Nr3c1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Nr3c1
Description: nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1
Alias: Grl-1, Grl1, glucocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Nr3c1

Top Publications

  1. Strahle U, Schmidt A, Kelsey G, Stewart A, Cole T, Schmid W, et al. At least three promoters direct expression of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6731-5 pubmed
    We have characterized the gene for the mouse glucocorticoid receptor. The gene spans approximately 110 kilobases, and glucocorticoid receptor transcripts are assembled from nine exons...
  2. Cole T, Blendy J, Monaghan A, Krieglstein K, Schmid W, Aguzzi A, et al. Targeted disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene blocks adrenergic chromaffin cell development and severely retards lung maturation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1608-21 pubmed
    The role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in glucocorticoid physiology and during development was investigated by generation of GR-deficient mice by gene targeting...
  3. Parlato R, Otto C, Tuckermann J, Stotz S, Kaden S, Grone H, et al. Conditional inactivation of glucocorticoid receptor gene in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase cells impairs chromaffin cell survival. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of mice carrying a germ line deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene has challenged these previous results because the embryonic development of adrenal chromaffin ..
  4. Echeverria P, Mazaira G, Erlejman A, Gomez Sanchez C, Piwien Pilipuk G, Galigniana M. Nuclear import of the glucocorticoid receptor-hsp90 complex through the nuclear pore complex is mediated by its interaction with Nup62 and importin beta. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4788-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is cytoplasmic in the absence of ligand and localizes to the nucleus after steroid binding...
  5. Zhao W, Qin W, Pan J, Wu Y, Bauman W, Cardozo C. Dependence of dexamethasone-induced Akt/FOXO1 signaling, upregulation of MAFbx, and protein catabolism upon the glucocorticoid receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the requirements for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in these biological responses in C2C12 cells in which GR expression was knocked down by stable ..
  6. Reily M, Pantoja C, Hu X, Chinenov Y, Rogatsky I. The GRIP1:IRF3 interaction as a target for glucocorticoid receptor-mediated immunosuppression. EMBO J. 2006;25:108-17 pubmed
    Glucocorticoids dramatically inhibit cytokine and chemokine production. They act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that binds to and represses activities of other DNA-bound regulators, ..
  7. Almeida O, Conde G, Crochemore C, Demeneix B, Fischer D, Hassan A, et al. Subtle shifts in the ratio between pro- and antiapoptotic molecules after activation of corticosteroid receptors decide neuronal fate. FASEB J. 2000;14:779-90 pubmed
    b>Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation induces apoptosis of granule cells in the hippocampus. In contrast, neuroprotection is seen after mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation...
  8. Tuckermann J, Reichardt H, Arribas R, Richter K, Schutz G, Angel P. The DNA binding-independent function of the glucocorticoid receptor mediates repression of AP-1-dependent genes in skin. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1365-70 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates the biological effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) through activation or repression of gene expression, either by DNA binding or via interaction with other transcription factors, such as AP-1...
  9. Stavreva D, Wiench M, John S, Conway Campbell B, McKenna M, Pooley J, et al. Ultradian hormone stimulation induces glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pulses of gene transcription. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1093-102 pubmed publisher
    Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones...

More Information

Publications74

  1. Yu C, Mayba O, Lee J, Tran J, Harris C, Speed T, et al. Genome-wide analysis of glucocorticoid receptor binding regions in adipocytes reveal gene network involved in triglyceride homeostasis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15188 pubmed publisher
    ..action in adipocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to isolate genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding regions (GBRs) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  2. Baschant U, Frappart L, Rauchhaus U, Bruns L, Reichardt H, Kamradt T, et al. Glucocorticoid therapy of antigen-induced arthritis depends on the dimerized glucocorticoid receptor in T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..the cells targeted by GCs and the transcriptional mechanisms underlying their actions through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in steroid therapy remain poorly defined...
  3. Harrell J, Murphy P, Morishima Y, Chen H, Mansfield J, Galigniana M, et al. Evidence for glucocorticoid receptor transport on microtubules by dynein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54647-54 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence that the movement of a steroid receptor is dynein-dependent, and it is the first isolation of a steroid receptor bound to the entire system that determines its retrograde movement. ..
  4. Wintermantel T, Bock D, Fleig V, Greiner E, Schutz G. The epithelial glucocorticoid receptor is required for the normal timing of cell proliferation during mammary lobuloalveolar development but is dispensable for milk production. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:340-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the generation and analysis of a mouse model to study glucocorticoid receptor (GR, NR3C1) function in mammary epithelial cells...
  5. Langlais D, Couture C, Balsalobre A, Drouin J. The Stat3/GR interaction code: predictive value of direct/indirect DNA recruitment for transcription outcome. Mol Cell. 2012;47:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to this canonical scheme, some transcription factors, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), behave as transcriptional repressors when recruited to target genes through protein tethering...
  6. Zilberman Y, Zafrir E, Ovadia H, Yefenof E, Guy R, Sionov R. The glucocorticoid receptor mediates the thymic epithelial cell-induced apoptosis of CD4+8+ thymic lymphoma cells. Cell Immunol. 2004;227:12-23 pubmed
    ..We have now substantiated the role of the GC-glucocorticoid receptor (GR) axis by using a GC-resistant subline (PD1.6Dex(-)) obtained from the GC-sensitive PD1...
  7. Frijters R, Fleuren W, Toonen E, Tuckermann J, Reichardt H, van der Maaden H, et al. Prednisolone-induced differential gene expression in mouse liver carrying wild type or a dimerization-defective glucocorticoid receptor. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:359 pubmed publisher
  8. Pazirandeh A, Xue Y, Rafter I, Sjovall J, Jondal M, Okret S. Paracrine glucocorticoid activity produced by mouse thymic epithelial cells. FASEB J. 1999;13:893-901 pubmed
    ..In addition, when TEC were cocultured with 'reporter cells' containing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a GR-dependent reporter gene, a specific induction of reporter gene activity was observed...
  9. Tronche F, Kellendonk C, Kretz O, Gass P, Anlag K, Orban P, et al. Disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in the nervous system results in reduced anxiety. Nat Genet. 1999;23:99-103 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, encoded by the gene Grl1) controls transcription of target genes both directly by interaction with DNA regulatory elements and indirectly by cross-talk with other transcription factors...
  10. Thompson A, Han V, Yang K. Differential expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor protein during mouse embryonic development. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;88:367-75 pubmed
    ..actions of glucocorticoids in target tissues are critically determined by the expression of not only the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) but also the glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes, known as 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types ..
  11. Kolber B, Roberts M, Howell M, Wozniak D, Sands M, Muglia L. Central amygdala glucocorticoid receptor action promotes fear-associated CRH activation and conditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12004-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that fear conditioning involves a neuroendocrine circuit by using GR activation in the CeA for acute CRH induction and long-lasting behavioral modulation. ..
  12. So A, Cooper S, Feldman B, Manuchehri M, Yamamoto K. Conservation analysis predicts in vivo occupancy of glucocorticoid receptor-binding sequences at glucocorticoid-induced genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5745-9 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) interacts with specific GR-binding sequences (GBSs) at glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) to orchestrate transcriptional networks...
  13. Bayo P, Sanchis A, Bravo A, Cascallana J, Buder K, Tuckermann J, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor is required for skin barrier competence. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1377-88 pubmed
    To investigate the contribution of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in skin development and the mechanisms underlying this function, we have analyzed two mouse models in which GR has been functionally inactivated: the knockout GR(-/-) ..
  14. Opherk C, Tronche F, Kellendonk C, Kohlmüller D, Schulze A, Schmid W, et al. Inactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor in hepatocytes leads to fasting hypoglycemia and ameliorates hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1346-53 pubmed
    ..These findings show the essential role of GR function in liver glucose metabolism during fasting and in diabetic mice and indicate that liver-specific GC antagonists could be beneficial in control of diabetic hyperglycemia. ..
  15. Finotto S, Krieglstein K, Schober A, Deimling F, Lindner K, Brühl B, et al. Analysis of mice carrying targeted mutations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene argues against an essential role of glucocorticoid signalling for generating adrenal chromaffin cells. Development. 1999;126:2935-44 pubmed
    ..Two decades of in vitro experiments have suggested an essential role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated signalling in generating chromaffin cells...
  16. Keeton E, Fletcher T, Baumann C, Hager G, Smith C. Glucocorticoid receptor domain requirements for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter in different nucleoprotein contexts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28247-55 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) contains several activation domains, tau1 (AF-1), tau2, and AF-2, which were initially defined using transiently transfected reporter constructs...
  17. Stavreva D, Müller W, Hager G, Smith C, McNally J. Rapid glucocorticoid receptor exchange at a promoter is coupled to transcription and regulated by chaperones and proteasomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2682-97 pubmed
    Exchange of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at promoter target sites provides the only known system in which transcription factor cycling at a promoter is fast, occurring on a time scale of seconds...
  18. Donet E, Bosch P, Sanchis A, Bayo P, Ramirez A, Cascallana J, et al. Transrepression function of the glucocorticoid receptor regulates eyelid development and keratinocyte proliferation but is not sufficient to prevent skin chronic inflammation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:799-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight the relevance of deciphering the mechanisms underlying GR actions on epithelial morphogenesis as well as for its therapeutic use to identify more restricted targets of GC administration. ..
  19. Hinds T, Ramakrishnan S, Cash H, Stechschulte L, Heinrich G, Najjar S, et al. Discovery of glucocorticoid receptor-beta in mice with a role in metabolism. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1715-27 pubmed publisher
    ..control diverse physiological processes, including metabolism and immunity, by activating the major glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform, GRalpha...
  20. Mittelstadt P, Monteiro J, Ashwell J. Thymocyte responsiveness to endogenous glucocorticoids is required for immunological fitness. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..glucocorticoids might influence the adaptive immune response, we generated GRlck-Cre mice, in which the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) is deleted in thymocytes prior to selection...
  21. Boyle M, Kolber B, Vogt S, Wozniak D, Muglia L. Forebrain glucocorticoid receptors modulate anxiety-associated locomotor activation and adrenal responsiveness. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1971-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigate the effect of forebrain-specific disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors...
  22. Wintermantel T, Berger S, Greiner E, Schutz G. Evaluation of steroid receptor function by gene targeting in mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;93:107-12 pubmed
    ..a variety of developmental, physiological and pathological processes via their cognate receptors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)...
  23. Waddell D, Baehr L, van den Brandt J, Johnsen S, Reichardt H, Furlow J, et al. The glucocorticoid receptor and FOXO1 synergistically activate the skeletal muscle atrophy-associated MuRF1 gene. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E785-97 pubmed publisher
    ..myotubes demonstrate that the MuRF1 promoter is responsive to both the dexamethasone (DEX)-activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and FOXO1, whereas coexpression of GR and FOXO1 leads to a dramatic synergistic increase in reporter ..
  24. Manwani N, Gagnon S, Post M, Joza S, Muglia L, Cornejo S, et al. Reduced viability of mice with lung epithelial-specific knockout of glucocorticoid receptor. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that impaired epithelial differentiation, leading to decreased SPs, transepithelial Na, and liquid absorption at birth, may contribute to the reduced survival of newborn mice with suppressed lung epithelial GR. ..
  25. Lovgren A, Kovarova M, Koller B. cPGES/p23 is required for glucocorticoid receptor function and embryonic growth but not prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4416-30 pubmed
    ..this protein has also been implicated in a number of other pathways, including stabilization of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) complex...
  26. Sasse S, Mailloux C, Barczak A, Wang Q, Altonsy M, Jain M, et al. The glucocorticoid receptor and KLF15 regulate gene expression dynamics and integrate signals through feed-forward circuitry. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2104-15 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates adaptive transcriptional programs that alter metabolism in response to stress...
  27. Sionov R, Cohen O, Kfir S, Zilberman Y, Yefenof E. Role of mitochondrial glucocorticoid receptor in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:189-201 pubmed
    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis are unknown. We studied the role of mitochondrial GR in this process...
  28. Bodwell J, Orti E, Coull J, Pappin D, Smith L, Swift F. Identification of phosphorylated sites in the mouse glucocorticoid receptor. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:7549-55 pubmed
    ..The location of many of these sites suggests a role of phosphorylation in transactivation. ..
  29. McNally J, Muller W, Walker D, Wolford R, Hager G. The glucocorticoid receptor: rapid exchange with regulatory sites in living cells. Science. 2000;287:1262-5 pubmed
    ..With the use of a tandem array of mouse mammary tumor virus reporter elements and a form of glucocorticoid receptor labeled with green fluorescent protein, targeting of the receptor to response elements in live mouse ..
  30. Reichardt H, Umland T, Bauer A, Kretz O, Schutz G. Mice with an increased glucocorticoid receptor gene dosage show enhanced resistance to stress and endotoxic shock. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:9009-17 pubmed
    Targeted mutagenesis of the glucocorticoid receptor has revealed an essential function for survival and the regulation of multiple physiological processes...
  31. Braun T, Grossberg A, Krasnow S, Levasseur P, Szumowski M, Zhu X, et al. Cancer- and endotoxin-induced cachexia require intact glucocorticoid signaling in skeletal muscle. FASEB J. 2013;27:3572-82 pubmed publisher
    ..as the inflammation-induced mediator of atrophy in vivo, we generated mice with targeted deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor in muscle (mGRKO mice)...
  32. Tuckermann J, Kleiman A, Moriggl R, Spanbroek R, Neumann A, Illing A, et al. Macrophages and neutrophils are the targets for immune suppression by glucocorticoids in contact allergy. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1381-90 pubmed
    ..These studies provide evidence that in contact allergy, therapeutic action of corticosteroids is in macrophages and neutrophils and that dimerization GR is required. ..
  33. Goodwin J, Feng Y, Velazquez H, Sessa W. Endothelial glucocorticoid receptor is required for protection against sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:306-11 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is ubiquitously expressed on nearly all cell types, but tissue-specific deletion of this receptor can produce dramatic whole organism phenotypes...
  34. Erdmann G, Schutz G, Berger S. Loss of glucocorticoid receptor function in the pituitary results in early postnatal lethality. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3446-51 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid action in the brain is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor, thereby affecting physiological processes such as neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and neuroendocrine control...
  35. Koliwad S, Kuo T, Shipp L, Gray N, Backhed F, So A, et al. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4, fasting-induced adipose factor) is a direct glucocorticoid receptor target and participates in glucocorticoid-regulated triglyceride metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The occupied glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a transcription factor...
  36. Michailidou Z, Carter R, Marshall E, Sutherland H, Brownstein D, Owen E, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor haploinsufficiency causes hypertension and attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and blood pressure adaptions to high-fat diet. FASEB J. 2008;22:3896-907 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid hormones are critical to respond and adapt to stress. Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and associate with hypertension and susceptibility ..
  37. Wüst S, van den Brandt J, Tischner D, Kleiman A, Tuckermann J, Gold R, et al. Peripheral T cells are the therapeutic targets of glucocorticoids in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2008;180:8434-43 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our findings reveal a highly selective mechanism of GC action in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and presumably multiple sclerosis. ..
  38. Chen F, Watson C, Gametchu B. Multiple glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in membrane glucocorticoid receptor-enriched S-49 mouse lymphoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 1999;74:418-29 pubmed
    A cDNA library from plasma membrane glucocorticoid receptor-enriched (mGR(++)) S- 49 mouse T lymphoma cells was screened with full-length rat intracellular GR (iGR) cDNA, BUGR-2 antibody, and PCR amplimers to portions of the mouse GR ..
  39. Sorrells S, Caso J, Munhoz C, Hu C, Tran K, Miguel Z, et al. Glucocorticoid signaling in myeloid cells worsens acute CNS injury and inflammation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, GCs compromised neuron survival, an effect mediated by GR in myeloid and endothelial cells to a greater extent than by neuronal GR. ..
  40. Danielsen M, Northrop J, Ringold G. The mouse glucocorticoid receptor: mapping of functional domains by cloning, sequencing and expression of wild-type and mutant receptor proteins. EMBO J. 1986;5:2513-22 pubmed
    We have isolated mouse glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cDNAs which, when expressed in transfected mammalian cells, produce a fully functional GR protein...
  41. Dittmar K, Demady D, Stancato L, Krishna P, Pratt W. Folding of the glucocorticoid receptor by the heat shock protein (hsp) 90-based chaperone machinery. The role of p23 is to stabilize receptor.hsp90 heterocomplexes formed by hsp90.p60.hsp70. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:21213-20 pubmed
    ..shown that hsp90, p60, and hsp70 are sufficient for carrying out the folding change that converts the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) hormone binding domain (HBD) from a non-steroid binding to a steroid binding conformation, but to ..
  42. Uhlenhaut N, Barish G, Yu R, Downes M, Karunasiri M, Liddle C, et al. Insights into negative regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor from genome-wide profiling of inflammatory cistromes. Mol Cell. 2013;49:158-71 pubmed publisher
    How the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activates some genes while potently repressing others remains an open question...
  43. Tronche F, Kellendonk C, Reichardt H, Schutz G. Genetic dissection of glucocorticoid receptor function in mice. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998;8:532-8 pubmed
    Upon hormone binding, the activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functions as a transcription factor via different modes of action to control gene expression...
  44. Wei Q, Lu X, Liu L, Schafer G, Shieh K, Burke S, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor overexpression in forebrain: a mouse model of increased emotional lability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11851-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulates these features of emotional responsiveness...
  45. Cole T, Solomon N, Van Driel R, Monk J, Bird D, Richardson S, et al. Altered epithelial cell proportions in the fetal lung of glucocorticoid receptor null mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:613-9 pubmed
    ..of glucocorticoids in fetal lung maturation, we have analyzed mice with a targeted null mutation for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, which severely retards lung development...
  46. Boyle M, Brewer J, Funatsu M, Wozniak D, Tsien J, Izumi Y, et al. Acquired deficit of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor produces depression-like changes in adrenal axis regulation and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:473-8 pubmed
    ..A number of studies have shown that this dysregulation is correlated with impaired forebrain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function...
  47. Reichardt H, Kaestner K, Tuckermann J, Kretz O, Wessely O, Bock R, et al. DNA binding of the glucocorticoid receptor is not essential for survival. Cell. 1998;93:531-41 pubmed
    Transcriptional regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for survival...
  48. Ridder S, Chourbaji S, Hellweg R, Urani A, Zacher C, Schmid W, et al. Mice with genetically altered glucocorticoid receptor expression show altered sensitivity for stress-induced depressive reactions. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6243-50 pubmed
    Altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is a postulated mechanism for the pathogenesis of major depression...
  49. Speirs H, Seckl J, Brown R. Ontogeny of glucocorticoid receptor and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 gene expression identifies potential critical periods of glucocorticoid susceptibility during development. J Endocrinol. 2004;181:105-16 pubmed
    ..To investigate these processes further we have determined the detailed ontogeny in the mouse of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11beta-HSD1), which amplifies glucocorticoid levels ..
  50. Purton J, Monk J, Liddicoat D, Kyparissoudis K, Sakkal S, Richardson S, et al. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor from the 1A promoter correlates with T lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoid-induced cell death. J Immunol. 2004;173:3816-24 pubmed
    ..This is possibly due to tissue-specific regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene...
  51. Talaber G, Boldizsar F, Bartis D, Palinkas L, Szabo M, Berta G, et al. Mitochondrial translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor in double-positive thymocytes correlates with their sensitivity to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Int Immunol. 2009;21:1269-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling plays an important role in the selection and apoptosis of thymocytes...
  52. Kellendonk C, Eiden S, Kretz O, Schutz G, Schmidt I, Tronche F, et al. Inactivation of the GR in the nervous system affects energy accumulation. Endocrinology. 2002;143:2333-40 pubmed
    ..The increased levels of plasma GCs and hypothalamic CRH may act as catabolic signals most likely leading to persistently reduced energy accumulation. ..
  53. Chen F, Watson C, Gametchu B. Association of the glucocorticoid receptor alternatively-spliced transcript 1A with the presence of the high molecular weight membrane glucocorticoid receptor in mouse lymphoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 1999;74:430-46 pubmed
    ..3 kb full-length glucocorticoid receptor 1A cDNA...
  54. Goodwin J, Zhang J, Gonzalez D, Albinsson S, Geller D. Knockout of the vascular endothelial glucocorticoid receptor abrogates dexamethasone-induced hypertension. J Hypertens. 2011;29:1347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We created a mouse model with a tissue-specific knockout of the glucocorticoid receptor in the vascular endothelium...
  55. Gupte R, Muse G, Chinenov Y, Adelman K, Rogatsky I. Glucocorticoid receptor represses proinflammatory genes at distinct steps of the transcription cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14616-21 pubmed publisher
    Widespread anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  56. Kotitschke A, Sadie Van Gijsen H, Avenant C, Fernandes S, Hapgood J. Genomic and nongenomic cross talk between the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathways. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1726-45 pubmed publisher
    ..this on the endogenous mGnRHR gene, and small interfering RNA experiments revealed a requirement for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for both the dex and GnRH response...
  57. Bird A, Tan K, Olsson P, Zieba M, Flecknoe S, Liddicoat D, et al. Identification of glucocorticoid-regulated genes that control cell proliferation during murine respiratory development. J Physiol. 2007;585:187-201 pubmed
    Glucocorticoids play a vital role in fetal respiratory development and act via the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to regulate transcription of key target genes...
  58. So A, Chaivorapol C, Bolton E, Li H, Yamamoto K. Determinants of cell- and gene-specific transcriptional regulation by the glucocorticoid receptor. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e94 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) associates with glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) and regulates selective gene transcription in a cell-specific manner...
  59. Cascallana J, Bravo A, Donet E, Leis H, Lara M, Paramio J, et al. Ectoderm-targeted overexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor induces hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2629-38 pubmed
    ..In ectoderm-targeted transgenic mice overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) [keratin 5 (K5)-GR mice], the NF-kappaB activity is greatly decreased due to functional antagonism ..
  60. Revest J, Di Blasi F, Kitchener P, Rouge Pont F, Desmedt A, Turiault M, et al. The MAPK pathway and Egr-1 mediate stress-related behavioral effects of glucocorticoids. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:664-72 pubmed
    Many of the behavioral consequences of stress are mediated by the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor by stress-induced high levels of glucocorticoid hormones...
  61. Pierreux C, Rousseau G, Lemaigre F. Insulin inhibition of glucocorticoid-stimulated gene transcription: requirement for an insulin response element?. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999;147:1-5 pubmed
    ..For a subset of genes, glucocorticoid receptor activity is inhibited by insulin...
  62. Lamia K, Papp S, Yu R, Barish G, Uhlenhaut N, Jonker J, et al. Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature. 2011;480:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that two circadian co-regulators, cryptochromes 1 and 2, interact with the glucocorticoid receptor in a ligand-dependent fashion and globally alter the transcriptional response to glucocorticoids in mouse ..
  63. Oitzl M, Reichardt H, Joels M, de Kloet E. Point mutation in the mouse glucocorticoid receptor preventing DNA binding impairs spatial memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12790-5 pubmed
    ..action for spatial memory, we here used male mutant mice in which homodimerization and DNA binding of the glucocorticoid receptor is largely prevented (GR(dim/dim)) while protein-protein interactions still can take place...
  64. Gourley S, Swanson A, Jacobs A, Howell J, Mo M, DiLeone R, et al. Action control is mediated by prefrontal BDNF and glucocorticoid receptor binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20714-9 pubmed publisher
  65. Davies T, Ning Y, SANCHEZ E. A new first step in activation of steroid receptors: hormone-induced switching of FKBP51 and FKBP52 immunophilins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4597-600 pubmed
    We have identified a new first step in the hormonal activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...