Gene Symbol: Nras
Description: neuroblastoma ras oncogene
Alias: AV095280, N-ras, GTPase NRas, transforming protein N-Ras
Species: mouse
Products:     Nras

Top Publications

  1. Mangues R, Seidman I, Gordon J, Pellicer A. Overexpression of the N-ras proto-oncogene, not somatic mutational activation, associated with malignant tumors in transgenic mice. Oncogene. 1992;7:2073-6 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that overexpression of a protooncogene of the ras family can predispose cells in vivo to fully malignant behavior. ..
  2. Esteban L, Vicario Abejón C, Fernandez Salguero P, Fernandez Medarde A, Swaminathan N, Yienger K, et al. Targeted genomic disruption of H-ras and N-ras, individually or in combination, reveals the dispensability of both loci for mouse growth and development. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1444-52 pubmed
    ..Additionally, of the three ras genes, K-ras appears to be not only essential but also sufficient for normal mouse development. ..
  3. Wang J, Liu Y, Li Z, Du J, Ryu M, Taylor P, et al. Endogenous oncogenic Nras mutation promotes aberrant GM-CSF signaling in granulocytic/monocytic precursors in a murine model of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood. 2010;116:5991-6002 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic NRAS mutations are frequently identified in myeloid diseases involving monocyte lineage. However, its role in the genesis of these diseases remains elusive...
  4. Iborra S, Soto M, Stark Aroeira L, Castellano E, Alarcon B, Alonso C, et al. H-ras and N-ras are dispensable for T-cell development and activation but critical for protective Th1 immunity. Blood. 2011;117:5102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that H-ras and N-ras act as critical controllers of Th1 responses, mostly by transmitting TCR signals for Th1 priming of CD4? T cells. ..
  5. Mishra P, Ha L, Rieker J, Sviderskaya E, Bennett D, Oberst M, et al. Dissection of RAS downstream pathways in melanomagenesis: a role for Ral in transformation. Oncogene. 2010;29:2449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Long known to harbor oncogenic NRAS mutations, melanomas were more recently reported to be frequent bearers of activating mutations in BRAF, one of the ..
  6. Wang J, Kong G, Liu Y, Du J, Chang Y, Tey S, et al. Nras(G12D/+) promotes leukemogenesis by aberrantly regulating hematopoietic stem cell functions. Blood. 2013;121:5203-7 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic NRAS mutations are frequently identified in human myeloid leukemias...
  7. Haigis K, Kendall K, Wang Y, Cheung A, Haigis M, Glickman J, et al. Differential effects of oncogenic K-Ras and N-Ras on proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression in the colon. Nat Genet. 2008;40:600-8 pubmed publisher
    Kras is commonly mutated in colon cancers, but mutations in Nras are rare. We have used genetically engineered mice to determine whether and how these related oncogenes regulate homeostasis and tumorigenesis in the colon...
  8. Wolfman J, Palmby T, Der C, Wolfman A. Cellular N-Ras promotes cell survival by downregulation of Jun N-terminal protein kinase and p38. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1589-606 pubmed
  9. Perez de Castro I, Diaz R, Malumbres M, Hernández M, Jagirdar J, Jimenez M, et al. Mice deficient for N-ras: impaired antiviral immune response and T-cell function. Cancer Res. 2003;63:1615-22 pubmed
    ..All of the results derived from this work constitute a significant contribution to the knowledge of N-ras-specific functions. ..

More Information


  1. Umanoff H, Edelmann W, Pellicer A, Kucherlapati R. The murine N-ras gene is not essential for growth and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:1709-13 pubmed
    ..Our results show that N-ras gene function is dispensable for normal mouse development, growth, and fertility. ..
  2. Johnson L, Greenbaum D, Cichowski K, Mercer K, Murphy E, Schmitt E, et al. K-ras is an essential gene in the mouse with partial functional overlap with N-ras. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2468-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, partial functional overlap appears to occur within the ras gene family, but K-ras provides a unique and essential function. ..
  3. Martinez Salgado C, Fuentes Calvo I, García Cenador B, Santos E, Lopez Novoa J. Involvement of H- and N-Ras isoforms in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced proliferation and in collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2093-106 pubmed
    ..PI3K-Akt pathway activation may be involved in the increase in ECM synthesis observed in the absence of H- and N-Ras. ..
  4. Wang J, Liu Y, Tan L, Lo J, Du J, Ryu M, et al. Distinct requirements of hematopoietic stem cell activity and Nras G12D signaling in different cell types during leukemogenesis. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:2836-9 pubmed
    We previously showed that widespread expression of Nras G12D/G12D from its endogenous locus in mice leads to an acute myeloproliferative disease (MPD) with a complete penetrance, whereas bone marrow-specific expression of Nras G12D/G12D ..
  5. Lassen L, Ballarín González B, Schmitz A, Füchtbauer A, Pedersen F, Füchtbauer E. Nras overexpression results in granulocytosis, T-cell expansion and early lethality in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42216 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in numerous myeloid malignancies. Here, we report on a mouse line bearing a single retroviral long terminal repeat inserted into Nras...
  6. Wang J, Liu Y, Li Z, Wang Z, Tan L, Ryu M, et al. Endogenous oncogenic Nras mutation initiates hematopoietic malignancies in a dose- and cell type-dependent manner. Blood. 2011;118:368-79 pubmed publisher
    Both monoallelic and biallelic oncogenic NRAS mutations are identified in human leukemias, suggesting a dose-dependent role of oncogenic NRAS in leukemogenesis...
  7. Drosten M, Dhawahir A, Sum E, Urosevic J, Lechuga C, Esteban L, et al. Genetic analysis of Ras signalling pathways in cell proliferation, migration and survival. EMBO J. 2010;29:1091-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Rasless MEFs had normal levels of Cyclin D1/Cdk4 and Cyclin E/Cdk2. However, these complexes were inactive. Inactivation of the pocket proteins or knock down of pRb relieved MEFs from their dependence on Ras signalling to proliferate. ..
  8. Li Q, Haigis K, McDaniel A, Harding Theobald E, Kogan S, Akagi K, et al. Hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis in mice expressing oncogenic NrasG12D from the endogenous locus. Blood. 2011;117:2022-32 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS is frequently mutated in hematologic malignancies...
  9. Li A, Ma Y, Jin M, Mason S, Mort R, Blyth K, et al. Activated mutant NRas(Q61K) drives aberrant melanocyte signaling, survival, and invasiveness via a Rac1-dependent mechanism. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2610-21 pubmed publisher
    Around a fifth of melanomas exhibit an activating mutation in the oncogene NRas that confers constitutive signaling to proliferation and promotes tumor initiation...
  10. Manenti G, Galbiati F, Gianni Barrera R, Pettinicchio A, Acevedo A, Dragani T. Haplotype sharing suggests that a genomic segment containing six genes accounts for the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus activity in mice. Oncogene. 2004;23:4495-504 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a complex multigenic nature of the Pas1 locus, and point to a functional role for both intronic and exonic polymorphisms of the six genes of the Pas1 haplotype in lung tumor susceptibility. ..
  11. Chakraborty S, Srivastava A, Jha M, Nair A, Pandey S, Srivastava N, et al. Inhibition of CD40-induced N-Ras activation reduces leishmania major infection. J Immunol. 2015;194:3852-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the L. major-enhanced CD40-induced N-Ras activation as a novel immune evasion strategy and the potential for Ras isoform-targeted antileishmanial immunotherapy and immunoprophylaxis. ..
  12. López Fernández L, López Alañón D, del Mazo J. Different developmental pattern of N-ras and unr gene expression in mouse gametogenic and somatic tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1263:10-6 pubmed
    ..The change in the pattern of accumulation during testis development from long to small alternative transcripts, could be interpreted in terms of possible alleviation of transcription interference of N-ras. ..
  13. Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Suard Y, Perucho M, Li Y, Kamata T, et al. Three human transforming genes are related to the viral ras oncogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:2112-6 pubmed
    ..Based on the homology with the v-ras genes, we have established the orientation of transcription and approximate coding regions of the cloned human K-ras and N-ras genes. ..
  14. Halkein J, Tabruyn S, Ricke Hoch M, Haghikia A, Nguyen N, Scherr M, et al. MicroRNA-146a is a therapeutic target and biomarker for peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..16K PRL induced microRNA-146a (miR-146a) expression in ECs, which attenuated angiogenesis through downregulation of NRAS. 16K PRL stimulated the release of miR-146a-loaded exosomes from ECs...
  15. Cuiffo B, Ren R. Palmitoylation of oncogenic NRAS is essential for leukemogenesis. Blood. 2010;115:3598-605 pubmed publisher
    Activating mutations of NRAS are common in acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome...
  16. Liu J, Luo X, Xiong A, Zhang Z, Yue S, Zhu M, et al. MicroRNA-214 promotes myogenic differentiation by facilitating exit from mitosis via down-regulation of proto-oncogene N-ras. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data uncovered a novel microRNA-mediated mechanism that controls myogenic differentiation. ..
  17. Broad T, Burkin D, Cambridge L, Carpenter M, Jones C. Four loci from human chromosome 1 are physically assigned to sheep chromosome 1p. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:551-3 pubmed
  18. Drosten M, Lechuga C, Barbacid M. Ras signaling is essential for skin development. Oncogene. 2014;33:2857-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide genetic evidence for an essential role of Ras proteins in the control of keratinocyte and epidermal proliferation. ..
  19. Lee J, Back T, Komschlies K, Ruscetti F, Young H, Wiltrout R. Hematopoietic switch from lymphoid to granulocytic development in 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In Vivo. 2001;15:255-63 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, a somatic mutation of N-Ras gene was found in 3LL tumor cells at codon 61, suggesting that mutated N-Ras may contribute to induction of granulocytosis in 3LL tumor-bearing mice. ..
  20. Fujita Sato S, Galeas J, Truitt M, Pitt C, Urisman A, Bandyopadhyay S, et al. Enhanced MET Translation and Signaling Sustains K-Ras-Driven Proliferation under Anchorage-Independent Growth Conditions. Cancer Res. 2015;75:2851-62 pubmed publisher
  21. Sørensen A, Duch M, Amtoft H, Jørgensen P, Pedersen F. Sequence tags of provirus integration sites in DNAs of tumors induced by the murine retrovirus SL3-3. J Virol. 1996;70:4063-70 pubmed
    ..One of the remaining 32 proviral integration site sequences that show no similarities to known sequences may represent a common integration site, as 2 of the 20 tumors demonstrated clonal provirus insertion into this region. ..
  22. Slape C, Liu L, Beachy S, Aplan P. Leukemic transformation in mice expressing a NUP98-HOXD13 transgene is accompanied by spontaneous mutations in Nras, Kras, and Cbl. Blood. 2008;112:2017-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated 22 ANLL samples and found a high frequency of Nras and Kras mutations, an absence of Npm1, p53, Runx1, Kit and Flt3 mutations, and a single Cbl mutation...
  23. Kong G, Chang Y, Damnernsawad A, You X, Du J, Ranheim E, et al. Loss of wild-type Kras promotes activation of all Ras isoforms in oncogenic Kras-induced leukemogenesis. Leukemia. 2016;30:1542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative signaling studies reveal that oncogenic Kras but not oncogenic Nras leads to cross-activation of WT Ras, whereas loss of WT Kras further promotes the activation of all Ras isoforms...
  24. Mor A, Keren G, Kloog Y, George J. N-Ras or K-Ras inhibition increases the number and enhances the function of Foxp3 regulatory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inhibition of the N- or K-Ras isoform triggers an anti-inflammatory effect by up-regulating, via Foxp3 elevation, the numbers and functional suppressive properties of Treg...
  25. Iborra S, Ramos M, Arana D, Lázaro S, Aguilar F, Santos E, et al. N-ras couples antigen receptor signaling to Eomesodermin and to functional CD8+ T cell memory but not to effector differentiation. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1463-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study identifies a critical role for N-ras as a TCR-proximal regulator of Eomes for early determination of the CD8? T cell memory fate. ..
  26. Drosten M, Sum E, Lechuga C, Simón Carrasco L, Jacob H, García Medina R, et al. Loss of p53 induces cell proliferation via Ras-independent activation of the Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:15155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we provide evidence that cells lacking Ras and p53 proteins owe their proliferative properties to the unexpected retroactivation of the Raf/Mek/Erk cascade by a Ras-independent mechanism. ..
  27. Pan Y, Zhang L, Liu Q, Li Y, Guo H, Peng Y, et al. Insertion of a knockout-first cassette in Ampd1 gene leads to neonatal death by disruption of neighboring genes expression. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35970 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-seq analysis indicated that the expression of two neighboring genes, Man1a2 and Nras, were disrupted in the Ampd1tm1a/tm1a mice, but normal in the Ampd1tm1c/tm1c and Ampd1..
  28. To M, Rosario R, Westcott P, Banta K, Balmain A. Interactions between wild-type and mutant Ras genes in lung and skin carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2013;32:4028-33 pubmed publisher
    Ras oncogenes (Hras, Kras and Nras) are important drivers of carcinogenesis...
  29. Green M. The position of luxoid in linkage group II of the mouse. J Hered. 1961;52:297-300 pubmed
  30. Klinga Levan K, Andersson A, Hanson C, Ridderström M, Stenberg G, Mannervik B, et al. Mapping of glutathione transferase (GST) genes in the rat. Hereditas. 1993;119:285-96 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, each of the three groups of conserved synteny seems to span the region across the centromeres of the human chromosomes. ..
  31. Tsukamoto S, Ihara R, Aizawa A, Kishida S, Kikuchi A, Imai H, et al. Oog1, an oocyte-specific protein, interacts with Ras and Ras-signaling proteins during early embryogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;343:1105-12 pubmed
    ..We also examined the interaction between Oog1 and Ras by GST pull-down assay and revealed that Oog1 interacts with Ras in a GTP-dependent manner. These findings suggest a role of Oog1 as a Ras-binding protein. ..
  32. Wiesner S, Jones J, Hasz D, Largaespada D. Repressible transgenic model of NRAS oncogene-driven mast cell disease in the mouse. Blood. 2005;106:1054-62 pubmed
  33. Kono T, Imai Y, Yasuda S, Ohmori K, Fukui H, Ichikawa K, et al. The CD155/poliovirus receptor enhances the proliferation of ras-mutated cells. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:317-24 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our present data suggest that CD155, at least in part, enhances the proliferation of ras-mutated cells. ..
  34. Campagne C, Reyes Gomez E, Picco M, Loiodice S, Salaun P, Ezagal J, et al. RACK1 cooperates with NRASQ61K to promote melanoma in vivo. Cell Signal. 2017;36:255-266 pubmed publisher
    ..In primary melanoma cells from Tyr::Rack1-HA, Tyr::NRasQ61K mice, activated JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and activated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator ..
  35. Pedersen M, Küsters Vandevelde H, Viros A, Groenen P, Sanchez Laorden B, Gilhuis J, et al. Primary melanoma of the CNS in children is driven by congenital expression of oncogenic NRAS in melanocytes. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:458-469 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS mutations are common in human melanoma. To produce a mouse model of NRAS-driven melanoma, we expressed oncogenic NRAS (NRAS(G12D)) in mouse melanocytes...
  36. Chang Y, You X, Kong G, Ranheim E, Wang J, Du J, et al. Loss of Dnmt3a and endogenous Kras(G12D/+) cooperate to regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell functions in leukemogenesis. Leukemia. 2015;29:1847-56 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic NRAS and KRAS mutations are prevalent in human juvenile and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML/CMML)...
  37. Shao H, Pandey A, O Shea K, Seldin M, Dixit V. Characterization of B61, the ligand for the Eck receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:5636-41 pubmed
    ..Finally, the gene for B61 was localized to a specific position on mouse chromosome 3 by interspecific back-cross analysis. ..
  38. Wolfman J, Planchon S, Liao J, Wolfman A. Structural and functional consequences of c-N-Ras constitutively associated with intact mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1108-24 pubmed
  39. Buchberg A, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Localization of the murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene to chromosome 3 using interspecific backcross analysis. Genomics. 1989;5:363-7 pubmed
    ..We mapped Csfm to mouse chromosome 3, 2.5 cM distal to Ngfb and Nras and 1.3 cM proximal to Amy-2...
  40. Lissanu Deribe Y. Interplay between PREX2 mutations and the PI3K pathway and its effect on epigenetic regulation of gene expression in NRAS-mutant melanoma. Small Gtpases. 2016;7:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..leads to increased PI3K/AKT signaling associated with reduced DNA methylation and increased cell proliferation in NRAS-mutant melanoma...
  41. Shi J, Wang E, Zuber J, Rappaport A, Taylor M, Johns C, et al. The Polycomb complex PRC2 supports aberrant self-renewal in a mouse model of MLL-AF9;Nras(G12D) acute myeloid leukemia. Oncogene. 2013;32:930-8 pubmed publisher
  42. Burd C, Liu W, Huynh M, Waqas M, Gillahan J, Clark K, et al. Mutation-specific RAS oncogenicity explains NRAS codon 61 selection in melanoma. Cancer Discov. 2014;4:1418-29 pubmed publisher
    b>NRAS mutation at codons 12, 13, or 61 is associated with transformation; yet, in melanoma, such alterations are nearly exclusive to codon 61...
  43. Li Q, Bohin N, Wen T, Ng V, Magee J, Chen S, et al. Oncogenic Nras has bimodal effects on stem cells that sustainably increase competitiveness. Nature. 2013;504:143-147 pubmed publisher
    ..Activating mutations in NRAS are prevalent in human myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukaemia...
  44. Castellano E, Guerrero C, Nunez A, De Las Rivas J, Santos E. Serum-dependent transcriptional networks identify distinct functional roles for H-Ras and N-Ras during initial stages of the cell cycle. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R123 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations confirm the notion of an absolute requirement for different peaks of Ras activity during the initial stages of the cell cycle and document the functional specificity of H-Ras and N-Ras during those processes. ..
  45. Ryan J, Hart C, Ruddle F. Molecular cloning and chromosome assignment of murine N-ras. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:6063-72 pubmed
    ..Hybridization of two separate unique sequence N-ras probes, isolated from the 5' and 3' flanking sequences of the murine gene, to a mouse-Chinese hamster hybrid mapping panel assigns the N-ras locus to mouse chromosome three. ..
  46. Bartholomew C, Morishita K, Askew D, Buchberg A, Jenkins N, Copeland N, et al. Retroviral insertions in the CB-1/Fim-3 common site of integration activate expression of the Evi-1 gene. Oncogene. 1989;4:529-34 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the CB-1/Fim-3 and Evi-1 loci constitute a large genomic region in which viral integrations activate the transcription of a new potential myeloid transforming gene. ..
  47. Costa R, Federov N, Kogan J, Murphy G, Stern J, Ohno M, et al. Mechanism for the learning deficits in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type 1. Nature. 2002;415:526-30 pubmed
    ..Our findings have implications for the development of treatments for learning deficits associated with NF1. ..
  48. Reneker L, Xie L, Xu L, Govindarajan V, Overbeek P. Activated Ras induces lens epithelial cell hyperplasia but not premature differentiation. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:879-88 pubmed
    ..Expression of activated Ras was sufficient to stimulate lens cell proliferation but not differentiation, implying that alternative or additional signal transduction pathways are required to induce fiber cell differentiation. ..
  49. Tokunaga M, Ezoe S, Tanaka H, Satoh Y, Fukushima K, Matsui K, et al. BCR-ABL but not JAK2 V617F inhibits erythropoiesis through the Ras signal by inducing p21CIP1/WAF1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31774-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data would, at least partly, explain why respective oncogenic TKs cause different disease phenotypes. ..
  50. Wang K, Chen K, Chiang C, Kuo M. Distribution of p21ras during primary palate formation of non-cleft and cleft strains of mice. J Oral Pathol Med. 1995;24:103-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest ras genes may play a role in the primary palatogenesis of mice. Cleft lip could be associated with the deficiency of ras gene expression during primary palate formation of mice. ..
  51. Liu P, Jiao B, Zhang R, Zhao H, Zhang C, Wu M, et al. Palmitoylacyltransferase Zdhhc9 inactivation mitigates leukemogenic potential of oncogenic Nras. Leukemia. 2016;30:1225-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Yamaza H, Matsuo K, Kiyoshima T, Shigemura N, Kobayashi I, Wada H, et al. Detection of differentially expressed genes in the early developmental stage of the mouse mandible. Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45:675-80 pubmed
  53. Ha L, Ichikawa T, Anver M, Dickins R, Lowe S, Sharpless N, et al. ARF functions as a melanoma tumor suppressor by inducing p53-independent senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10968-73 pubmed
    ..Moreover, oncogenic NRAS collaborates with deficiency in Arf, but not p53, to fully transform melanocytes...
  54. Larive R, Abad A, Cardaba C, Hernandez T, Canamero M, de Alava E, et al. The Ras-like protein R-Ras2/TC21 is important for proper mammary gland development. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2373-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Using compound RRas2-, HRas-, and NRas-knockout mice, we demonstrate that these GTPases act in a nonsynergistic and nonadditive manner during this ..
  55. Ray D, Kiyokawa H. CDC25A phosphatase: a rate-limiting oncogene that determines genomic stability. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1251-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings offer a sound foundation to justify development of CDC25A inhibitors for antitumor therapy. ..
  56. de Launay D, Vreijling J, Hartkamp L, Karpus O, Abreu J, van Maanen M, et al. Silencing the expression of Ras family GTPase homologues decreases inflammation and joint destruction in experimental arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:3010-24 pubmed publisher
  57. Guerrero I, Villasante A, Corces V, Pellicer A. Loss of the normal N-ras allele in a mouse thymic lymphoma induced by a chemical carcinogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82:7810-4 pubmed
    ..Through the use of synthetic oligonucleotides as hybridization probes, we show that this tumor lacks the normal allele of the N-ras gene. The implications of this finding for oncogene dominance are discussed. ..
  58. Bender R, Haigis K, Gutmann D. Activated k-ras, but not h-ras or N-ras, regulates brain neural stem cell proliferation in a raf/rb-dependent manner. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1998-2010 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations establish tissue-specific differences in activated Ras molecule regulation of brain cell growth that operate through a noncanonical mechanism. ..
  59. Kim E, Ambroziak P, Otto J, Taylor B, Ashby M, Shannon K, et al. Disruption of the mouse Rce1 gene results in defective Ras processing and mislocalization of Ras within cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8383-90 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that Rce1 is responsible for the endoproteolytic processing of the Ras proteins in mammals and suggest a broad role for this gene in processing other prenylated CAAX proteins. ..
  60. Halaban R, Krauthammer M. RASopathy Gene Mutations in Melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1755-1759 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we discuss the observations that two or more RASopathy mutations often co-occur in melanoma and may act synergistically on activating the pathway. ..
  61. Giannou A, Marazioti A, Kanellakis N, Giopanou I, Lilis I, Zazara D, et al. NRAS destines tumor cells to the lungs. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:672-686 pubmed publisher
    The lungs are frequently affected by cancer metastasis. Although NRAS mutations have been associated with metastatic potential, their exact role in lung homing is incompletely understood...
  62. Kong G, Wunderlich M, Yang D, Ranheim E, Young K, Wang J, et al. Combined MEK and JAK inhibition abrogates murine myeloproliferative neoplasm. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional activation of a constitutively active oncogenic Nras (NrasG12D/G12D) in murine hematopoietic cells promotes an acute myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that ..
  63. Danis E, Yamauchi T, Echanique K, Zhang X, Haladyna J, Riedel S, et al. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1953-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients. ..
  64. Diaz R, Lopez Barcons L, Ahn D, Garcia Espana A, Yoon A, Matthews J, et al. Complex effects of Ras proto-oncogenes in tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:535-9 pubmed
    ..Considered together, our results indicate that Ras proto-oncogenes can enhance or inhibit the malignant phenotype in vivo in different systems. ..
  65. Dean M, Kozak C, Robbins J, Callahan R, O BRIEN S, Vande Woude G. Chromosomal localization of the met proto-oncogene in the mouse and cat genome. Genomics. 1987;1:167-73 pubmed
    ..The close linkage of met to the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis in humans suggests that further genetic analysis of mouse chromosome 6 may be useful in developing a mouse model for the disease. ..
  66. Jin H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Kirkpatrick R, Rosenberg M. Genetic characterization of the murine Ym1 gene and identification of a cluster of highly homologous genes. Genomics. 1998;54:316-22 pubmed
    ..In addition, we identified several genes highly homologous to Ym1 that cluster at the Ym1 locus. We show that these genes are expressed selectively in different mouse tissues. ..
  67. Fotiadou P, Takahashi C, Rajabi H, Ewen M. Wild-type NRas and KRas perform distinct functions during transformation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6742-55 pubmed
    ..Here, using a genetically defined system, we show that the presence of both wild-type KRas and NRas isoforms is required for transformation because they perform distinct nonoverlapping functions: wild-type NRas ..
  68. Kong G, Chang Y, You X, Ranheim E, Zhou Y, Burd C, et al. The ability of endogenous Nras oncogenes to initiate leukemia is codon-dependent. Leukemia. 2016;30:1935-8 pubmed publisher
  69. Chang H, Guerrero I, Lake R, Pellicer A, D EUSTACHIO P. Mouse N-ras genes: organization of the functional locus and of a truncated cDNA-like pseudogene. Oncogene Res. 1987;1:129-36 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have isolated and sequenced a second mouse gene homologous to N-ras. This locus, which we have named N-ras-2ps, resides at a chromosomal site distinct from N-ras and appears to be a truncated cDNA-like pseudogene. ..
  70. Weyandt J, Carney J, Pavlisko E, Xu M, Counter C. Isoform-Specific Effects of Wild-Type Ras Genes on Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167205 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the remaining wild-type KRAS protein, or the other family members HRAS and NRAS, can still be activated in the presence of oncogenic KRAS...
  71. Dower N, Seldin M, Pugh S, Stone J. Organization and chromosomal locations of Rap1a/Krev sequences in the mouse. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:162-7 pubmed
    ..We find that Rap1a is located on distal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 3 near Nras, Ampd-1, Tshb, Ngfb, and Atp1a1. Two related sequences (Rap1a-rs1 and Rap1a-rs2) were also characterized...
  72. Burgess M, Hwang E, Firestone A, Huang T, Xu J, Zuber J, et al. Preclinical efficacy of MEK inhibition in Nras-mutant AML. Blood. 2014;124:3947-55 pubmed publisher
    Oncogenic NRAS mutations are highly prevalent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
  73. Mediavilla M, Güezmez A, Ramos S, Kothari L, Garijo F, Sanchez Barcelo E. Effects of melatonin on mammary gland lesions in transgenic mice overexpressing N-ras proto-oncogene. J Pineal Res. 1997;22:86-94 pubmed
  74. Hinman M, Sharma A, Luo G, Lou H. Neurofibromatosis type 1 alternative splicing is a key regulator of Ras signaling in neurons. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, regulation of Nf1 exon 23a inclusion serves as a mechanism for providing appropriate levels of Ras signaling and may be important in modulating Ras-related neuronal functions. ..
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    ..These findings document that N-Ras activation proceeds at the PM and suggest that depalmitoylation, by removing Ras from the PM, may contribute to the shutdown of Ras signalling. ..
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    ..XRP44X has the potentially interesting property of connecting two important pathways involved in cell transformation and may thereby represent an interesting class of molecules that could be developed for cancer treatment. ..
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    To study the oncogenic role of the NRAS oncogene (NRAS(G12V)) in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we used a Vav promoter-tetracycline transactivator (Vav-tTA)-driven repressible TRE-NRAS(G12V) transgene system in Mll-AF9 knock-..
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    ..Perhaps more importantly, they should be useful as a preclinical model to test new therapies aimed at preventing or ameliorating those deficits associated with this syndrome. ..
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    ..N-Ras also regulates TGF-?1-induced collagen I and fibronectin expression through Erk-independent pathways. ..