Gene Symbol: Nkx2-1
Description: NK2 homeobox 1
Alias: AV026640, Nkx2.1, T/EBP, Titf1, Ttf-1, homeobox protein Nkx-2.1, thyroid nuclear factor 1, thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein, tinman
Species: mouse
Products:     Nkx2-1

Top Publications

  1. Kimura S, Hara Y, Pineau T, Fernandez Salguero P, Fox C, Ward J, et al. The T/ebp null mouse: thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein is essential for the organogenesis of the thyroid, lung, ventral forebrain, and pituitary. Genes Dev. 1996;10:60-9 pubmed
    ..These results establish that the expression of T/EBP, a transcription factor known to control thyroid-specific gene transcription, is also essential for organogenesis of the thyroid, lung, ventral forebrain, and pituitary. ..
  2. Xu Q, Cobos I, De La Cruz E, Rubenstein J, Anderson S. Origins of cortical interneuron subtypes. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2612-22 pubmed
    ..By establishing spatial differences in the origins of interneuron subtypes, these studies lay the groundwork for elucidating the molecular bases for their distinct differentiation pathways. ..
  3. Zhang W, Kang J, Cole F, Yi M, Krauss R. Cdo functions at multiple points in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway, and Cdo-deficient mice accurately model human holoprosencephaly. Dev Cell. 2006;10:657-65 pubmed
    ..Specific Cdo domains required for its promyogenic effect are dispensable for its Shh signaling role, suggesting that Cdo has multiple, independent functions. ..
  4. Rubin A, Alfonsi F, Humphreys M, Choi C, Rocha S, Kessaris N. The germinal zones of the basal ganglia but not the septum generate GABAergic interneurons for the cortex. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12050-62 pubmed publisher
    ..LGE/CGE-derived interneurons account for one third of the total GABAergic interneuron population in the adult cortex. ..
  5. García López M, Abellan A, Legaz I, Rubenstein J, Puelles L, Medina L. Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:46-74 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a molecular and morphological foundation for understanding the complex embryonic origins and adult organization of the centromedial and extended amygdala. ..
  6. Litingtung Y, Lei L, Westphal H, Chiang C. Sonic hedgehog is essential to foregut development. Nat Genet. 1998;20:58-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Shh is required for the growth and differentiation of the oesophagus, trachea and lung, and suggest that mutations in SHH and its signalling components may be involved in foregut defects in humans. ..
  7. Allen B, Tenzen T, McMahon A. The Hedgehog-binding proteins Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to positively regulate Shh signaling during mouse development. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1244-57 pubmed
  8. Puelles L, Rubenstein J. Forebrain gene expression domains and the evolving prosomeric model. Trends Neurosci. 2003;26:469-76 pubmed
    ..By contrast, we continue to postulate that prosomeres p1-p3 (i.e. the pretectum, thalamus and prethalamus) are the caudal forebrain. ..
  9. Zhang W, Hong M, Bae G, Kang J, Krauss R. Boc modifies the holoprosencephaly spectrum of Cdo mutant mice. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:368-80 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Prince L, Okoh V, Moninger T, Matalon S. Lipopolysaccharide increases alveolar type II cell number in fetal mouse lungs through Toll-like receptor 4 and NF-kappaB. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L999-1006 pubmed
    ..These data implicate an important signaling mechanism in chorioamnionitis and suggest the TLR4/NF-kappaB pathway can influence lung development. ..
  2. Kimura S, Ward J, Minoo P. Thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein/thyroid transcription factor 1 is not required for the initial specification of the thyroid and lung primordia. Biochimie. 1999;81:321-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that T/EBP is not required for the initial specification of thyroid or lung primordia, but is absolutely essential for the development and morphogenesis of these organs. ..
  3. Wert S, Dey C, Blair P, Kimura S, Whitsett J. Increased expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in respiratory epithelial cells inhibits alveolarization and causes pulmonary inflammation. Dev Biol. 2002;242:75-87 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of TTF-1 altered alveolarization and caused chronic pulmonary inflammation, demonstrating that precise regulation of TTF-1 is critical for homeostasis in the postnatal lung. ..
  4. Milenkovic M, De Deken X, Jin L, De Felice M, Di Lauro R, Dumont J, et al. Duox expression and related H2O2 measurement in mouse thyroid: onset in embryonic development and regulation by TSH in adult. J Endocrinol. 2007;192:615-26 pubmed
    ..It is not always correlated with the overall thyroid H(2)O(2) accumulation, highlighting the importance of additional regulatory mechanisms which control either the production or H(2)O(2) degradation. ..
  5. Zhang Y, Rath N, Hannenhalli S, Wang Z, Cappola T, Kimura S, et al. GATA and Nkx factors synergistically regulate tissue-specific gene expression and development in vivo. Development. 2007;134:189-98 pubmed
    ..However, the relevance of this synergy has not been demonstrated in vivo. We show that Gata6-Titf1 (Gata6-Nkx2...
  6. Que J, Okubo T, Goldenring J, Nam K, Kurotani R, Morrisey E, et al. Multiple dose-dependent roles for Sox2 in the patterning and differentiation of anterior foregut endoderm. Development. 2007;134:2521-31 pubmed
    ..By contrast, Nkx2.1 (Titf1) is expressed ventrally, in the future trachea...
  7. Tsao P, Vasconcelos M, Izvolsky K, Qian J, LU J, Cardoso W. Notch signaling controls the balance of ciliated and secretory cell fates in developing airways. Development. 2009;136:2297-307 pubmed publisher
    ..It might also be relevant to mediate the metaplastic changes in the respiratory epithelium that occur in pathological conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ..
  8. Gelman D, Martini F, Nóbrega Pereira S, Pierani A, Kessaris N, Marin O. The embryonic preoptic area is a novel source of cortical GABAergic interneurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9380-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Nery S, Wichterle H, Fishell G. Sonic hedgehog contributes to oligodendrocyte specification in the mammalian forebrain. Development. 2001;128:527-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it appears that a Shh-independent pathway for generating oligodendrocytes exists. ..
  10. Fagman H, Grände M, Gritli Linde A, Nilsson M. Genetic deletion of sonic hedgehog causes hemiagenesis and ectopic development of the thyroid in mouse. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1865-72 pubmed
    ..This study provides clues to the molecular mechanisms that might be dysregulated in thyroid hemiagenesis and development of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the thyroglossal duct. ..
  11. Shimamura K, Rubenstein J. Inductive interactions direct early regionalization of the mouse forebrain. Development. 1997;124:2709-18 pubmed
  12. Ohkubo Y, Chiang C, Rubenstein J. Coordinate regulation and synergistic actions of BMP4, SHH and FGF8 in the rostral prosencephalon regulate morphogenesis of the telencephalic and optic vesicles. Neuroscience. 2002;111:1-17 pubmed
  13. Yu W, Wang Y, McDonnell K, Stephen D, Bai C. Patterning of ventral telencephalon requires positive function of Gli transcription factors. Dev Biol. 2009;334:264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies unravel a role for Gli transcription factors in mediating Shh signaling to control specification, differentiation and positioning of ventral telencephalic neurons. ..
  14. Goodrich L, Milenkovic L, Higgins K, Scott M. Altered neural cell fates and medulloblastoma in mouse patched mutants. Science. 1997;277:1109-13 pubmed
    ..Mice heterozygous for the ptc mutation were larger than normal, and a subset of them developed hindlimb defects or cerebellar medulloblastomas, abnormalities also seen in BCNS patients. ..
  15. Pepicelli C, Lewis P, McMahon A. Sonic hedgehog regulates branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1083-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, the transcription of several mesenchymally expressed downstream targets of Shh is abolished. These results highlight the importance of epithelially derived Shh in regulating branching morphogenesis of the lung. ..
  16. Filosa S, Rivera Pérez J, Gomez A, Gansmuller A, Sasaki H, Behringer R, et al. Goosecoid and HNF-3beta genetically interact to regulate neural tube patterning during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:2843-54 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that interaction between gsc and HNF-3beta regulates other signalling molecules required for proper development of the foregut, branchial arches and heart. ..
  17. Kusakabe T, Kawaguchi A, Hoshi N, Kawaguchi R, Hoshi S, Kimura S. Thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein/NKX2.1 is required for the maintenance of ordered architecture and function of the differentiated thyroid. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1796-809 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that T/ebp/Nkx2.1 is required for maintenance of the normal architecture and function of differentiated thyroids. ..
  18. Miyoshi G, Butt S, Takebayashi H, Fishell G. Physiologically distinct temporal cohorts of cortical interneurons arise from telencephalic Olig2-expressing precursors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7786-98 pubmed
    ..We observe that the physiological subtypes of cortical interneurons are, to a large degree, unique to their time point of generation. ..
  19. Warr N, Powles Glover N, Chappell A, Robson J, Norris D, Arkell R. Zic2-associated holoprosencephaly is caused by a transient defect in the organizer region during gastrulation. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2986-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis provides genetic evidence that Zic2 functions during organizer formation and that the PCP develops via a multi-step process. ..
  20. Eisenstat D, Liu J, Mione M, Zhong W, Yu G, Anderson S, et al. DLX-1, DLX-2, and DLX-5 expression define distinct stages of basal forebrain differentiation. J Comp Neurol. 1999;414:217-37 pubmed
    ..In the basal telencephalon, these DLX-positive cells differentiate into projection neurons of the striatum and pallidum as well as interneurons, some of which migrate to the cerebral cortex and the olfactory bulb. ..
  21. Minoo P, Hu L, Xing Y, Zhu N, Chen H, Li M, et al. Physical and functional interactions between homeodomain NKX2.1 and winged helix/forkhead FOXA1 in lung epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2155-65 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a novel mode of selective gene regulation by proximo-distal gradient distribution of and functional interactions between forkhead and homeodomain transcription factors. ..
  22. Desai T, Malpel S, Flentke G, Smith S, Cardoso W. Retinoic acid selectively regulates Fgf10 expression and maintains cell identity in the prospective lung field of the developing foregut. Dev Biol. 2004;273:402-15 pubmed
    ..the lung field to maintain lung cell identity in the endoderm; RAR antagonism disrupts expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (Ttf1), an early marker of the respiratory region in the endoderm, and surfactant protein C (Sp-C) ..
  23. Park J, Zhang J, Moro A, Kushida M, Wegner M, Kim P. Regulation of Sox9 by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is essential for patterning and formation of tracheal cartilage. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:514-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Shh signalling is a critical determinant in tracheal cartilage development. ..
  24. Xu Q, Guo L, Moore H, Waclaw R, Campbell K, Anderson S. Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates. Neuron. 2010;65:328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that cortical interneuron diversity, a major determinant of cortical function, is critically influenced by differential levels of SHH signaling within the ventral telencephalon. ..
  25. Minoo P, Su G, Drum H, Bringas P, Kimura S. Defects in tracheoesophageal and lung morphogenesis in Nkx2.1(-/-) mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 1999;209:60-71 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for Nkx2.1 in morphogenesis of the anterior foregut and the lung as well as in differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. ..
  26. Carney R, Alfonso T, Cohen D, Dai H, Nery S, Stoica B, et al. Cell migration along the lateral cortical stream to the developing basal telencephalic limbic system. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11562-74 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that the generation of the LCS is dependent on the homeodomain-containing gene Gsh2, revealing a novel requirement for Gsh2 in telencephalic development. ..
  27. Fogarty M, Grist M, Gelman D, Marin O, Pachnis V, Kessaris N. Spatial genetic patterning of the embryonic neuroepithelium generates GABAergic interneuron diversity in the adult cortex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10935-46 pubmed
  28. Puelles L, Kuwana E, Puelles E, Bulfone A, Shimamura K, Keleher J, et al. Pallial and subpallial derivatives in the embryonic chick and mouse telencephalon, traced by the expression of the genes Dlx-2, Emx-1, Nkx-2.1, Pax-6, and Tbr-1. J Comp Neurol. 2000;424:409-38 pubmed
    ..These may underlie similar histogenetic specification processes and field homologies, including some comparable connectivity patterns. ..
  29. Winslow M, Dayton T, Verhaak R, Kim Kiselak C, Snyder E, Feldser D, et al. Suppression of lung adenocarcinoma progression by Nkx2-1. Nature. 2011;473:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-species analysis identified the NK2-related homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-1 (also called Ttf-1 or Titf1) as a candidate suppressor of malignant progression...
  30. Harris Johnson K, Domyan E, Vezina C, Sun X. beta-Catenin promotes respiratory progenitor identity in mouse foregut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an early role for beta-Catenin in the establishment of respiratory progenitors in mouse foregut endoderm. ..
  31. Mansouri A, Chowdhury K, Gruss P. Follicular cells of the thyroid gland require Pax8 gene function. Nat Genet. 1998;19:87-90 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that Pax8 is necessary for providing cues for the differentiation of competent endoderm primordia into thyroxin-producing follicular cells. ..
  32. Domyan E, Ferretti E, Throckmorton K, Mishina Y, Nicolis S, Sun X. Signaling through BMP receptors promotes respiratory identity in the foregut via repression of Sox2. Development. 2011;138:971-81 pubmed publisher
  33. Flames N, Pla R, Gelman D, Rubenstein J, Puelles L, Marin O. Delineation of multiple subpallial progenitor domains by the combinatorial expression of transcriptional codes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:9682-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results of microtransplantation experiments in vivo corroborate that anatomically defined regions of the mouse subpallium, such as the medial ganglionic eminence, can be subdivided into functionally distinct domains. ..
  34. Cao Y, Vo T, Millien G, Tagne J, Kotton D, Mason R, et al. Epigenetic mechanisms modulate thyroid transcription factor 1-mediated transcription of the surfactant protein B gene. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thyroid transcription factor 1 (Nkx2-1) regulates Sftpb gene expression in various species...
  35. Volckaert T, Campbell A, Dill E, Li C, Minoo P, De Langhe S. Localized Fgf10 expression is not required for lung branching morphogenesis but prevents differentiation of epithelial progenitors. Development. 2013;140:3731-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, our data presented here show that once epithelial cells are committed to the Sox2-positive airway epithelial cell fate, Fgf10 prevents ciliated cell differentiation and promotes basal cell differentiation. ..
  36. Morales Delgado N, Merchan P, Bardet S, Ferran J, Puelles L, Diaz C. Topography of Somatostatin Gene Expression Relative to Molecular Progenitor Domains during Ontogeny of the Mouse Hypothalamus. Front Neuroanat. 2011;5:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of four main separate sources helps to understand causally its complex adult organization. ..
  37. Nóbrega Pereira S, Kessaris N, Du T, Kimura S, Anderson S, Marin O. Postmitotic Nkx2-1 controls the migration of telencephalic interneurons by direct repression of guidance receptors. Neuron. 2008;59:733-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a role for the cell-fate determinant Nkx2-1 in regulating neuronal migration by direct transcriptional regulation of guidance receptors in postmitotic cells. ..
  38. Sousa V, Miyoshi G, Hjerling Leffler J, Karayannis T, Fishell G. Characterization of Nkx6-2-derived neocortical interneuron lineages. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19 Suppl 1:i1-10 pubmed publisher
  39. Shimamura K, Hartigan D, Martinez S, Puelles L, Rubenstein J. Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube. Development. 1995;121:3923-33 pubmed
  40. Du T, Xu Q, Ocbina P, Anderson S. NKX2.1 specifies cortical interneuron fate by activating Lhx6. Development. 2008;135:1559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..1. The slice transfection and transplantation methods employed here are beginning to uncover embryonic mechanisms for specifying neuronal fates that only become definable postnatally. ..
  41. Aoto K, Shikata Y, Imai H, Matsumaru D, Tokunaga T, Shioda S, et al. Mouse Shh is required for prechordal plate maintenance during brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;327:106-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying HPE pathoetiology during dynamic brain and craniofacial morphogenesis. ..
  42. Amendola E, De Luca P, Macchia P, Terracciano D, Rosica A, Chiappetta G, et al. A mouse model demonstrates a multigenic origin of congenital hypothyroidism. Endocrinology. 2005;146:5038-47 pubmed
    ..5% of cases, it can be a consequence of mutations in genes encoding the TSH receptor or the transcription factors TITF1, FOXE1, or PAX8...
  43. Gelman D, Griveau A, Dehorter N, Teissier A, Varela C, Pla R, et al. A wide diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons derives from the embryonic preoptic area. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with earlier findings, our results also suggest that the POA generates nearly 10% of the GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex of the mouse. ..
  44. Nery S, Fishell G, Corbin J. The caudal ganglionic eminence is a source of distinct cortical and subcortical cell populations. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:1279-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we report that the migratory fate of cells from the CGE is intrinsically determined by embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5). Together, these results provide the first insights into the development and fate of the CGE. ..
  45. Ioannides A, Chaudhry B, Henderson D, Spitz L, Copp A. Dorsoventral patterning in oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula: Evidence from a new mouse model. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:185-91 pubmed
    ..1 (Ttf 1), lead to OA/TOF...
  46. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N. FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the separation, migration, and survival of the pharyngeal organs were impaired in the FRS2alpha(2F/2F) mutants. ..
  47. Fagman H, Amendola E, Parrillo L, Zoppoli P, Marotta P, Scarfò M, et al. Gene expression profiling at early organogenesis reveals both common and diverse mechanisms in foregut patterning. Dev Biol. 2011;359:163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..As an initial step in this direction we describe a regulatory pathway involving the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 that controls cell survival in early thyroid development. ..
  48. Fagman H, Andersson L, Nilsson M. The developing mouse thyroid: embryonic vessel contacts and parenchymal growth pattern during specification, budding, migration, and lobulation. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:444-55 pubmed
    ..Thyroid precursor cells expressing Titf1/Nkx2...
  49. Xu Q, Tam M, Anderson S. Fate mapping Nkx2.1-lineage cells in the mouse telencephalon. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:16-29 pubmed
    ..1-expressing regions. In this paper, we present fate-mapping data on Nkx2.1-lineage neurons throughout the telencephalon, including the cerebral cortex, amygdala, olfactory bulb, striatum, globus pallidus, septum, and nucleus basalis. ..
  50. Pichel J, Fernández Moreno C, Vicario Abejón C, Testillano P, Patterson P, de Pablo F. Developmental cooperation of leukemia inhibitory factor and insulin-like growth factor I in mice is tissue-specific and essential for lung maturation involving the transcription factors Sp3 and TTF-1. Mech Dev. 2003;120:349-61 pubmed
    ..LIF and IGF-I, thus, have cooperative and distinct tissue functions during development. Their essential role in bone ossification apparently involves Sp3, and in lung maturation Sp3 together with TTF-1. ..
  51. Chen L, Chatterjee M, Li J. The mouse homeobox gene Gbx2 is required for the development of cholinergic interneurons in the striatum. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that Gbx2 is required for the development of striatal cholinergic interneurons, perhaps by regulating tangential migration of the striatal cholinergic precursors...
  52. Butt S, Sousa V, Fuccillo M, Hjerling Leffler J, Miyoshi G, Kimura S, et al. The requirement of Nkx2-1 in the temporal specification of cortical interneuron subtypes. Neuron. 2008;59:722-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our strategy reveals a causal link between the embryonic genetic specification by Nkx2-1 in progenitors and the functional attributes of their neuronal progeny in the mature nervous system. ..
  53. Shu W, Lu M, Zhang Y, Tucker P, Zhou D, Morrisey E. Foxp2 and Foxp1 cooperatively regulate lung and esophagus development. Development. 2007;134:1991-2000 pubmed
  54. Machold R, Hayashi S, Rutlin M, Muzumdar M, Nery S, Corbin J, et al. Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches. Neuron. 2003;39:937-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required to maintain progenitor cells in the postnatal telencephalon. ..
  55. Keijzer R, van Tuyl M, Meijers C, Post M, Tibboel D, Grosveld F, et al. The transcription factor GATA6 is essential for branching morphogenesis and epithelial cell differentiation during fetal pulmonary development. Development. 2001;128:503-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that GATA6 is not essential for endoderm specification, but is required for normal branching morphogenesis and late epithelial cell differentiation. ..
  56. Storm E, Garel S, Borello U, Hebert J, Martinez S, McConnell S, et al. Dose-dependent functions of Fgf8 in regulating telencephalic patterning centers. Development. 2006;133:1831-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Fgf8 functions to coordinate multiple patterning centers, and that modifications in the relative strength of FGF signaling can have profound effects on the relative size and nature of telencephalic subdivisions. ..
  57. Moreno Barriuso N, López Malpartida A, de Pablo F, Pichel J. Alterations in alveolar epithelium differentiation and vasculogenesis in lungs of LIF/IGF-I double deficient embryos. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2040-50 pubmed
    ..The differentiation of type I cells barely occurred and capillaries remained in the abundant mesenchyme. These results indicate that LIF collaborates with IGF-I in lung alveolar epithelium and vascular maturation. ..
  58. Lania G, Zhang Z, Huynh T, Caprio C, Moon A, Vitelli F, et al. Early thyroid development requires a Tbx1-Fgf8 pathway. Dev Biol. 2009;328:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have established that a Tbx1->Fgf8 pathway in the pharyngeal mesoderm is a key size regulator of mammalian thyroid. ..
  59. Pabst O, Herbrand H, Takuma N, Arnold H. NKX2 gene expression in neuroectoderm but not in mesendodermally derived structures depends on sonic hedgehog in mouse embryos. Dev Genes Evol. 2000;210:47-50 pubmed
    ..We found that expression of NKX2.1, NKX2.2, and NKX2.9 in neural domains requires Shh signaling, whereas NKX2.3, NKX2.5 and NKX2.6 expression in endoderm and mesoderm is independent of Shh. ..
  60. Nery S, Corbin J, Fishell G. Dlx2 progenitor migration in wild type and Nkx2.1 mutant telencephalon. Cereb Cortex. 2003;13:895-903 pubmed
    ..This recovery may be, at least in part, a result of the late migration of Dlx2 progenitors from the caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE), which, based on our previous work, does not appear to require Nkx2.1 gene function. ..
  61. Zhou L, Lim L, Costa R, Whitsett J. Thyroid transcription factor-1, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3beta, surfactant protein B, C, and Clara cell secretory protein in developing mouse lung. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:1183-93 pubmed
    ..The early expression of TTF-1 and HNF-3beta, preceding and overlapping that of pro-SP-B, mature SP-B, pro-SP-C, and CCSP, supports a regulatory role for TTF-1 and HNF-3beta in lung-specific gene expression. ..
  62. Yee C, Wang Y, Anderson S, Ekker M, Rubenstein J. Arcuate nucleus expression of NKX2.1 and DLX and lineages expressing these transcription factors in neuropeptide Y(+), proopiomelanocortin(+), and tyrosine hydroxylase(+) neurons in neonatal and adult mice. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:37-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for the genetic control of arcuate development and function and for the utility of the Nkx2.1-Cre and Dlx5/6i-Cre mouse lines to alter gene expression in the developing arcuate. ..
  63. Magno L, Catanzariti V, Nitsch R, Krude H, Naumann T. Ongoing expression of Nkx2.1 in the postnatal mouse forebrain: potential for understanding NKX2.1 haploinsufficiency in humans?. Brain Res. 2009;1304:164-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in situ hybridization confirmed that these neurons maintain synthesis of Nkx2.1 throughout life. The robust expression of Nkx2.1 by these neurons points to a broad functional spectrum within the adult forebrain. ..
  64. Guazzi S, Price M, De Felice M, Damante G, Mattei M, Di Lauro R. Thyroid nuclear factor 1 (TTF-1) contains a homeodomain and displays a novel DNA binding specificity. EMBO J. 1990;9:3631-9 pubmed
  65. Que J, Choi M, Ziel J, Klingensmith J, Hogan B. Morphogenesis of the trachea and esophagus: current players and new roles for noggin and Bmps. Differentiation. 2006;74:422-37 pubmed
    ..Future research must determine how Noggin/Bmp antagonism fits into the network of other factors known to regulate tracheal and esophagus development, both in mouse or humans. ..
  66. Gutin G, Fernandes M, Palazzolo L, Paek H, Yu K, Ornitz D, et al. FGF signalling generates ventral telencephalic cells independently of SHH. Development. 2006;133:2937-46 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the Fgfr1;Fgfr2 phenotype, unlike the Shh phenotype, is not rescued by loss of Gli3, further indicating that FGFs act downstream of Shh and Gli3 to generate ventral telencephalic cell types. ..
  67. Li Y, Gordon J, Manley N, Litingtung Y, Chiang C. Bmp4 is required for tracheal formation: a novel mouse model for tracheal agenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;322:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding sheds light on human tracheal malformations by providing a novel mouse model implicating Bmp signaling, non-canonical Erk activation and cellular proliferation. ..
  68. Ramasamy S, Mailleux A, Gupte V, Mata F, Sala F, Veltmaat J, et al. Fgf10 dosage is critical for the amplification of epithelial cell progenitors and for the formation of multiple mesenchymal lineages during lung development. Dev Biol. 2007;307:237-47 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results indicate that FGF10 plays a pivotal role in maintaining epithelial progenitor cell proliferation as well as coordinating alveolar smooth muscle cell formation and vascular development. ..
  69. Kusakabe T, Hoshi N, Kimura S. Origin of the ultimobranchial body cyst: T/ebp/Nkx2.1 expression is required for development and fusion of the ultimobranchial body to the thyroid. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1300-9 pubmed
    ..1 expression. These results demonstrate that T/ebp/Nkx2.1 plays a role in the survival of UBB cells, their dissemination into the thyroid diverticulum, and the formation of UBB-derived vesicular structure...
  70. Parlato R, Rosica A, Rodriguez Mallon A, Affuso A, Postiglione M, Arra C, et al. An integrated regulatory network controlling survival and migration in thyroid organogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;276:464-75 pubmed
    ..The experiments reported here analyze the expression of the transcription factors Titf1, Hhex, Pax8, and Foxe1 in the thyroid primordium of null mutants of each of them...
  71. Krude H, Schütz B, Biebermann H, von Moers A, Schnabel D, Neitzel H, et al. Choreoathetosis, hypothyroidism, and pulmonary alterations due to human NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:475-80 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the association of symptoms in the patients with NKX2-1 mutations points to an important role of human NKX2-1 in the development and function of thyroid, basal ganglia, and lung, as already described for rodents. ..
  72. De Felice M, Ovitt C, Biffali E, Rodriguez Mallon A, Arra C, Anastassiadis K, et al. A mouse model for hereditary thyroid dysgenesis and cleft palate. Nat Genet. 1998;19:395-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutation of Titf2-/- results in neonatal hypothyroidism that shows similarity to thyroid dysgenesis in humans. ..
  73. Lagutin O, Zhu C, Kobayashi D, Topczewski J, Shimamura K, Puelles L, et al. Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:368-79 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that a Wnt signal gradient specifies posterior fates in the anterior neural plate. ..
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