Gene Symbol: Nrgn
Description: neurogranin
Alias: 0710001B06Rik, AI838505, NG/RC3, Pss1, R75334, RC3, neurogranin, neurogranin (protein kinase C substrate, RC3), postsynaptic spine 1, protein kinase C substrate
Species: mouse
Products:     Nrgn

Top Publications

  1. Pak J, Huang F, Li J, Balschun D, Reymann K, Chiang C, et al. Involvement of neurogranin in the modulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, synaptic plasticity, and spatial learning: a study with knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:11232-7 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin/RC3 is a neural-specific Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein whose CaM-binding affinity is modulated by phosphorylation and oxidation...
  2. Han N, Wen J, Lin Q, Tan P, Liou Y, Sheu F. Proteomics analysis of the expression of neurogranin in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells reveals its involvement for cell differentiation. Int J Biol Sci. 2007;3:263-73 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a neural-specific, calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC)...
  3. Gribaudo S, Bovetti S, Garzotto D, Fasolo A, De Marchis S. Expression and localization of the calmodulin-binding protein neurogranin in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:683-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific postsynaptic protein involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity through modulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent signal transduction in neurons...
  4. Wu J, Li J, Huang K, Huang F. Attenuation of protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signal transduction in the neurogranin knockout mouse. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19498-505 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific, postsynaptically located protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, highly expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala...
  5. Krucker T, Siggins G, McNamara R, Lindsley K, Dao A, Allison D, et al. Targeted disruption of RC3 reveals a calmodulin-based mechanism for regulating metaplasticity in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5525-35 pubmed
    We used homologous recombination in the mouse to knock-out RC3, a postsynaptic, calmodulin-binding PKC substrate...
  6. van Dalen J, Gerendasy D, de Graan P, Schrama L, Gruol D. Calcium dynamics are altered in cortical neurons lacking the calmodulin-binding protein RC3. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:13-22 pubmed
    RC3 is a neuronal calmodulin-binding protein and protein kinase C substrate that is thought to play an important regulatory role in synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity...
  7. Huang K, Huang F, Jäger T, Li J, Reymann K, Balschun D. Neurogranin/RC3 enhances long-term potentiation and learning by promoting calcium-mediated signaling. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10660-9 pubmed
    In neurons, neurogranin (Ng) binds calmodulin (CaM), and its binding affinity is reduced by increasing Ca2+, phosphorylation by PKC, or oxidation by oxidants...
  8. Yang H, Lee P, Lim T, Sheu F. Neurogranin expression in stably transfected N2A cell line affects cytosolic calcium level by nitric oxide stimulation. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;129:171-8 pubmed
    To test a cellular effect of rodent neurogranin (Ng) oxidation as compared to Ng phosphorylation, we develop a cell model capable of stable expression of Ng using the Tet-On system, and determine whether Ng oxidation regulates ..
  9. Huang F, Huang K, Wu J, Boucheron C. Environmental enrichment enhances neurogranin expression and hippocampal learning and memory but fails to rescue the impairments of neurogranin null mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6230-7 pubmed
    Environmental enrichment is known to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions. Neurogranin (Ng), a specific substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), is abundantly expressed in brain regions important for cognitive functions...

More Information


  1. Larouche M, Che P, Hawkes R. Neurogranin expression identifies a novel array of Purkinje cell parasagittal stripes during mouse cerebellar development. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:215-27 pubmed
    ..evidence that parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells express a member of the calpacitin protein family, neurogranin, possibly from as early as embryonic day (E) 13 and definitively from E15, in a pattern that persists up to ..
  2. Singec I, Knoth R, Ditter M, Frotscher M, Volk B. Neurogranin expression by cerebellar neurons in rodents and non-human primates. J Comp Neurol. 2003;459:278-89 pubmed
    Neurogranin (NG) is a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and neuronal plasticity...
  3. Wu J, Huang K, Huang F. Participation of NMDA-mediated phosphorylation and oxidation of neurogranin in the regulation of Ca2+- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent neuronal signaling in the hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2003;86:1524-33 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin/RC3 (Ng) is a postsynaptic protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein whose CaM-binding affinity is modulated by Ca2+, phosphorylation and oxidation...
  4. Huang F, Huang K. Methylphenidate improves the behavioral and cognitive deficits of neurogranin knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:794-805 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (Ng), a brain-specific calmodulin-binding protein, is expressed highly in hippocampus, and is important for cognitive function...
  5. Ling K, Hewitt C, Beissbarth T, Hyde L, Cheah P, Smyth G, et al. Spatiotemporal regulation of multiple overlapping sense and novel natural antisense transcripts at the Nrgn and Camk2n1 gene loci during mouse cerebral corticogenesis. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:683-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Nrgn and Camk2n1 are highly expressed in the brain and play an important role in synaptic long-term potentiation via regulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II...
  6. Kvajo M, McKellar H, Gogos J. Avoiding mouse traps in schizophrenia genetics: lessons and promises from current and emerging mouse models. Neuroscience. 2012;211:136-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss emerging mouse models, such as second-generation pathophysiology models based on innovative approaches that are facilitated by the information gathered from the current genetic mouse models. ..
  7. Marzban H, Chung S, Watanabe M, Hawkes R. Phospholipase Cbeta4 expression reveals the continuity of cerebellar topography through development. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:857-71 pubmed
    ..the early PLCbeta4-immunoreactive clusters in the neonate are complementary to those previously identified by neurogranin expression...
  8. Gribaudo S, Bovetti S, Friard O, Denorme M, Oboti L, Fasolo A, et al. Transitory and activity-dependent expression of neurogranin in olfactory bulb tufted cells during mouse postnatal development. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3055-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein involved in synaptic activity-dependent plasticity...
  9. Hernandez A, Martinez M, Fiering S, Galton V, St Germain D. Type 3 deiodinase is critical for the maturation and function of the thyroid axis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:476-84 pubmed
    ..These mice provide a new model of central hypothyroidism and reveal a critical role for D3 in the maturation and function of the thyroid axis. ..
  10. Morgan M, Morgan J. Pcp4l1 contains an auto-inhibitory element that prevents its IQ motif from binding to calmodulin. J Neurochem. 2012;121:843-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate Pcp4l1 may be a latent calmodulin inhibitor regulated by post-translational modification and/or co-factor interactions. ..
  11. Gui J, Song Y, Han N, Sheu F. Characterization of transcriptional regulation of neurogranin by nitric oxide and the role of neurogranin in SNP-induced cell death: implication of neurogranin in an increased neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress. Int J Biol Sci. 2007;3:212-24 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng), a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, regulates the availability of Ca(2+)/CaM complex and modulates the homeostasis of intracellular calcium in neurons...
  12. Singec I, Knoth R, Ditter M, Volk B, Frotscher M. Neurogranin is expressed by principal cells but not interneurons in the rodent and monkey neocortex and hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2004;479:30-42 pubmed
    As a substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), neurogranin (NG) is involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and activity-dependent plasticity...
  13. Jaradat S, Ko M, Grossman L. Tissue-specific expression and mapping of the Cox7ah gene in mouse. Genomics. 1998;49:363-70 pubmed
    ..1. As a result, all three COX heart isoform genes in mouse group to chromosome 7. Interestingly, mapping of the mouse Cox7al to chromosome 9 suggests a new syntenic region between the mouse and the human genomes. ..
  14. Huang K, Huang F, Shetty P. Stimulation-mediated translocation of calmodulin and neurogranin from soma to dendrites of mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroscience. 2011;178:1-12 pubmed publisher
    Calmodulin (CaM) and neurogranin (Ng) are two abundant neuronal proteins in the forebrain whose interactions are implicated in the enhancement of synaptic plasticity...
  15. Chung S, Marzban H, Aldinger K, Dixit R, Millen K, Schuurmans C, et al. Zac1 plays a key role in the development of specific neuronal subsets in the mouse cerebellum. Neural Dev. 2011;6:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Zac1 is also expressed in a small subset of cells in the posterior vermis, including some neurogranin-immunoreactive (NG+) Golgi cells, which, based on short-term birthdating, are derived from the EGL, where Zac1 ..
  16. Martinez de Arrieta C, Perez Jurado L, Bernal J, Coloma A. Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN). Genomics. 1997;41:243-9 pubmed
    In this report the identification, structure, and chromosomal localization of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN) are described...
  17. Garrido García A, Andrés Pans B, Durán Trío L, Díez Guerra F. Activity-dependent translocation of neurogranin to neuronal nuclei. Biochem J. 2009;424:419-29 pubmed publisher
    Long-term changes of synaptic plasticity depend on protein synthesis and transcription. Ng (neurogranin) is a small protein concentrated at dendrites and spines of forebrain neurons, involved in synaptic plasticity through the regulation ..
  18. Nielsen A, Kjartansdóttir K, Rasmussen M, Sørensen A, Wang B, Wabl M, et al. Activation of the brain-specific neurogranin gene in murine T-cell lymphomas by proviral insertional mutagenesis. Gene. 2009;442:55-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogranin (Nrgn) is a highly expressed brain-specific protein, which sequesters calmodulin at low Ca(2+)-levels...
  19. Huang F, Huang K, Boucheron C. Long-term enrichment enhances the cognitive behavior of the aging neurogranin null mice without affecting their hippocampal LTP. Learn Mem. 2007;14:512-9 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin (Ng), a PKC substrate, is abundantly expressed in brain regions important for cognitive functions. Deletion of Ng caused severe deficits in spatial learning and LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice...
  20. Croci L, Chung S, Masserdotti G, Gianola S, Bizzoca A, Gennarini G, et al. A key role for the HLH transcription factor EBF2COE2,O/E-3 in Purkinje neuron migration and cerebellar cortical topography. Development. 2006;133:2719-29 pubmed
  21. Wydner K, Kim Y, Csiszar K, Boyd C, Passmore H. An intron capture strategy used to identify and map a lysyl oxidase-like gene on chromosome 9 in the mouse. Genomics. 1997;40:342-5 pubmed
  22. Sato T, Joyner A. The duration of Fgf8 isthmic organizer expression is key to patterning different tectal-isthmo-cerebellum structures. Development. 2009;136:3617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the duration as well as the strength of Fgf8 signaling is key to patterning of the mid/hindbrain region. By extrapolation, the length of Fgf8 expression could be crucial to Fgf8 function in other embryonic organizers. ..
  23. Marzban H, Kim C, Doorn D, Chung S, Hawkes R. A novel transverse expression domain in the mouse cerebellum revealed by a neurofilament-associated antigen. Neuroscience. 2008;153:1190-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the transverse zone architecture of the mouse cerebellum is more complex than had previously been appreciated. ..
  24. Kubota Y, Putkey J, Shouval H, Waxham M. IQ-motif proteins influence intracellular free Ca2+ in hippocampal neurons through their interactions with calmodulin. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:264-76 pubmed
    ..b>Neurogranin (Ng) is a small neuronal IQ-motif-containing protein that accelerates Ca(2+) dissociation from CaM...
  25. Matsumoto A, Susaki E, Onoyama I, Nakayama K, Hoshino M, Nakayama K. Deregulation of the p57-E2F1-p53 axis results in nonobstructive hydrocephalus and cerebellar malformation in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4176-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus implicate p57 in cell cycle arrest in the subcommissural organ and Pax2-positive interneuron precursors, with the lack of p57 resulting in induction of p53-dependent apoptosis due to hyperactivation of E2F1. ..
  26. Zhong L, Brown J, Kramer A, Kaleka K, Petersen A, Krueger J, et al. Increased prefrontal cortex neurogranin enhances plasticity and extinction learning. J Neurosci. 2015;35:7503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress neurogranin (a calmodulin-binding protein that facilitates long-term potentiation) in the PFC...
  27. Li J, Yang C, Han S, Zu P, Wu J, Xu Q, et al. Increased phosphorylation of neurogranin in the brain of hypoxic preconditioned mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006;391:150-3 pubmed
    b>Neurogranin/RC3 (Ng/rodent cortex-enriched mRNA clone #3), a postsynaptic neuronal protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, binds calmodulin (CaM) at low Ca(2+) levels...
  28. Aguado C, Fernandez Alacid L, Cabañero M, Yanagawa Y, Schilling K, Watanabe M, et al. Differential maturation of GIRK2-expressing neurons in the mouse cerebellum. J Chem Neuroanat. 2013;47:79-89 pubmed publisher
    ..of GIRK2 in different subpopulations of Golgi cells, using metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu(2)) and neurogranin as markers, in GlyT2-GFP and GAD67-GFP mice, and showed that GIRK2 is present in at least four morphological ..