Gene Symbol: Nog
Description: noggin
Alias: noggin
Species: mouse
Products:     Nog

Top Publications

  1. Warren S, Brunet L, Harland R, Economides A, Longaker M. The BMP antagonist noggin regulates cranial suture fusion. Nature. 2003;422:625-9 pubmed
    ..b>Noggin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is required for embryonic neural tube, somites and skeleton ..
  2. Takayama K, Suzuki A, Manaka T, Taguchi S, Hashimoto Y, Imai Y, et al. RNA interference for noggin enhances the biological activity of bone morphogenetic proteins in vivo and in vitro. J Bone Miner Metab. 2009;27:402-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Noggin is a major extracellular antagonist to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) which binds to BMPs and blocks binding of them to BMP-specific receptors and negatively regulates BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation...
  3. Hager Theodorides A, Outram S, Shah D, Sacedon R, Shrimpton R, Vicente A, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 signaling regulates early thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 2002;169:5496-504 pubmed
    ..Neutralization of endogenous BMP2 and BMP4 by treatment with the antagonist Noggin promotes and accelerates thymocyte differentiation, increasing the expression of CD2 and the proportion of CD44(-)..
  4. Seemann P, Schwappacher R, Kjaer K, Krakow D, Lehmann K, Dawson K, et al. Activating and deactivating mutations in the receptor interaction site of GDF5 cause symphalangism or brachydactyly type A2. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2373-81 pubmed
    ..with mutations in the GDF5 receptor bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1b (BMPR1B) and the BMP antagonist NOGGIN, respectively...
  5. Brunet L, McMahon J, McMahon A, Harland R. Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton. Science. 1998;280:1455-7 pubmed
    b>Noggin is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist expressed in Spemann's organizer. Murine Noggin is expressed in condensing cartilage and immature chondrocytes, as are many BMPs...
  6. Bonaguidi M, Peng C, McGuire T, Falciglia G, Gobeske K, Czeisler C, et al. Noggin expands neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (BMP) signaling occur in hippocampal but not SVZ precursors in vitro, and blocking BMP signaling with Noggin is sufficient to foster hippocampal cell self-renewal, proliferation, and multipotentiality using single-cell ..
  7. Stafford D, Brunet L, Khokha M, Economides A, Harland R. Cooperative activity of noggin and gremlin 1 in axial skeleton development. Development. 2011;138:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used mouse embryos mutant for the BMP antagonists noggin (Nog) and gremlin 1 (Grem1) to characterize the effects of BMP signaling on the specification of the sclerotome...
  8. Botchkarev V, Botchkareva N, Roth W, Nakamura M, Chen L, Herzog W, et al. Noggin is a mesenchymally derived stimulator of hair-follicle induction. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:158-64 pubmed
    ..Here we show that, during hair-follicle development, the neural inducer and BMP-neutralizing protein Noggin is expressed in the follicular mesenchyme, that noggin-knockout mice show significant retardation of hair-follicle ..
  9. Devlin R, Du Z, Pereira R, Kimble R, Economides A, Jorgetti V, et al. Skeletal overexpression of noggin results in osteopenia and reduced bone formation. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1972-8 pubmed
    Skeletal cells synthesize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP antagonists. Noggin is a glycoprotein that binds BMPs selectively and antagonizes BMP actions...

More Information


  1. Zhao S, Chen Q, Hung F, Overbeek P. BMP signaling is required for development of the ciliary body. Development. 2002;129:4435-42 pubmed
    ..We report that lens-specific expression of a transgenic protein, Noggin, can block BMP signaling in the mouse eye and result in failure in formation of the ciliary processes...
  2. Abe E, Yamamoto M, Taguchi Y, Lecka Czernik B, O Brien C, Economides A, et al. Essential requirement of BMPs-2/4 for both osteoblast and osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow cultures from adult mice: antagonism by noggin. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:663-73 pubmed
    ..To do this, we took advantage of the properties of noggin, a recently discovered protein that binds BMP-2 and -4 and blocks their action...
  3. Wan D, Pomerantz J, Brunet L, Kim J, Chou Y, Wu B, et al. Noggin suppression enhances in vitro osteogenesis and accelerates in vivo bone formation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26450-9 pubmed
    ..We report a novel approach to manipulate BMP activity through a down-regulation of the potent BMP antagonist Noggin, and examined the effects on the bone forming capacity of osteoblasts...
  4. Rifat Y, Parekh V, Wilanowski T, Hislop N, Auden A, Ting S, et al. Regional neural tube closure defined by the Grainy head-like transcription factors. Dev Biol. 2010;345:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a molecular basis for non-neural ectoderm mediated formation of the DLHP that is critical for complete neuraxis closure. ..
  5. Gazzerro E, Du Z, Devlin R, Rydziel S, Priest L, Economides A, et al. Noggin arrests stromal cell differentiation in vitro. Bone. 2003;32:111-9 pubmed
    b>Noggin is a glycoprotein that binds bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) selectively and, when added to osteoblasts, it opposes the effects of BMPs. However, the consequences of its continued expression in stromal cells are not known...
  6. Plikus M, Mayer J, de la Cruz D, Baker R, Maini P, Maxson R, et al. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration. Nature. 2008;451:340-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of noggin, a BMP antagonist, in mouse skin resulted in a markedly shortened refractory phase and faster propagation of the ..
  7. Wu X, Li Y, Schneider A, Yu W, Rajendren G, Iqbal J, et al. Impaired osteoblastic differentiation, reduced bone formation, and severe osteoporosis in noggin-overexpressing mice. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:924-34 pubmed
    We describe the effects of the overexpression of noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor, on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation...
  8. Botchkarev V, Botchkareva N, Nakamura M, Huber O, Funa K, Lauster R, et al. Noggin is required for induction of the hair follicle growth phase in postnatal skin. FASEB J. 2001;15:2205-14 pubmed
    ..requires neutralization of the inhibitory activity of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) by the BMP antagonist noggin. In the resting HF, BMP4 mRNA predominates over noggin in the epithelium and mesenchyme, and the BMP receptor IA ..
  9. He X, Zhang J, Tong W, Tawfik O, Ross J, Scoville D, et al. BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1117-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, BMP signaling may control the duplication of intestinal stem cells, thereby preventing crypt fission and the subsequent increase in crypt number. ..
  10. Winkler D, Yu C, Geoghegan J, Ojala E, Skonier J, Shpektor D, et al. Noggin and sclerostin bone morphogenetic protein antagonists form a mutually inhibitory complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36293-8 pubmed
    b>Noggin and sclerostin are bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists that modulate mitogenic activity through sequestering BMPs. Little is known of the interactions among this class of proteins...
  11. Huang B, Trofka A, Furusawa A, Norrie J, Rabinowitz A, Vokes S, et al. An interdigit signalling centre instructs coordinate phalanx-joint formation governed by 5'Hoxd-Gli3 antagonism. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12903 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that 5'Hoxd genes and Gli3 are part of an interdigital signalling centre that sets net Bmp signalling levels from different interdigits to coordinately regulate phalanx and joint formation. ..
  12. MacKenzie B, Wolff R, Lowe N, Billington C, Peterson A, Schmidt B, et al. Twisted gastrulation limits apoptosis in the distal region of the mandibular arch in mice. Dev Biol. 2009;328:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered distribution of BMP signaling leads to a shift in gene expression and increase in apoptosis. The extent of apoptosis may account for the variable degree of mandibular defects in Twsg1 mutants. ..
  13. Ugarte G, Cappellari O, Perani L, Pistocchi A, Cossu G. Noggin recruits mesoderm progenitors from the dorsal aorta to a skeletal myogenic fate. Dev Biol. 2012;365:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that Noggin (but not Follistatin, Chordin or Gremlin) stimulates while BMP2/4 inhibits myogenesis from dorsal aorta ..
  14. Miwa H, Miyake A, Kouta Y, Shimada A, Yamashita Y, Nakayama Y, et al. A novel neural-specific BMP antagonist, Brorin-like, of the Chordin family. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of Brorin-like functions in zebrafish resulted in the impairment of neural development. Brorin-like potentially plays roles in neural development and functions. ..
  15. Hwang C, Guo D, Harris M, Howard O, Mishina Y, Gan L, et al. Role of bone morphogenetic proteins on cochlear hair cell formation: analyses of Noggin and Bmp2 mutant mice. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Noggin is a secreted glycoprotein, which antagonizes bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (Bmp2 and Bmp4)...
  16. Karamboulas K, Dranse H, Underhill T. Regulation of BMP-dependent chondrogenesis in early limb mesenchyme by TGFbeta signals. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the programs differ in the transient signals driving chondrogenic responsiveness to BMPs, with SHH operating in the former and TGFbeta activation in the latter. ..
  17. Suzuki T, Takeuchi J, Koshiba Takeuchi K, Ogura T. Tbx Genes Specify Posterior Digit Identity through Shh and BMP Signaling. Dev Cell. 2004;6:43-53 pubmed
    ..g., BMP2, Shh, and HoxD genes) were observed. In addition, Tbx2 and Tbx3 rescued Noggin-mediated inhibition of interdigital BMP signaling, signaling which is pivotal in establishing digit identities...
  18. Wang C, Omi M, Ferrari D, Cheng H, Lizarraga G, Chin H, et al. Function of BMPs in the apical ectoderm of the developing mouse limb. Dev Biol. 2004;269:109-22 pubmed AER-specific promoter element from the Msx2 gene was used to target expression of the potent BMP antagonist noggin to the apical ectoderm of the limbs of transgenic mice...
  19. Babitt J, Zhang Y, Samad T, Xia Y, Tang J, Campagna J, et al. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa), a DRAGON homologue, is a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29820-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that BMP signaling occurs in neurons that express RGMa in vivo. These data are consistent with a role for RGMa as a BMP co-receptor. ..
  20. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Chen D, Chen Y. Enhanced BMP signaling prevents degeneration and leads to endochondral ossification of Meckel's cartilage in mice. Dev Biol. 2013;381:301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP signaling has been implicated in almost every step of chondrogenesis. In this study, we used Noggin mutant mice as a model for gain-of-BMP signaling function to investigate the function of BMP signaling in Meckel's ..
  21. Koike N, Kassai Y, Kouta Y, Miwa H, Konishi M, Itoh N. Brorin, a novel secreted bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, promotes neurogenesis in mouse neural precursor cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15843-50 pubmed
    ..Brorin protein promoted neurogenesis, but not astrogenesis, in mouse neural precursor cells. The present findings indicate that Brorin is a novel secreted BMP antagonist that potentially plays roles in neural development and functions. ..
  22. Liu Z, Yu S, Manley N. Gcm2 is required for the differentiation and survival of parathyroid precursor cells in the parathyroid/thymus primordia. Dev Biol. 2007;305:333-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Gcm2 is not required for pouch patterning or to establish the parathyroid domain, but is required for differentiation and subsequent survival of parathyroid cells...
  23. Acampora D, Boyl P, Signore M, Martinez Barbera J, Ilengo C, Puelles E, et al. OTD/OTX2 functional equivalence depends on 5' and 3' UTR-mediated control of Otx2 mRNA for nucleo-cytoplasmic export and epiblast-restricted translation. Development. 2001;128:4801-13 pubmed
    ..These data provide novel in vivo evidence supporting the concept that during evolution pre-existing gene functions have been recruited into new developmental pathways by modifying their regulatory control. ..
  24. Hu X, Wang Y, He F, Li L, Zheng Y, Zhang Y, et al. Noggin is required for early development of murine upper incisors. J Dent Res. 2012;91:394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling homeostasis, as demonstrated by multiple organ defects in mice lacking the extracellular BMP antagonist Noggin. Here, we show that Noggin is initially expressed in the maxillary mesenchyme adjunct to the upper incisor at the ..
  25. Wang Y, Liu C, Rohr J, Liu H, He F, Yu J, et al. Tissue interaction is required for glenoid fossa development during temporomandibular joint formation. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that proper signals from the developing condyle or Meckel's cartilage are required to sustain the glenoid fossa development...
  26. Lana Elola E, Tylzanowski P, Takatalo M, Alakurtti K, Veistinen L, Mitsiadis T, et al. Noggin null allele mice exhibit a microform of holoprosencephaly. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed mice which, due to the lack of the Bmp antagonist Noggin, exhibit elevated Bmp signaling...
  27. Bok J, Brunet L, Howard O, Burton Q, Wu D. Role of hindbrain in inner ear morphogenesis: analysis of Noggin knockout mice. Dev Biol. 2007;311:69-78 pubmed
    Signaling from rhombomeres 5 and 6 of the hindbrain is thought to be important for inner ear patterning. In Noggin -/- embryos, the gross anatomy of the inner ear is distorted and malformed, with cochlear duct outgrowth and coiling most ..
  28. Kado M, Lee J, Hidaka K, Miwa K, Murohara T, Kasai K, et al. Paracrine factors of vascular endothelial cells facilitate cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:413-418 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that supplementation of EC-conditioned medium enables cardiomyocytes to be obtained efficiently through promotion of mesoderm induction, which is regulated by BMP, COX, and NOS. ..
  29. Liu J, Saito K, Maruya Y, Nakamura T, Yamada A, Fukumoto E, et al. Mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23670 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-signalling. ..
  30. Fu M, Vohra B, Wind D, Heuckeroth R. BMP signaling regulates murine enteric nervous system precursor migration, neurite fasciculation, and patterning via altered Ncam1 polysialic acid addition. Dev Biol. 2006;299:137-50 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate several novel roles for BMP signaling and highlight new functions for sialyltransferases in the developing ENS...
  31. Dobrowolski R, Hertig G, Lechner H, Wörsdörfer P, Wulf V, Dicke N, et al. Loss of connexin43-mediated gap junctional coupling in the mesenchyme of limb buds leads to altered expression of morphogens in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2899-911 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides diminished interdigital apoptosis, the decreased expression of Bmp2 in Cx43 mutants may also be involved in other morphological alterations in patients suffering from ODDD. ..
  32. Que J, Choi M, Ziel J, Klingensmith J, Hogan B. Morphogenesis of the trachea and esophagus: current players and new roles for noggin and Bmps. Differentiation. 2006;74:422-37 pubmed
    ..We present new evidence that about 70% of mouse embryos homozygous null for Nog, the gene encoding noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) antagonist, have EA/TEF as well as defects in lung branching...
  33. Nakamura Y, Wakitani S, Nakayama J, Wakabayashi S, Horiuchi H, Takaoka K. Temporal and spatial expression profiles of BMP receptors and noggin during BMP-2-induced ectopic bone formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:1854-62 pubmed
    ..After BMP-2 implantation into the back muscles of 198 mice, expression of BMPR-1A, -2, and Noggin was increased during the early phase of the reaction...
  34. Albers C, Hofstetter W, Sebald H, Sebald W, Siebenrock K, Klenke F. L51P - A BMP2 variant with osteoinductive activity via inhibition of Noggin. Bone. 2012;51:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The limited therapeutic efficacy may be due to the local presence of BMP antagonists such as Noggin. Thus, inhibiting BMP antagonists is an attractive therapeutic option...
  35. Yi L, Domyan E, Lewandoski M, Sun X. Fibroblast growth factor 9 signaling inhibits airway smooth muscle differentiation in mouse lung. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:123-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This model also represents our findings on the genetic relationship between FGF9 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the establishment of airway SMC pattern. ..
  36. Madison B, Braunstein K, Kuizon E, Portman K, Qiao X, Gumucio D. Epithelial hedgehog signals pattern the intestinal crypt-villus axis. Development. 2005;132:279-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, through a combined Hh signal to underlying ISEMFs, the epithelium patterns the crypt-villus axis, ensuring the proper size and location of the emerging precrypt compartment. ..
  37. Gulino R, Parenti R, Gulisano M. Novel Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Motoneuron Disease. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:654637 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously studied some mechanisms of spinal plasticity involving BDNF, Shh, Notch-1, Numb, and Noggin, by using a mouse model of motoneuron depletion induced by cholera toxin-B saporin...
  38. Fan J, Park H, Tan S, Lee M. Enhanced osteogenesis of adipose derived stem cells with Noggin suppression and delivery of BMP-2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72474 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we intrinsically stimulated BMP signaling in adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) by downregulating noggin, a potent BMP antagonist, using an RNAi strategy...
  39. Fujiwara T, Dehart D, Sulik K, Hogan B. Distinct requirements for extra-embryonic and embryonic bone morphogenetic protein 4 in the formation of the node and primitive streak and coordination of left-right asymmetry in the mouse. Development. 2002;129:4685-96 pubmed
    ..b>Noggin-mediated inhibition of Bmp activity in cultured wild-type embryos results in suppression of Nodal expression in ..
  40. Lee G, Cantor R, Abnoosian A, Park E, Yamamoto M, Hovland D, et al. A gene(s) for all-trans-retinoic acid-induced forelimb defects mapped and confirmed to murine chromosome 11. Genetics. 2005;170:345-53 pubmed
    ..The human syntenic region of this locus has been previously linked to Meckel syndrome; the phenotype includes postaxial polydactyly, an ectopic digital defect hypothesized to be induced by a common molecular pathway with ectrodactyly. ..
  41. Niedermaier M, Schwabe G, Fees S, Helmrich A, Brieske N, Seemann P, et al. An inversion involving the mouse Shh locus results in brachydactyly through dysregulation of Shh expression. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:900-9 pubmed
    ..This results in shortening of the digits through an arrest of chondrocyte differentiation and the disruption of joint development. ..
  42. Cui Y, Peng Y, Tian Q. Expression of man, a formin homology domain-containing gene in the mouse limb. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2005;57:433-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report the isolation of a novel cDNA, man, from the mouse limb, which contains two conserved FH1 and FH2 domains. Its expression is described and possible functional significance is discussed. ..
  43. del Barco Barrantes I, Davidson G, Grone H, Westphal H, Niehrs C. Dkk1 and noggin cooperate in mammalian head induction. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2239-44 pubmed
    ..In Xenopus, simultaneous reduction of the BMP antagonists chordin and noggin, and the Wnt antagonist dickkopf1 (dkk1) leads to anterior truncations...
  44. Chiba S, Kurokawa M, Yoshikawa H, Ikeda R, Takeno M, Tadokoro M, et al. Noggin and basic FGF were implicated in forebrain fate and caudal fate, respectively, of the neural tube-like structures emerging in mouse ES cell culture. Exp Brain Res. 2005;163:86-99 pubmed
    ..Addition of Noggin to the culture induced prominent proliferation of the neuroepithelial cells, leading to epithelial ..
  45. Levi G, Mantero S, Barbieri O, Cantatore D, Paleari L, Beverdam A, et al. Msx1 and Dlx5 act independently in development of craniofacial skeleton, but converge on the regulation of Bmp signaling in palate formation. Mech Dev. 2006;123:3-16 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the importance of precise spatial and temporal regulation of the Bmp/Bmp antagonist system during palate closure...
  46. Leasure C, Chandler J, Gilbert D, Householder D, Stephens R, Copeland N, et al. Sequence, chromosomal location and expression analysis of the murine homologue of human RAD51L2/RAD51C. Gene. 2001;271:59-67 pubmed
    ..The murine Rad51l2 gene maps to chromosome 11 and is located in the syntenic region of human chromosome 17q22-23, where the human RAD51L2 is present. ..
  47. Downes G, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Gautam N, Jenkins N. Chromosomal mapping of five mouse G protein gamma subunits. Genomics. 1999;57:173-6 pubmed
    ..Combined with previous mapping studies, these data indicate that, with the possible exception of gamma1 and gamma11, the G protein gamma subunit genes are well dispersed within the mouse and human genomes. ..
  48. Tao Y, Xu H, Zheng Q Y, FitzGibbon T. Noggin induces human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural and photoreceptor cells. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:444-52 pubmed
    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of noggin on neuronal differentiating potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) in vitro so as to provide a means of alleviate retinal degeneration...
  49. Nakamura Y, Nakaya H, Saito N, Wakitani S. Coordinate expression of BMP-2, BMP receptors and Noggin in normal mouse spine. J Clin Neurosci. 2006;13:250-6 pubmed
    ..of this study was to determine the localization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP receptors (BMPRs) and Noggin in mouse spinal tissues...
  50. Park J, Zhang J, Moro A, Kushida M, Wegner M, Kim P. Regulation of Sox9 by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is essential for patterning and formation of tracheal cartilage. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:514-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Both exogenous Bmp4 and Noggin rescue cartilage phenotype in Shh(-/-) tracheal culture, while promoting excessive cartilage development in wild-..
  51. Nam J, Park E, Turcotte T, Palencia S, Zhan X, Lee J, et al. Mouse R-spondin2 is required for apical ectodermal ridge maintenance in the hindlimb. Dev Biol. 2007;311:124-35 pubmed
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that Rspo2 expression in the AER is required for AER maintenance likely by regulating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. ..
  52. Zhu J, Mackem S. Analysis of mutants with altered shh activity and posterior digit loss supports a biphasic model for shh function as a morphogen and mitogen. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Eomesodermin expression, as an independent marker of posterior digit identity, confirmed that proper digit 4 specification requires only the transient phase of Shh activity. ..
  53. Faber S, Robinson M, Makarenkova H, Lang R. Bmp signaling is required for development of primary lens fiber cells. Development. 2002;129:3727-37 pubmed
    ..First, we have shown that the Bmp ligand inhibitor noggin can suppress the differentiation of primary lens fiber cells in explant culture...
  54. Smith W. TGF beta inhibitors. New and unexpected requirements in vertebrate development. Trends Genet. 1999;15:3-5 pubmed
    ..These interactions have been particularly well characterized in patterning the primary axes of insects and vertebrates. New results implicate similar antagonistic relationships in numerous later events of embryogenesis. ..
  55. Dionne M, Skarnes W, Harland R. Mutation and analysis of Dan, the founding member of the Dan family of transforming growth factor beta antagonists. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:636-43 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking Dan activity were generated by gene targeting and displayed subtle, background-dependent defects. ..
  56. Suzuki K, Yamaguchi Y, Villacorte M, Mihara K, Akiyama M, Shimizu H, et al. Embryonic hair follicle fate change by augmented beta-catenin through Shh and Bmp signaling. Development. 2009;136:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Hair placode markers (Bmp2 and Shh) and follicular dermal condensate markers (noggin, patched 1 and Pdgfra) were expressed throughout the epidermis and the upper dermis, respectively...
  57. Lavado A, Oliver G. Six3 is required for ependymal cell maturation. Development. 2011;138:5291-300 pubmed publisher
    ..In its absence, ependymal cells fail to suppress radial glia characteristics, resulting in a defective lateral wall, abnormal neuroblast migration and differentiation, and hydrocephaly. ..
  58. Shimamura K, Hartigan D, Martinez S, Puelles L, Rubenstein J. Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube. Development. 1995;121:3923-33 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we report that the expression of noggin, sonic hedgehog and Nkx-2.2 define longitudinal columns of cells that are present along the entire CNS axis...
  59. Anderson R, Stottmann R, Choi M, Klingensmith J. Endogenous bone morphogenetic protein antagonists regulate mammalian neural crest generation and survival. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2507-20 pubmed
    We demonstrate here that Chordin and Noggin function as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists in vivo to promote mammalian neural crest development...
  60. Nyamsuren G, Kata A, Xu X, Raju P, Dressel R, Engel W, et al. Pelota regulates the development of extraembryonic endoderm through activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Stem Cell Res. 2014;13:61-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that PELO plays an important role in the establishment of pluripotency and differentiation of ESCs into ExEn lineage through activation of BMP signaling. ..
  61. Tanimoto Y, Veistinen L, Alakurtti K, Takatalo M, Rice D. Prevention of premature fusion of calvarial suture in GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3)-deficient mice by removing one allele of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that targeting Runx2 might provide an attractive way of preventing craniosynostosis in patients. ..
  62. Kanzler B, Foreman R, Labosky P, Mallo M. BMP signaling is essential for development of skeletogenic and neurogenic cranial neural crest. Development. 2000;127:1095-104 pubmed
    ..Our results provide functional evidence for an essential role of BMP signaling in CNC development. ..
  63. Suzuki K, Bachiller D, Chen Y, Kamikawa M, Ogi H, Haraguchi R, et al. Regulation of outgrowth and apoptosis for the terminal appendage: external genitalia development by concerted actions of BMP signaling [corrected]. Development. 2003;130:6209-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, noggin mutants and Bmpr1a conditional mutant mice displayed hypoplasia and hyperplasia of the external genitalia ..
  64. Hwang C, Wu D. Noggin heterozygous mice: an animal model for congenital conductive hearing loss in humans. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:844-53 pubmed
    Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are not relayed efficiently to the inner ear. Mutations of the NOGGIN (NOG) gene in humans are associated with several autosomal dominant disorders such as proximal symphalangism and ..
  65. Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Kemp C, Belo J, Anderson R, May S, et al. The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature. 2000;403:658-61 pubmed
    ..Chordin and Noggin are secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists expressed in the mouse node, but not in the AVE...
  66. Guo W, Zhang L, Christopher D, Teng Z, Fausett S, Liu C, et al. RNA-binding protein FXR2 regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis by reducing Noggin expression. Neuron. 2011;70:924-38 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the RNA-binding protein FXR2 specifically regulates DG neurogenesis by reducing the stability of Noggin mRNA...
  67. Zhu J, Nakamura E, Nguyen M, Bao X, Akiyama H, Mackem S. Uncoupling Sonic hedgehog control of pattern and expansion of the developing limb bud. Dev Cell. 2008;14:624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The progressive loss of digits upon successively earlier Shh removal mirrors this alternating sequence and highlights Shh's role in cell expansion to produce the normal digit complement. ..
  68. Holmes G, Rothschild G, Roy U, Deng C, Mansukhani A, Basilico C. Early onset of craniosynostosis in an Apert mouse model reveals critical features of this pathology. Dev Biol. 2009;328:273-84 pubmed publisher
  69. Stottmann R, Berrong M, Matta K, Choi M, Klingensmith J. The BMP antagonist Noggin promotes cranial and spinal neurulation by distinct mechanisms. Dev Biol. 2006;295:647-63 pubmed
    ..morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on neural tube morphogenesis by analyzing mice lacking the BMP antagonist, Noggin. Noggin is expressed dorsally in the closing neural folds and ventrally in the notochord and somites...
  70. Gyurján I, Sonderegger B, Naef F, Duboule D. Analysis of the dynamics of limb transcriptomes during mouse development. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:47 pubmed publisher
    ..These datasets provide a valuable resource, either for research projects involving gene expression and regulation in developing mouse limbs, or as examples of tissue-specific, genome-wide transcriptional activities. ..
  71. Liu Y, Asakura M, Inoue H, Nakamura T, Sano M, Niu Z, et al. Sox17 is essential for the specification of cardiac mesoderm in embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3859-64 pubmed
    ..Sox17 short-hairpin RNA blocks cardiac myogenesis non-cell autonomously and impairs the induction of Hex, a homeodomain transcription factor that is known to be required for the production of endoderm-derived heart-inducing factors. ..
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    ..Systemic gene transfer of noggin, a BMP antagonist, is effective both as a preventive and a therapeutic strategy in the mouse model, ..
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    ..development in vitro were analysed by culturing whole metanephroi in the presence of BMP2, BMP4, the BMP inhibitor noggin, and BMP4 plus noggin. Ureteric branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis were analysed...
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    ..Abnormal chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation persisted after birth and correlated with the expression of the mutant Hoxd13 and other Hox-genes during late-embryonic and postnatal growth. ..
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    ..Therefore, Bmp signalling is necessary and sufficient to inhibit DLHPs. By contrast, the Bmp antagonist noggin is expressed dorsally in neural folds containing DLHPs, noggin-null embryos show markedly reduced dorsolateral ..
  76. Stafford D, Monica S, Harland R. Follistatin interacts with Noggin in the development of the axial skeleton. Mech Dev. 2014;131:78-85 pubmed
    When compared to single mutants for Follistatin or Noggin, we find that double mutants display a dramatic further reduction in trunk cartilage formation, particularly in the vertebral bodies and proximal ribs...
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    ..for phospho-Smad1,5,8 and tested whether pancreas development was affected by BMP inhibition after expression of Noggin and dominant negative BMP receptors in chicken and mouse pancreas...
  78. Sun J, Ishii M, Ting M, Maxson R. Foxc1 controls the growth of the murine frontal bone rudiment by direct regulation of a Bmp response threshold of Msx2. Development. 2013;140:1034-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Foxc1 sets a threshold for the Bmp-dependent activation of Msx2, thus controlling the differentiation of osteogenic precursor cells and the rate and pattern of calvarial bone development. ..
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    ..In addition, our analysis reveals a specific requirement of the genes deleted by the Ft mutation in hindlimb morphogenesis. ..
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    b>Noggin is a glycosylated-secreted protein known so far for its inhibitory effects on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by sequestering the BMP ligand...
  81. Mayer J, Foley J, de la Cruz D, Chuong C, Widelitz R. Conversion of the nipple to hair-bearing epithelia by lowering bone morphogenetic protein pathway activity at the dermal-epidermal interface. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1339-48 pubmed publisher
    ..our hypothesis, we used a transgenic mouse model in which keratin 14 (KRT14) promoter-mediated overexpression of Noggin, a BMP antagonist, modulates BMP activity...
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    ..They also provide an explanation for how pathologically increased TGF-beta signaling could contribute to cataract formation. ..
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    ..interfering with the interactions between BMPs and their receptors by the addition of either the BMP antagonist Noggin or soluble BMPR-1A fragments, induced precocious differentiation...
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    ..This study therefore implicates Gli3 as a key regulator for the development of the dorsal telencephalon and implies Gli3 to be upstream of Emx genes in a genetic cascade controlling dorsal telencephalic development. ..
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    ..These findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying HPE pathoetiology during dynamic brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. ..
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    ..stably transfected with a dominant-negative form of the BMP-4 signal cotransducer Smad-4 or the BMP-4 inhibitor noggin have increased tumorigenicity in nude mice, showing that BMP-4 has an inhibitory role on corticotroph ..
  88. Vincent S, Dunn N, Hayashi S, Norris D, Robertson E. Cell fate decisions within the mouse organizer are governed by graded Nodal signals. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1646-62 pubmed
    ..These findings conclusively demonstrate that graded Nodal/Smad2 signals govern allocation of the axial mesendoderm precursors that selectively give rise to the ADE and PCP mesoderm...
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    ..Thus, sweat gland development shows a relay of regulatory steps initiated by Wnt/β-catenin - itself modulated by Dkk4 - with subsequent participation of Eda and Shh pathways. ..