Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Nr2f1
Description: nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1
Alias: COUP-TF1, COUP-TFI, COUPTFA, EAR-3, EAR3, Erbal3, SVP44, Tcfcoup1, COUP transcription factor 1, COUP transcription factor I, V-erbA-related protein 3, avian erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog-like 3
- Zhou C, Qiu Y, Pereira F, Crair M, Tsai S, Tsai M. The nuclear orphan receptor COUP-TFI is required for differentiation of subplate neurons and guidance of thalamocortical axons. Neuron. 1999;24:847-59 pubmed..These results also substantiate COUP-TFI as an important regulator of neuronal development and differentiation. ..
- Qiu Y, Pereira F, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Tsai S, Tsai M. Null mutation of mCOUP-TFI results in defects in morphogenesis of the glossopharyngeal ganglion, axonal projection, and arborization. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1925-37 pubmed..Furthermore, mCOUP-TFI possesses vital physiological functions that are distinct from mCOUP-TFII despite of their high degree of homology and extensive overlapping expression patterns. ..
- Naka H, Nakamura S, Shimazaki T, Okano H. Requirement for COUP-TFI and II in the temporal specification of neural stem cells in CNS development. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1014-23 pubmed publisher..that chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I and II (Coup-tfI and Coup-tfII, also known as Nr2f1 and Nr2f2) are required for the temporal specification of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), including their ..
- Tomassy G, De Leonibus E, Jabaudon D, Lodato S, Alfano C, Mele A, et al. Area-specific temporal control of corticospinal motor neuron differentiation by COUP-TFI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3576-81 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that COUP-TFI exerts critical areal and temporal control over the precise differentiation of CSMN during corticogenesis, thereby enabling the area-specific functional features of motor and sensory areas to arise. ..
- Faedo A, Tomassy G, Ruan Y, Teichmann H, Krauss S, Pleasure S, et al. COUP-TFI coordinates cortical patterning, neurogenesis, and laminar fate and modulates MAPK/ERK, AKT, and beta-catenin signaling. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2117-31 pubmed publisher..We suggest that COUP-TFI controls these processes by repressing Mapk/Erk, Akt, and beta-catenin signaling. ..
- Dai K, Khatun I, Hussain M. NR2F1 and IRE1beta suppress microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and lipoprotein assembly in undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:568-74 pubmed publisher..Mechanistic studies showed that binding of the nuclear receptor family 2 group F member 1 (NR2F1) to the DR1 element in the MTTP promoter suppresses MTTP expression in undifferentiated cells...
- Jonk L, de Jonge M, Pals C, Wissink S, Vervaart J, Schoorlemmer J, et al. Cloning and expression during development of three murine members of the COUP family of nuclear orphan receptors. Mech Dev. 1994;47:81-97 pubmed..Furthermore, strong ARP-1 expression was detected in lung and kidney. Our data strongly suggest an important role for the members of the COUP-family in the hormonal control of gene expression regulating embryogenesis. ..
- Tripodi M, Filosa A, Armentano M, Studer M. The COUP-TF nuclear receptors regulate cell migration in the mammalian basal forebrain. Development. 2004;131:6119-29 pubmed..Therefore, we propose that COUP-TFs are directly involved in tangential cell migration in the developing brain, through the regulation of short- and long-range guidance cues. ..
- Hamasaki T, Leingartner A, Ringstedt T, O Leary D. EMX2 regulates sizes and positioning of the primary sensory and motor areas in neocortex by direct specification of cortical progenitors. Neuron. 2004;43:359-72 pubmed..We conclude that EMX2 levels in cortical progenitors disproportionately specify sizes and positions of primary cortical areas. ..
- Thomson R, Pellicano F, Iwata T. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 kinase domain mutation increases cortical progenitor proliferation via mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. J Neurochem. 2007;100:1565-78 pubmed..We suggest that temporal activation of MAPK is largely responsible for cell proliferation caused by the Fgfr3 mutation during early stages of cortical development. ..
- Yamaguchi H, Zhou C, Lin S, Durand B, Tsai S, Tsai M. The nuclear orphan receptor COUP-TFI is important for differentiation of oligodendrocytes. Dev Biol. 2004;266:238-51 pubmed..Taken together, these results suggest that COUP-TFI is an important regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation. ..
- Fukuchi Shimogori T, Grove E. Emx2 patterns the neocortex by regulating FGF positional signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:825-31 pubmed..These findings begin to clarify the signaling network that patterns the neocortical area map. ..
- Tang K, Xie X, Park J, Jamrich M, Tsai S, Tsai M. COUP-TFs regulate eye development by controlling factors essential for optic vesicle morphogenesis. Development. 2010;137:725-34 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that COUP-TFI (Nr2f1) and COUP-TFII (Nr2f2) are highly expressed in the progenitor cells in the developing murine eye...
- Armentano M, Chou S, Tomassy G, Leingartner A, O Leary D, Studer M. COUP-TFI regulates the balance of cortical patterning between frontal/motor and sensory areas. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1277-86 pubmedWe used cortex-specific deletion of the transcription factor gene COUP-TFI (also known as Nr2f1) in mice to demonstrate previously unknown fundamental roles for it in patterning mammalian neocortex into areas...
- Montemayor C, Montemayor O, Ridgeway A, Lin F, Wheeler D, Pletcher S, et al. Genome-wide analysis of binding sites and direct target genes of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1/COUP-TFI. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8910 pubmed publisher..as a proof of principle, utilize the methodology to identify novel direct targets of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 (COUP-TFI)...
- Assimacopoulos S, Kao T, Issa N, Grove E. Fibroblast growth factor 8 organizes the neocortical area map and regulates sensory map topography. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7191-201 pubmed publisher..Our findings implicate FGF8 as an organizer signal, and its source in the rostromedial telencephalon as an organizer of the neocortical area map. ..
- Bovetti S, Bonzano S, Garzotto D, Giannelli S, Iannielli A, Armentano M, et al. COUP-TFI controls activity-dependent tyrosine hydroxylase expression in adult dopaminergic olfactory bulb interneurons. Development. 2013;140:4850-9 pubmed publisher..Our study reveals a previously unknown role for COUP-TFI in the adult brain as a key regulator in the control of sensory-dependent plasticity in olfactory dopaminergic neurons. ..
- Studer M, Filosa A, Rubenstein J. The nuclear receptor COUP-TFI represses differentiation of Cajal-Retzius cells. Brain Res Bull. 2005;66:394-401 pubmed..Furthermore, general differentiation is not affected, strongly suggesting that COUP-TFI represses differentiation of CR cells. ..
- Zheng W, Horton C, Kim J, Halvorson L. The orphan nuclear receptors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII regulate expression of the gonadotropin LH? gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;330:59-71 pubmed publisher..To our knowledge, these data are the first to demonstrate COUP-TF expression and function in pituitary gonadotropes. ..
- Brubaker K, McMillan M, Neuman T, Nornes H. All-trans retinoic acid affects the expression of orphan receptors COUP-TF I and COUP-TF II in the developing neural tube. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;93:198-202 pubmed..COUP-TF II mRNA levels were increased in the spinal cord VZ after treatment, while in the telencephalon, IZ mRNA levels were decreased in the E11 embryos and increased in E13 embryos. ..
- Cobb J, Duboule D. Comparative analysis of genes downstream of the Hoxd cluster in developing digits and external genitalia. Development. 2005;132:3055-67 pubmed..e. the digits and the penis/clitoris. ..
- Flames N, Pla R, Gelman D, Rubenstein J, Puelles L, Marin O. Delineation of multiple subpallial progenitor domains by the combinatorial expression of transcriptional codes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:9682-95 pubmed..Furthermore, the results of microtransplantation experiments in vivo corroborate that anatomically defined regions of the mouse subpallium, such as the medial ganglionic eminence, can be subdivided into functionally distinct domains. ..
- Piñon M, Tuoc T, Ashery Padan R, Molnar Z, Stoykova A. Altered molecular regionalization and normal thalamocortical connections in cortex-specific Pax6 knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:8724-34 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that Pax6 expression gradients in cortical progenitors do not directly impart thalamocortical or corticofugal areal identity. ..
- Sack M, Disch D, Rockman H, Kelly D. A role for Sp and nuclear receptor transcription factors in a cardiac hypertrophic growth program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6438-43 pubmed..These results identify a transcriptional regulatory mechanism involved in the reinduction of a fetal metabolic program during pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. ..
- Metivier R, Le Drean Y, Salbert G, Pakdel F. Interplay between liganded and orphan nuclear receptors controls reproductive pathways. Biochem Cell Biol. 2000;78:345-58 pubmed..Our work has established that two other orphan nuclear receptors (SF-1 or NR5A1 and the COUP-TFs, NR2F1 and NR2F2) can enhance two ER-regulated genes implicated in salmonid reproductive functions: the ER gene itself, ..
- Schwab K, Patterson L, Aronow B, Luckas R, Liang H, Potter S. A catalogue of gene expression in the developing kidney. Kidney Int. 2003;64:1588-604 pubmed..This work creates a catalogue of the gene expression states of the developing mouse kidney and its microdissected subcomponents. ..
- Satoh S, Tang K, Iida A, Inoue M, Kodama T, Tsai S, et al. The spatial patterning of mouse cone opsin expression is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein signaling through downstream effector COUP-TF nuclear receptors. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12401-11 pubmed publisher..Based on these findings, we propose a new molecular cascade involving BMP and COUP-TFs that conveys dorsoventral information to direct the expression of cone opsins during retinal development. ..
- Ideguchi M, Palmer T, Recht L, Weimann J. Murine embryonic stem cell-derived pyramidal neurons integrate into the cerebral cortex and appropriately project axons to subcortical targets. J Neurosci. 2010;30:894-904 pubmed publisher..Thus, these data establish that ES-derived cortical projection neurons can integrate into anatomically relevant circuits. ..
- Pickens B, Teets B, Soprano K, Soprano D. Role of COUP-TFI during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of P19 cells to endodermal cells. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:791-800 pubmed publisher..These studies demonstrate that COUP-TFI functions as a physiologically relevant regulator during RA-mediated endodermal differentiation of P19 cells. ..
- Bergeron K, Nguyen C, Cardinal T, Charrier B, Silversides D, Pilon N. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4. Dis Model Mech. 2016;9:1283-1293 pubmed..mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of ..
- Jonk L, de Jonge M, Vervaart J, Wissink S, Kruijer W. Isolation and developmental expression of retinoic-acid-induced genes. Dev Biol. 1994;161:604-14 pubmed..The results confirm the usefulness of the P19 system in the isolation and study of the regulation of developmentally expressed genes. ..
- Qiu Y, Krishnan V, Zeng Z, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Gibson L, et al. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of mouse and human COUP-TF I and II genes. Genomics. 1995;29:240-6 pubmed..Furthermore, we mapped human COUP-TF I to 5q14 of chromosome 5 and COUP-TF II to 15q26 of chromosome 15. The results demonstrate that COUP-TF genes are located in chromosomal regions that are syntenic between mouse and human. ..
- Dye C, El Shawa H, Huffman K. A lifespan analysis of intraneocortical connections and gene expression in the mouse I. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:1311-30 pubmed publisher..In this analysis, we utilize novel methods to correlate the boundaries of gene expression with INCs and developing areal boundaries, in order to better understand the nature of gene-areal relationships during development. ..
- Thomson R, Kind P, Graham N, Etherson M, Kennedy J, Fernandes A, et al. Fgf receptor 3 activation promotes selective growth and expansion of occipitotemporal cortex. Neural Dev. 2009;4:4 pubmed publisher..Together with previous work, this study suggests that formation of rostral and caudal areas are differentially regulated by Fgf signaling in the cerebral cortex. ..
- Anderson G, Larson R, Oas D, Sandhofer C, Schwartz H, Mariash C, et al. Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) modulates expression of the Purkinje cell protein-2 gene. A potential role for COUP-TF in repressing premature thyroid hormone action in the developing brain. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:16391-9 pubmed
- Qin J, Suh J, Kim B, Yu C, Tanaka T, Kodama T, et al. The expression pattern of nuclear receptors during cerebellar development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:810-20 pubmed..Taken together, our results suggest that members of the nuclear receptor superfamily might play importantly physiological roles in the cerebellum. ..
- Kudo L, Karsten S, Chen J, Levitt P, Geschwind D. Genetic analysis of anterior posterior expression gradients in the developing mammalian forebrain. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:2108-22 pubmed..These data provide an important set of new candidates for studies of cortical patterning and maturation. ..
- Muzio L, Mallamaci A. Foxg1 confines Cajal-Retzius neuronogenesis and hippocampal morphogenesis to the dorsomedial pallium. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4435-41 pubmed..Remarkably, in the absence of Foxg1, additional inactivation of the medial fates promoter Emx2, although not suppressing cortical specification, conversely rescues overproduction of Reelin(on) neurons. ..
- Liu Y, Nakatani T, Kogai T, Mody K, Brent G. Thyroid hormone and COUP-TF1 regulate kallikrein-binding protein (KBP) gene expression. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1143-53 pubmed publisher..COUP-TF1 may be an important factor to modulate expression of genes that are repressed by T(3). ..
- Smits B, Haag J, Rissman A, Sharma D, Tran A, Schoenborn A, et al. The gene desert mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs1a regulates Nr2f1 modifying mammary epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003549 pubmed publisher..gene expression analysis by RNA-seq revealed that in the mouse mammary gland, the orphan nuclear receptor gene Nr2f1/Coup-tf1 is regulated by Mcs1a...
- Visel A, Taher L, Girgis H, May D, Golonzhka O, Hoch R, et al. A high-resolution enhancer atlas of the developing telencephalon. Cell. 2013;152:895-908 pubmed publisher..These data provide a primary resource for investigating gene regulatory mechanisms of telencephalon development and enable studies of the role of distant-acting enhancers in neurodevelopmental disorders. ..
- Borello U, Madhavan M, Vilinsky I, Faedo A, Pierani A, Rubenstein J, et al. Sp8 and COUP-TF1 reciprocally regulate patterning and Fgf signaling in cortical progenitors. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:1409-21 pubmed publisher..Thus, we propose that Sp8 promotes rostral and dorsomedial cortical development by repressing COUP-TF1 and promoting Fgf signaling in pallial progenitors. ..
- Perets R, Kaplan T, Stein I, Hidas G, Tayeb S, Avraham E, et al. Genome-wide analysis of androgen receptor targets reveals COUP-TF1 as a novel player in human prostate cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46467 pubmed publisher..This study extends the pool of recognized putative AR targets and identifies a negatively regulated target of AR - COUP-TF1 - which could possibly play a role in human prostate cancer. ..
- Smith R, Huang Y, Tian T, Vojtasova D, Mesalles Naranjo O, Pollard S, et al. The Transcription Factor Foxg1 Promotes Optic Fissure Closure in the Mouse by Suppressing Wnt8b in the Nasal Optic Stalk. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7975-7993 pubmed publisher..Our results unravel a new role of Foxg1 in promoting OF closure providing additional knowledge about the molecules and cellular mechanisms underlying coloboma formation. ..
- Inoue M, Iida A, Satoh S, Kodama T, Watanabe S. COUP-TFI and -TFII nuclear receptors are expressed in amacrine cells and play roles in regulating the differentiation of retinal progenitor cells. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:49-56 pubmed publisher..In summary, we found that COUP-TFI and -TFII play roles in amacrine cell differentiation, and COUP-TFgamma has distinct expression pattern and roles during retinal development. ..
- Zhuang Y, Gudas L. Overexpression of COUP-TF1 in murine embryonic stem cells reduces retinoic acid-associated growth arrest and increases extraembryonic endoderm gene expression. Differentiation. 2008;76:760-71 pubmed publisher..we generated murine embryonic stem (ES) cell lines which stably and constitutively overexpress COUP-TF1 (NR2F1) and we analyzed RA-induced differentiation...
- Ulven S, Gundersen T, Weedon M, Landaas V, Sakhi A, Fromm S, et al. Identification of endogenous retinoids, enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse: important role of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 in synthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2000;220:379-91 pubmed..Therefore, our results suggest that RALDH2 is a key regulator in initiating retinoic acid synthesis sometime between the mid-primitive streak stage and the late allantoic bud stage in mouse embryos. ..
- Alfano C, Viola L, Heng J, Pirozzi M, Clarkson M, Flore G, et al. COUP-TFI promotes radial migration and proper morphology of callosal projection neurons by repressing Rnd2 expression. Development. 2011;138:4685-97 pubmed publisher..Thus, our data demonstrate that COUP-TFI modulates late-born neuron migration and favours proper differentiation of CPNs by finely regulating Rnd2 expression levels. ..
- Uslu V, Petretich M, Ruf S, Langenfeld K, Fonseca N, Marioni J, et al. Long-range enhancers regulating Myc expression are required for normal facial morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 2014;46:753-8 pubmed publisher..This dual molecular etiology may account for the prominent influence of variants in the 8q24 region on human facial dysmorphologies. ..
- Shigeta H, Newbold R, McLachlan J, Teng C. Estrogenic effect on the expression of estrogen receptor, COUP-TF, and lactoferrin mRNA in developing mouse tissues. Mol Reprod Dev. 1996;45:21-30 pubmed..These data point to the complexity of differential expression of LF gene in estrogen responsive and nonresponsive tissues during development. ..
- Chiang D, Cuthbertson D, Ruiz F, Li N, Pereira F. A coregulatory network of NR2F1 and microRNA-140. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e83358 pubmed publisherBoth nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 1 (NR2F1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play critical roles in the developing and functional inner ear...
- Lu X, Salbert G, Pfahl M. An evolutionary conserved COUP-TF binding element in a neural-specific gene and COUP-TF expression patterns support a major role for COUP-TF in neural development. Mol Endocrinol. 1994;8:1774-88 pubmed..Together our data suggest that COUPs play a crucial role in controlling a subset of neural-specific programs during development. ..
- Watari N, Kameda Y, Takeichi M, Chisaka O. Hoxa3 regulates integration of glossopharyngeal nerve precursor cells. Dev Biol. 2001;240:15-31 pubmed..In summary, the Hoxa3 gene has crucial roles in ensuring the correct axon projection pattern of all three components of the IXth nerve, i.e., motor neurons and sensory neurons of the proximal and distal ganglia. ..
- Zhou X, Liu F, Tian M, Xu Z, Liang Q, Wang C, et al. Transcription factors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII are required for the production of granule cells in the mouse olfactory bulb. Development. 2015;142:1593-605 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results suggest that COUP-TFI/II coordinately regulate the proliferation, migration and survival of a subpopulation of Pax6+ and CR+ granule cells in the OB. ..
- Fujimura N, Taketo M, Mori M, Korinek V, Kozmik Z. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2009;334:31-45 pubmed publisher..Combined, our data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in development of RPE by maintaining or inducing expression of Mitf and Otx2. ..
- Parisot J, Flore G, Bertacchi M, Studer M. COUP-TFI mitotically regulates production and migration of dentate granule cells and modulates hippocampal Cxcr4 expression. Development. 2017;144:2045-2058 pubmed publisher..Together, our results indicate that COUP-TFI is required predominantly in DG progenitors for modulating expression of the Cxcr4 receptor during granule cell neurogenesis and migration. ..
- Touzot A, Ruiz Reig N, Vitalis T, Studer M. Molecular control of two novel migratory paths for CGE-derived interneurons in the developing mouse brain. Development. 2016;143:1753-65 pubmed publisher..Overall, we propose that the existence of spatially and temporally regulated migratory paths in the subpallium contributes to the laminar distribution and specification of distinct interneuron subpopulations in the adult brain...
- Zembrzycki A, Perez Garcia C, Wang C, Chou S, O Leary D. Postmitotic regulation of sensory area patterning in the mammalian neocortex by Lhx2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:6736-41 pubmed publisher..Our results reemphasize critical roles for Lhx2 that acts as one of the terminal selector genes in controlling principal properties of neurons. ..
- Chan C, Fulton J, Montiel Duarte C, Collins H, Bharti N, Wadelin F, et al. A signature motif mediating selective interactions of BCL11A with the NR2E/F subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:9663-79 pubmed publisher..Two copies of this motif (named here as RID1 and RID2) permit BCL11A to bind COUP-TFs (NR2F1;NR2F2;NR2F6) and Tailless/TLX (NR2E1), whereas RID1, but not RID2, binds PNR (NR2E3)...
- Ichikawa H, Lin S, Tsai S, Tsai M, Sugimoto T. Effect of mCOUP-TF1 deficiency on the glossopharyngeal and vagal sensory ganglia. Brain Res. 2004;1014:247-50 pubmed..In the tongue of knockout mice, the number of CGRP-IR nerve fibers decreased compared to wild-type and heterozygous mice. The development of CGRP-IR petrosal neurons, which supply innervation of the tongue, may depend on mCOUP-TFI. ..
- Johnson D, Li C, Chen L, Ghosh J, Chen J. Regulation and binding of pregnane X receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:99-108 pubmed..Taken together, our results suggest that the corepressor SMRT may bind to and regulate the transcriptional activity of PXR. ..
- Barber M, Arai Y, Morishita Y, Vigier L, Causeret F, Borello U, et al. Migration Speed of Cajal-Retzius Cells Modulated by Vesicular Trafficking Controls the Size of Higher-Order Cortical Areas. Curr Biol. 2015;25:2466-78 pubmed publisher..Our findings thus identify novel roles for neuronal migration and VAMP3-dependent vesicular trafficking in cortical wiring. ..
- Chang Y, Stoykova A, Chowdhury K, Gruss P. Graded expression of Zfp462 in the embryonic mouse cerebral cortex. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:405-12 pubmed..This family includes transcription factor-encoding genes such as COUP-TF1, Emx2 and Pax6, which have been implicated in the process of cortical arealization. ..
- Pereira F, Qiu Y, Tsai M, Tsai S. Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF): expression during mouse embryogenesis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;53:503-8 pubmed..Some of these expression domains colocalize with those of TR, RAR, and RXR. The simultaneous expression of these genes raise the possibility that COUP-TFs can act as negative regulatory factors during development and differentiation. ..