Gene Symbol: Nlrc4
Description: NLR family, CARD domain containing 4
Alias: 9530011P19Rik, CLAN, CLAN1, CLANA, CLANB, CLANC, CLAND, Card12, IPAF, NLR family CARD domain-containing protein 4, caspase recruitment domain family, member 12, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 12, ice protease-activating factor
Species: mouse
Products:     Nlrc4

Top Publications

  1. Thomas P, Dash P, Aldridge J, Ellebedy A, Reynolds C, Funk A, et al. The intracellular sensor NLRP3 mediates key innate and healing responses to influenza A virus via the regulation of caspase-1. Immunity. 2009;30:566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a function of the cryopyrin inflammasome in healing responses. Thus, cryopyrin and caspase-1 are central to both innate immunity and to moderating lung pathology in influenza pneumonia. ..
  2. Amer A, Franchi L, Kanneganti T, Body Malapel M, Ozören N, Brady G, et al. Regulation of Legionella phagosome maturation and infection through flagellin and host Ipaf. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35217-23 pubmed
    ..Mouse macrophages lacking the NLR protein Ipaf or its downstream effector caspase-1 are permissive to intracellular Legionella replication...
  3. Tomalka J, Ganesan S, Azodi E, Patel K, Majmudar P, Hall B, et al. A novel role for the NLRC4 inflammasome in mucosal defenses against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002379 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mucosal expression of NLRP3 and NLRC4 is induced by Candida infection, and up-regulation of these molecules is impaired in NLRP3 and NLRC4 deficient ..
  4. McCoy A, Koizumi Y, Higa N, Suzuki T. Differential regulation of caspase-1 activation via NLRP3/NLRC4 inflammasomes mediated by aerolysin and type III secretion system during Aeromonas veronii infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:7077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain and both the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes...
  5. Miao E, Ernst R, Dors M, Mao D, Aderem A. Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates caspase 1 through Ipaf. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages respond to Salmonella typhimurium infection by activating caspase 1 through the NLR Ipaf. This activation is mediated by cytosolic flagellin through the activity of the virulence-associated type III ..
  6. Miao E, Mao D, YUDKOVSKY N, Bonneau R, Lorang C, Warren S, et al. Innate immune detection of the type III secretion apparatus through the NLRC4 inflammasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3076-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that NLRC4/Ipaf detects the basal body rod component of the T3SS apparatus (rod protein) from S...
  7. Jones J, Kayagaki N, Broz P, Henry T, Newton K, O Rourke K, et al. Absent in melanoma 2 is required for innate immune recognition of Francisella tularensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9771-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, AIM2-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility to F. tularensis infection compared with wild-type mice. Their increased bacterial burden in vivo confirmed that AIM2 is essential for an effective innate immune response. ..
  8. Zhao Y, Yang J, Shi J, Gong Y, Lu Q, Xu H, et al. The NLRC4 inflammasome receptors for bacterial flagellin and type III secretion apparatus. Nature. 2011;477:596-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The inflammasome assembled by the NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein NLRC4 responds to bacterial flagellin and a conserved type III secretion system (TTSS) rod component...
  9. Fortier A, Doiron K, Saleh M, Grinstein S, Gros P. Restriction of Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages requires concerted action of the transcriptional regulators Irf1 and Irf8 and nod-like receptors Naip5 and Nlrc4. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumophila. Moreover, macrophages doubly heterozygous (Naip5AJ/WT Irf8R294C/WT or Nlrc4-/+ Irf8R294C/WT) for combined loss-of-function mutations in Irf8 and in either Naip5 or Nlrc4 are highly ..

More Information


  1. Henry T, Brotcke A, Weiss D, Thompson L, Monack D. Type I interferon signaling is required for activation of the inflammasome during Francisella infection. J Exp Med. 2007;204:987-94 pubmed
    ..This connection underscores the importance of the cytosolic recognition of pathogens and highlights how multiple innate immunity pathways interact before commitment to critical host responses...
  2. Aachoui Y, Leaf I, Hagar J, Fontana M, Campos C, Zak D, et al. Caspase-11 protects against bacteria that escape the vacuole. Science. 2013;339:975-8 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium sifA in vivo. This response did not require NLRP3, NLRC4, or ASC inflammasome pathways...
  3. Yang J, Zhao Y, Shi J, Shao F. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP)...
  4. Pereira M, Morgantetti G, Massis L, Horta C, Hori J, Zamboni D. Activation of NLRC4 by flagellated bacteria triggers caspase-1-dependent and -independent responses to restrict Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages and in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;187:6447-55 pubmed publisher
    Although NLRC4/IPAF activation by flagellin has been extensively investigated, the downstream signaling pathways and the mechanisms responsible for infection clearance remain unclear...
  5. Muruve D, Petrilli V, Zaiss A, White L, Clark S, Ross P, et al. The inflammasome recognizes cytosolic microbial and host DNA and triggers an innate immune response. Nature. 2008;452:103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to viral and bacterial components or danger signals in general, inflammasomes sense potentially dangerous cytoplasmic DNA, strengthening their central role in innate immunity. ..
  6. Kofoed E, Vance R. Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature. 2011;477:592-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The inflammasome that contains the NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing 4) protein was previously shown to be activated in response to two distinct ..
  7. Carvalho F, Nalbantoglu I, Aitken J, Uchiyama R, Su Y, Doho G, et al. Cytosolic flagellin receptor NLRC4 protects mice against mucosal and systemic challenges. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5:288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we examined the role of the intracellular flagellin receptor, NLRC4, in protecting the gut and/or driving inflammation...
  8. Wen H, Gris D, Lei Y, JHA S, Zhang L, Huang M, et al. Fatty acid-induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, IL-1? affects insulin sensitivity through tumor necrosis factor-independent and dependent pathways. These findings provide insights into the association of inflammation, diet and T2D. ..
  9. Lamkanfi M, Sarkar A, Vande Walle L, Vitari A, Amer A, Wewers M, et al. Inflammasome-dependent release of the alarmin HMGB1 in endotoxemia. J Immunol. 2010;185:4385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGB1 secretion from macrophages infected in vitro with Salmonella typhimurium was dependent on caspase 1 and Ipaf. Thus, HMGB1 secretion, which is critical for endotoxemia, occurs downstream of inflammasome assembly and caspase 1 ..
  10. Rayamajhi M, Zak D, Chavarria Smith J, Vance R, Miao E. Cutting edge: Mouse NAIP1 detects the type III secretion system needle protein. J Immunol. 2013;191:3986-9 pubmed publisher
    The NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes activate caspase-1 in response to bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs)...
  11. Mariathasan S, Newton K, Monack D, Vucic D, French D, Lee W, et al. Differential activation of the inflammasome by caspase-1 adaptors ASC and Ipaf. Nature. 2004;430:213-8 pubmed
    ..The adaptors ASC, Ipaf and RIP2 have each been proposed to regulate caspase-1 (also called interleukin (IL)-1 converting enzyme), which is ..
  12. Zhou R, Yazdi A, Menu P, Tschopp J. A role for mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Nature. 2011;469:221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome senses mitochondrial dysfunction and may explain the frequent association of mitochondrial damage with inflammatory diseases. ..
  13. Wu J, Fernandes Alnemri T, Alnemri E. Involvement of the AIM2, NLRC4, and NLRP3 inflammasomes in caspase-1 activation by Listeria monocytogenes. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have used macrophages from AIM2-, NLRC4-, NLRP3-, and ASC-deficient mice to demonstrate that AIM2, NLRC4, and NLRP3 inflammasomes as well as the adaptor ..
  14. Mariathasan S, Weiss D, Newton K, McBride J, O Rourke K, Roose Girma M, et al. Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP. Nature. 2006;440:228-32 pubmed
    ..Therefore, cryopyrin is essential for inflammasome activation in response to signalling pathways triggered specifically by ATP, nigericin, maitotoxin, S. aureus or L. monocytogenes. ..
  15. Lightfield K, Persson J, Brubaker S, Witte C, von Moltke J, Dunipace E, et al. Critical function for Naip5 in inflammasome activation by a conserved carboxy-terminal domain of flagellin. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice failed to activate the inflammasome in response to the 35 amino acids of flagellin or in response to Legionella pneumophila infection. Our data clarify the molecular basis for the cytosolic response to flagellin. ..
  16. Warren S, Mao D, Rodriguez A, Miao E, Aderem A. Multiple Nod-like receptors activate caspase 1 during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:7558-64 pubmed
    ..within the cytosolic compartment induces caspase 1 activation through multiple Nod-like receptors, including Ipaf and Nalp3. Flagellin expression by cytosolic L. monocytogenes was detected through Ipaf in a dose-dependent manner...
  17. Broz P, Newton K, Lamkanfi M, Mariathasan S, Dixit V, Monack D. Redundant roles for inflammasome receptors NLRP3 and NLRC4 in host defense against Salmonella. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1745-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the NLRs that respond to microbial pathogens in vivo are poorly defined. We show that the NLRs NLRP3 and NLRC4 both activate caspase-1 in response to Salmonella typhimurium...
  18. Joly S, Ma N, Sadler J, Soll D, CASSEL S, Sutterwala F. Cutting edge: Candida albicans hyphae formation triggers activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome. J Immunol. 2009;183:3578-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Nlrp3-deficient mice also demonstrated increased susceptibility to infection with C. albicans, which is consistent with a key role for Nlrp3 in innate immune responses to the pathogen C. albicans. ..
  19. Ichinohe T, Lee H, Ogura Y, Flavell R, Iwasaki A. Inflammasome recognition of influenza virus is essential for adaptive immune responses. J Exp Med. 2009;206:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that in addition to the TLR pathways, ASC inflammasomes play a central role in adaptive immunity to influenza virus. ..
  20. Shio M, Tiemi Shio M, Eisenbarth S, Savaria M, Vinet A, Bellemare M, et al. Malarial hemozoin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Lyn and Syk kinases. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000559 pubmed publisher
    ..and inflammation are dependent on NOD-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3), ASC and caspase-1, but not NLRC4 (NLR containing CARD domain)...
  21. Whitfield N, Byrne B, Swanson M. Mouse macrophages are permissive to motile Legionella species that fail to trigger pyroptosis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Once detected by the NOD-like receptors Naip5 and Ipaf (Nlrc4), flagellin triggers pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death. In contrast, motile strains of L. parisiensis and L...
  22. Eisenbarth S, Colegio O, O Connor W, Sutterwala F, Flavell R. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature. 2008;453:1122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to affect how we design effective, but safe, adjuvants in the future...
  23. Ceballos Olvera I, Sahoo M, Miller M, del Barrio L, Re F. Inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis and IL-18 protect against Burkholderia pseudomallei lung infection while IL-1? is deleterious. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002452 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the Nod-like receptors (NLR) NLRP3 and NLRC4 differentially regulate pyroptosis and production of IL-1? and IL-18 and are critical for inflammasome-mediated ..
  24. Perez Lopez A, Rosales Reyes R, Alpuche Aranda C, Ortiz Navarrete V. Salmonella downregulates Nod-like receptor family CARD domain containing protein 4 expression to promote its survival in B cells by preventing inflammasome activation and cell death. J Immunol. 2013;190:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..flagellin secreted by Salmonella activates the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family CARD domain containing protein 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome, leading to the production of IL-1? and pyroptosis of infected cells...
  25. Lamkanfi M, Amer A, Kanneganti T, Muñoz Planillo R, Chen G, Vandenabeele P, et al. The Nod-like receptor family member Naip5/Birc1e restricts Legionella pneumophila growth independently of caspase-1 activation. J Immunol. 2007;178:8022-7 pubmed
    Similar to Ipaf and caspase-1, the Nod-like receptor protein Naip5 restricts intracellular proliferation of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease...
  26. Franchi L, Kamada N, Nakamura Y, Burberry A, Kuffa P, Suzuki S, et al. NLRC4-driven production of IL-1? discriminates between pathogenic and commensal bacteria and promotes host intestinal defense. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..After infection with pathogenic Salmonella or Pseudomonas, intestinal phagocytes produced mature IL-1? through the NLRC4 inflammasome but did not produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or IL-6...
  27. Kayagaki N, Warming S, Lamkanfi M, Vande Walle L, Louie S, Dong J, et al. Non-canonical inflammasome activation targets caspase-11. Nature. 2011;479:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight a unique pro-inflammatory role for caspase-11 in the innate immune response to clinically significant bacterial infections. ..
  28. Willingham S, Allen I, Bergstralh D, Brickey W, Huang M, Taxman D, et al. NLRP3 (NALP3, Cryopyrin) facilitates in vivo caspase-1 activation, necrosis, and HMGB1 release via inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways. J Immunol. 2009;183:2008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide critical in vivo validation that the physiologic role of NLRP3 and ASC is not limited to inflammasome formation. ..
  29. Qu Y, Misaghi S, Izrael Tomasevic A, Newton K, Gilmour L, Lamkanfi M, et al. Phosphorylation of NLRC4 is critical for inflammasome activation. Nature. 2012;490:539-42 pubmed publisher
    b>NLRC4 is a cytosolic member of the NOD-like receptor family that is expressed in innate immune cells...
  30. Gross O, Yazdi A, Thomas C, Masin M, Heinz L, Guarda G, et al. Inflammasome activators induce interleukin-1? secretion via distinct pathways with differential requirement for the protease function of caspase-1. Immunity. 2012;36:388-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Because inflammasomes contribute to the pathology of numerous chronic inflammatory diseases such as gout and diabetes, IL-1? antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of these disorders. ..
  31. McElvania TeKippe E, Allen I, Hulseberg P, Sullivan J, McCann J, Sandor M, et al. Granuloma formation and host defense in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection requires PYCARD/ASC but not NLRP3 or caspase-1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12320 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that PYCARD exerts a novel inflammasome-independent role during chronic Mtb infection by containing the bacteria in granulomas. ..
  32. Kupz A, Guarda G, Gebhardt T, Sander L, Short K, Diavatopoulos D, et al. NLRC4 inflammasomes in dendritic cells regulate noncognate effector function by memory CD8? T cells. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered an in vivo link between flagellin-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation in splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and host protective interferon-? (IFN-?) secretion by ..
  33. Mariathasan S, Weiss D, Dixit V, Monack D. Innate immunity against Francisella tularensis is dependent on the ASC/caspase-1 axis. J Exp Med. 2005;202:1043-9 pubmed
  34. Vijay Kumar M, Carvalho F, Aitken J, Fifadara N, Gewirtz A. TLR5 or NLRC4 is necessary and sufficient for promotion of humoral immunity by flagellin. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:3528-34 pubmed publisher
    ..induce cytokines and elicit/promote murine antibody responses upon deletion of the flagellin receptors TLR5 and/or NLRC4 (also referred to as IPAF) using a prime/boost regimen...
  35. Gross O, Poeck H, Bscheider M, Dostert C, Hannesschläger N, Endres S, et al. Syk kinase signalling couples to the Nlrp3 inflammasome for anti-fungal host defence. Nature. 2009;459:433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate the molecular basis for IL-1beta production after fungal infection and identify a crucial function for the Nlrp3 inflammasome in mammalian host defence in vivo. ..
  36. Miao E, Alpuche Aranda C, Dors M, Clark A, Bader M, Miller S, et al. Cytoplasmic flagellin activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta via Ipaf. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:569-75 pubmed
    Macrophages respond to Salmonella typhimurium infection via Ipaf, a NACHT-leucine-rich repeat family member that activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta...
  37. Petrilli V, Papin S, Dostert C, Mayor A, Martinon F, Tschopp J. Activation of the NALP3 inflammasome is triggered by low intracellular potassium concentration. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1583-9 pubmed
    ..The inflammasomes harboring the NLR members NALP1, NALP3 and IPAF have been best characterized...
  38. Cai S, Batra S, Wakamatsu N, Pacher P, Jeyaseelan S. NLRC4 inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1? modulates mucosal immunity in the lung against gram-negative bacterial infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:5623-35 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial flagellin is critical to mediate NLRC4 inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation...
  39. Liu Z, Zaki M, Vogel P, Gurung P, Finlay B, Deng W, et al. Role of inflammasomes in host defense against Citrobacter rodentium infection. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16955-64 pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium has not been characterized. Here, we show that mice lacking the inflammasome components Nlrp3, Nlrc4, and caspase-1 were hypersusceptible to C. rodentium-induced gastrointestinal inflammation...
  40. Case C, Shin S, Roy C. Asc and Ipaf Inflammasomes direct distinct pathways for caspase-1 activation in response to Legionella pneumophila. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1981-91 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway involving the host nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein Ipaf (NLRC4)...
  41. Miao E, Leaf I, Treuting P, Mao D, Dors M, Sarkar A, et al. Caspase-1-induced pyroptosis is an innate immune effector mechanism against intracellular bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:1136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..flagellin was cleared by the cytosolic flagellin-detection pathway through the activation of caspase-1 by the NLRC4 inflammasome; however, this clearance was independent of IL-1? and IL-18...
  42. Hu B, Elinav E, Huber S, Booth C, Strowig T, Jin C, et al. Inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in the colon is regulated by caspase-1 and NLRC4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a model in which the NLRC4 inflammasome is central to colonic inflammation-induced tumor formation through regulation of epithelial cell ..
  43. Franchi L, Amer A, Body Malapel M, Kanneganti T, Ozören N, Jagirdar R, et al. Cytosolic flagellin requires Ipaf for activation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1beta in salmonella-infected macrophages. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:576-82 pubmed
    ..b>Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor in the family of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich ..
  44. Halff E, Diebolder C, Versteeg M, Schouten A, Brondijk T, Huizinga E. Formation and structure of a NAIP5-NLRC4 inflammasome induced by direct interactions with conserved N- and C-terminal regions of flagellin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38460-72 pubmed publisher
    The NOD-like receptors NAIP5 and NLRC4 play an essential role in the innate immune response to the bacterial tail protein flagellin...
  45. Sutterwala F, Mijares L, Li L, Ogura Y, Kazmierczak B, Flavell R. Immune recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated by the IPAF/NLRC4 inflammasome. J Exp Med. 2007;204:3235-45 pubmed
    ..We show that infection of macrophages with P. aeruginosa results in activation of caspase-1 in an IPAF-dependent, but flagellin-independent, manner...
  46. Akhter A, Gavrilin M, Frantz L, Washington S, Ditty C, Limoli D, et al. Caspase-7 activation by the Nlrc4/Ipaf inflammasome restricts Legionella pneumophila infection. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000361 pubmed publisher
    ..Most inbred mouse strains are restrictive to L. pneumophila infection except for the A/J, Nlrc4(-/-) (Ipaf(-/-)), and caspase-1(-/-) derived macrophages. Particularly, caspase-1 activation is detected during L...
  47. Allen I, Scull M, Moore C, Holl E, McElvania TeKippe E, Taxman D, et al. The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA. Immunity. 2009;30:556-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking Nlrp3, Pycard, or caspase-1, but not Nlrc4, exhibited dramatically increased mortality and a reduced immune response after exposure to the influenza virus...
  48. Elinav E, Strowig T, Kau A, Henao Mejia J, Thaiss C, Booth C, et al. NLRP6 inflammasome regulates colonic microbial ecology and risk for colitis. Cell. 2011;145:745-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. ..
  49. Kim S, Bauernfeind F, Ablasser A, Hartmann G, Fitzgerald K, Latz E, et al. Listeria monocytogenes is sensed by the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1545-51 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes. Altogether, these data establish a role for DNA sensing through the AIM2 inflammasome in the detection of intracellularly replicating bacteria. ..
  50. Li H, Willingham S, Ting J, Re F. Cutting edge: inflammasome activation by alum and alum's adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3. J Immunol. 2008;181:17-21 pubmed
    ..the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing) protein NLRP3 and its adaptor ASC, but not by NLRC4. Other particulate adjuvants, such as QuilA and chitosan, induce inflammasome activation in a NLRP3-dependent ..
  51. Dostert C, Guarda G, Romero J, Menu P, Gross O, Tardivel A, et al. Malarial hemozoin is a Nalp3 inflammasome activating danger signal. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6510 pubmed publisher
    ..The potent pro-inflammatory effect of hemozoin through inflammasome activation may possibly be implicated in plasmodium-associated pathologies such as cerebral malaria. ..
  52. Franchi L, Stoolman J, Kanneganti T, Verma A, Ramphal R, Nunez G. Critical role for Ipaf in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced caspase-1 activation. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:3030-9 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the Nod-like receptor family member Ipaf is required for optimal bacterial clearance in an in vivo model of P. aeruginosa lung infection...
  53. Case C, Kohler L, Lima J, Strowig T, de Zoete M, Flavell R, et al. Caspase-11 stimulates rapid flagellin-independent pyroptosis in response to Legionella pneumophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Legionella activation of caspase-11 induced pyroptosis by a mechanism independent of the NAIP/NLRC4 and caspase-1 axis. Legionella activation of caspase-11 stimulated activation of caspase-1 through NLRP3 and ASC...
  54. Lara Tejero M, Sutterwala F, Ogura Y, Grant E, Bertin J, Coyle A, et al. Role of the caspase-1 inflammasome in Salmonella typhimurium pathogenesis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1407-12 pubmed
    ..We show here that absence of caspase-1 or components of the inflammasome does not result in resistance to oral infection by S. typhimurium, but rather, leads to increased susceptibility to infection. ..
  55. Kumar H, Kumagai Y, Tsuchida T, Koenig P, Satoh T, Guo Z, et al. Involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in innate and humoral adaptive immune responses to fungal beta-glucan. J Immunol. 2009;183:8061-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings reveal a critical role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in the regulation of antifungal innate immune responses as well as B cell activation. ..
  56. Silveira T, Zamboni D. Pore formation triggered by Legionella spp. is an Nlrc4 inflammasome-dependent host cell response that precedes pyroptosis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that regardless of Dot/Icm activity, pore formation does not occur in BMMs deficient in caspase-1 and Nlrc4/Ipaf...
  57. Kanneganti T, Lamkanfi M, Kim Y, Chen G, Park J, Franchi L, et al. Pannexin-1-mediated recognition of bacterial molecules activates the cryopyrin inflammasome independent of Toll-like receptor signaling. Immunity. 2007;26:433-43 pubmed
    ..However, unlike Ipaf-dependent caspase-1 activation, stimulation of the pannexin-1-cryopyrin pathway by several intracellular bacteria ..
  58. Kayagaki N, Wong M, Stowe I, Ramani S, Gonzalez L, Akashi Takamura S, et al. Noncanonical inflammasome activation by intracellular LPS independent of TLR4. Science. 2013;341:1246-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli LPS. These data unveil a TLR4-independent mechanism for innate immune recognition of LPS. ..
  59. Lightfield K, Persson J, Trinidad N, Brubaker S, Kofoed E, Sauer J, et al. Differential requirements for NAIP5 in activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The inflammasome containing the nucleotide binding domain-leucine-rich repeat (NBD-LRR) protein NLRC4 (interleukin-converting enzyme protease-activating factor [IPAF]) responds to the cytosolic presence of bacterial ..