription factors expressed in testes, while MAFA and NRL are not. MAFB was localized in Leydig and Sertoli cells at embryonic day (E) 18...
  40. Santos Ferreira T, Postel K, Stutzki H, Kurth T, Zeck G, Ader M. Daylight vision repair by cell transplantation. Stem Cells. 2015;33:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..source for donor cone-like photoreceptors was generated by crossing neural retina leucine zipper-deficient (Nrl(-/-) ) mice with an ubiquitous green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter line resulting in double transgenic tg(Nrl(-..
  41. Ivanovic I, Anderson R, Le Y, Fliesler S, Sherry D, Rajala R. Deletion of the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in cone photoreceptor cells results in cone photoreceptor degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3775-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Rod viability was unaffected in p85? cKO mice. The present study suggests that PI3K signaling pathway is essential for cone survival in the mouse retina. ..
  42. Ding X, Harry C, Umino Y, Matveev A, Fliesler S, Barlow R. Impaired cone function and cone degeneration resulting from CNGB3 deficiency: down-regulation of CNGA3 biosynthesis as a potential mechanism. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4770-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we show that loss of CNGB3 reduces biosynthesis of CNGA3 and impairs cone CNG channel function. We suggest that down-regulation of CNGA3 contributes to the pathogenic mechanism by which CNGB3 mutations lead to human cone disease. ..
  43. Stuck M, Conley S, Naash M. Defects in the outer limiting membrane are associated with rosette development in the Nrl-/- retina. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32484 pubmed publisher
    The neural retinal leucine zipper (Nrl) knockout mouse is a widely used model to study cone photoreceptor development, physiology, and molecular biology in the absence of rods...
  44. de Melo J, Peng G, Chen S, Blackshaw S. The Spalt family transcription factor Sall3 regulates the development of cone photoreceptors and retinal horizontal interneurons. Development. 2011;138:2325-36 pubmed publisher
  45. Egger A, Samardzija M, Sothilingam V, Tanimoto N, Lange C, Salatino S, et al. PGC-1? determines light damage susceptibility of the murine retina. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31272 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the observed dysregulation of PGC-1? and PGC-1? in retinitis pigmentosa mouse models, these findings thus imply that PGC-1? might be an attractive target for therapeutic approaches aimed at retinal degeneration diseases. ..
  46. Thapa A, Morris L, Xu J, Ma H, Michalakis S, Biel M, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated cone photoreceptor degeneration in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:18018-29 pubmed publisher
    ..e. CNGA3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) and CNGB3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice...
  47. West E, Gonzalez Cordero A, Hippert C, Osakada F, Martinez Barbera J, Pearson R, et al. Defining the integration capacity of embryonic stem cell-derived photoreceptor precursors. Stem Cells. 2012;30:1424-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Rod birth peaked at day 20 of culture and expression of the early photoreceptor markers Crx and Nrl increased until day 28. Nrl levels were low in ESC-derived populations compared with developing retinae...
  48. Rao K, Li L, Zhang W, Brush R, Rajala R, Khanna H. Loss of human disease protein retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) differentially affects rod or cone-enriched retina. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:1345-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the effect of the loss of RPGR in the all-cone region of the human retina, we used Nrl(-/-) (neural retina leucine zipper) mice, to generate Rpgr(ko)::Nrl(-/-) double-knock-out (Rpgr-DKO) mice...
  49. Zhu X, Brown B, Rife L, Craft C. Slowed photoresponse recovery and age-related degeneration in cones lacking G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;572:133-9 pubmed
  50. Berkowitz B, Bredell B, Davis C, Samardzija M, Grimm C, Roberts R. Measuring In Vivo Free Radical Production by the Outer Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:7931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sodium iodate-treated and diabetic C57Bl6/J mice (and their controls), and rod-dominated (129S6) or cone-only R91W;Nrl-/- mice were studied...
  51. Chakraborty D, Conley S, Zulliger R, Naash M. The K153Del PRPH2 mutation differentially impacts photoreceptor structure and function. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:3500-3514 pubmed publisher
    ..These roles may be different in rods and cones, thus contributing to the phenotypic heterogeneity that characterizes diseases associated with Prph2 mutations. ..
  52. Zelinger L, Karakülah G, Chaitankar V, Kim J, Yang H, Brooks M, et al. Regulation of Noncoding Transcriptome in Developing Photoreceptors by Rod Differentiation Factor NRL. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4422-4435 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles were generated at six developmental time points from flow-sorted Nrlp-GFP (rods) and Nrlp-GFP;Nrl-/- (S-cone like) mouse photoreceptors...
  53. Aavani T, Tachibana N, Wallace V, Biernaskie J, Schuurmans C. Temporal profiling of photoreceptor lineage gene expression during murine retinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2017;23-24:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5 with the expression of Thrb, Neurog1, Sall3 and Rxrg expression, and at P0 by Nrl and Nr2e3 expression...
  54. Kolesnikov A, Orban T, Jin H, Brooks C, Hofmann L, Dong Z, et al. Dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A regulates visual pigment regeneration and the dark adaptation of mammalian photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E9675-E9684 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that visual pigment dephosphorylation regulates the dark adaptation of photoreceptors and provide insights into the role of this reaction in GPCR signaling. ..
  55. Liu C, Lin C, Whitaker D, Bakeri H, Bulgakov O, Liu P, et al. Prickle1 is expressed in distinct cell populations of the central nervous system and contributes to neuronal morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies implicate Pk1 function in axonal-dendritic development associated with the maturation of CNS neurons. ..
  56. Jadhav A, Mason H, Cepko C. Notch 1 inhibits photoreceptor production in the developing mammalian retina. Development. 2006;133:913-23 pubmed
    ..These cone enriched mutant mice should prove to be a valuable resource for the study of this relatively rare mammalian photoreceptor cell type. ..
  57. Hiler D, Chen X, Hazen J, Kupriyanov S, Carroll P, Qu C, et al. Quantification of Retinogenesis in 3D Cultures Reveals Epigenetic Memory and Higher Efficiency in iPSCs Derived from Rod Photoreceptors. Cell Stem Cell. 2015;17:101-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that the source of stem cells is important for producing retinal neurons in three-dimensional (3D) organ cultures. ..
  58. Dang L, Pulukuri S, Mears A, Swaroop A, Reese B, Sitaramayya A. Connexin 36 in photoreceptor cells: studies on transgenic rod-less and cone-less mouse retinas. Mol Vis. 2004;10:323-7 pubmed
    ..We have tried to address this question with the use of transgenic rod-less and cone-less mice. Deletion of Nrl, a transcription factor, results in a complete loss of rods with a concomitant increase in S-cones...
  59. Hao H, Veleri S, Sun B, Kim D, Keeley P, Kim J, et al. Regulation of a novel isoform of Receptor Expression Enhancing Protein REEP6 in rod photoreceptors by bZIP transcription factor NRL. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:4260-71 pubmed publisher
    The Maf-family leucine zipper transcription factor NRL is essential for rod photoreceptor development and functional maintenance in the mammalian retina...
  60. Aslanidis A, Karlstetter M, Walczak Y, Jagle H, Langmann T. RETINA-specific expression of Kcnv2 is controlled by cone-rod homeobox (Crx) and neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl). Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;801:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..prediction and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we identified two Crx binding sites (CBS) and one Nrl binding site (NBS) in the Kcnv2 promoter...
  61. Kim J, Jang S, Kim C, An J, Kang E, Choi K. Neural retina leucine-zipper regulates the expression of Ppp2r5c, the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, in photoreceptor development. FEBS J. 2010;277:5051-60 pubmed publisher
    ..of protein phosphatase 2A) expression was regulated by the transcription factor neural retina leucine-zipper (Nrl) through enhancement of its transcriptional activity on the Ppp2r5c promoter...
  62. Bibb L, Holt J, Tarttelin E, Hodges M, Gregory Evans K, Rutherford A, et al. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of the CRX transcription factor and its downstream targets. Critical differences during human and mouse eye development. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:1571-9 pubmed
    ..These data support concerns about the extent to which we can extrapolate from rodent models regarding embryonic development and disease pathophysiology. ..
  63. Yao J, Feathers K, Khanna H, Thompson D, Tsilfidis C, Hauswirth W, et al. XIAP therapy increases survival of transplanted rod precursors in a degenerating host retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1567-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventing programmed cell death through XIAP therapy may be an important component of future therapeutic retinal cell transplantation strategies. ..
  64. Rajala A, Dighe R, Agbaga M, Anderson R, Rajala R. Insulin receptor signaling in cones. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19503-15 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA levels of IR signaling proteins are significantly higher in cone-dominant neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) knock-out mouse retinas compared with wild type rod-dominant retinas...
  65. Barabino A, Plamondon V, Abdouh M, Chatoo W, Flamier A, Hanna R, et al. Loss of Bmi1 causes anomalies in retinal development and degeneration of cone photoreceptors. Development. 2016;143:1571-84 pubmed publisher
  66. Smiley S, Nickerson P, Comanita L, Daftarian N, El Sehemy A, Tsai E, et al. Establishment of a cone photoreceptor transplantation platform based on a novel cone-GFP reporter mouse line. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22867 pubmed publisher
    ..When comparing the integration of GFP(+) embryonic cones and postnatal Nrl(-/-) 'cods' into retinas of adult wildtype and blind mice, both cell types integrated and exhibited a degree of ..
  67. Hao H, Kim D, Klocke B, Johnson K, Cui K, Gotoh N, et al. Transcriptional regulation of rod photoreceptor homeostasis revealed by in vivo NRL targetome analysis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002649 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mammalian retina, the basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor NRL determines rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate and activates the expression of many rod-specific genes...
  68. Yang F, Ma H, Belcher J, Butler M, Redmond T, Boye S, et al. Targeting iodothyronine deiodinases locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. FASEB J. 2016;30:4313-4325 pubmed
    ..Yang, F., Ma, H., Belcher, J., Butler, M. R., Redmond, T. M., Boye, S. L., Hauswirth, W. W., Ding, X.-Q. Targeting iodothyronine deiodinases locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. ..
  69. Farjo Q, Jackson A, Xu J, Gryzenia M, Skolnick C, Agarwal N, et al. Molecular characterization of the murine neural retina leucine zipper gene, Nrl. Genomics. 1993;18:216-22 pubmed
    The NRL gene (D14S46E) is expressed in cells of human retina and encodes a putative DNA-binding protein of the leucine zipper family. Here we describe the analysis of the murine homolog of the NRL gene, Nrl...
  70. Swaroop A, Xu J, Pawar H, Jackson A, Skolnick C, Agarwal N. A conserved retina-specific gene encodes a basic motif/leucine zipper domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:266-70 pubmed
    ..The gene for AS321 is conserved during evolution and is expressed in vertebrate retina. We propose to name the gene NRL (neural retina leucine zipper.
  71. Boye S, Peterson J, Choudhury S, Min S, Ruan Q, McCullough K, et al. Gene Therapy Fully Restores Vision to the All-Cone Nrl(-/-) Gucy2e(-/-) Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis-1. Hum Gene Ther. 2015;26:575-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate gene replacement in the Nrl(-/-) Gucy2e(-/-) mouse, an all-cone model deficient in retGC1...
  72. Zuniga F, Craft C. Deciphering the structure and function of Als2cr4 in the mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Als2cr4 may be involved in membrane transport between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments and may be a key component in maintaining the structural integrity of the outer segment. ..
  73. Matveev A, Quiambao A, Browning Fitzgerald J, Ding X. Native cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated channel is a heterotetrameric complex comprising both CNGA3 and CNGB3: a study using the cone-dominant retina of Nrl-/- mice. J Neurochem. 2008;106:2042-55 pubmed publisher
    ..using the cone-dominant retina in mice deficient in the transcription factor neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl)...
  74. Samardzija M, Caprara C, Heynen S, Willcox DeParis S, Meneau I, Traber G, et al. A mouse model for studying cone photoreceptor pathologies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:5304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nrl knockout mice develop exclusively the cone-type of photoreceptors...
  75. Roger J, Nellissery J, Kim D, Swaroop A. Sumoylation of bZIP transcription factor NRL modulates target gene expression during photoreceptor differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25637-44 pubmed publisher the mammalian retina is critically dependent on the basic motif-leucine zipper transcription factor NRL (neural retina leucine zipper)...
  76. Krigel A, Felder Schmittbuhl M, Hicks D. Circadian-clock driven cone-like photoreceptor phagocytosis in the neural retina leucine zipper gene knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2010;16:2873-81 pubmed
    ..phagocytosis in mice, we capitalized on the blue cone-like phenotype of neural retina leucine zipper gene (Nrl) null mice (Nrl(-/-))...