Gene Symbol: Nfkb2
Description: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 2, p49/p100
Alias: NF-kappaB2, lyt, p49, p49/p100, p50B, p52, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit, DNA-binding factor KBF2, NF kappaB2
Species: mouse
Products:     Nfkb2

Top Publications

  1. Connelly L, Robinson Benion C, Chont M, Saint Jean L, Li H, Polosukhin V, et al. A transgenic model reveals important roles for the NF-kappa B alternative pathway (p100/p52) in mammary development and links to tumorigenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10028-35 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB pathway in ductal development and identify possible mediators of tumorigenesis downstream of p100/p52. By overexpressing the NF-kappaB p100/p52 subunit in mammary epithelium using the beta-lactoglobulin milk protein ..
  2. Fu J, Qu Z, Yan P, Ishikawa C, Aqeilan R, Rabson A, et al. The tumor suppressor gene WWOX links the canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathways in HTLV-I Tax-mediated tumorigenesis. Blood. 2011;117:1652-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide one important mechanism by which Tax coordinates the 2 NF-?B pathways for tumorigenesis. These data also suggest a novel role of WWOX in NF-?B regulation and viral tumorigenesis. ..
  3. Yao Z, Xing L, Boyce B. NF-kappaB p100 limits TNF-induced bone resorption in mice by a TRAF3-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3024-34 pubmed publisher
    ..activate the alternative NF-kappaB pathway efficiently to process the IkappaB protein NF-kappaB p100 to NF-kappaB p52, nor does it appear to induce osteoclast formation in vivo in the absence of RANKL...
  4. Zarnegar B, Yamazaki S, He J, Cheng G. Control of canonical NF-kappaB activation through the NIK-IKK complex pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..two separate and distinct NF-kappaB activation pathways that result in the differential activation of p50- or p52-containing NF-kappaB complexes...
  5. He J, Zarnegar B, Oganesyan G, Saha S, Yamazaki S, Doyle S, et al. Rescue of TRAF3-null mice by p100 NF-kappa B deficiency. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2413-8 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB complexes containing p50, and the noncanonical pathway, which involves the induced processing of p100 to p52 and the formation of NF-kappaB complexes containing p52 (Bonizzi, G., and M. Karin. 2004. Trends Immunol...
  6. Guo F, Weih D, Meier E, Weih F. Constitutive alternative NF-kappaB signaling promotes marginal zone B-cell development but disrupts the marginal sinus and induces HEV-like structures in the spleen. Blood. 2007;110:2381-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast to nfkb2(-/-) mice, which lack both p100 and p52, mice that lack only the inhibitory p100 precursor but still express the ..
  7. Caamaño J, Rizzo C, Durham S, Barton D, Raventos Suarez C, Snapper C, et al. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B2 (p100/p52) is required for normal splenic microarchitecture and B cell-mediated immune responses. J Exp Med. 1998;187:185-96 pubmed
    The nfkb2 gene is a member of the Rel/NF-kappa B family of transcription factors...
  8. Gerondakis S, Grossmann M, Nakamura Y, Pohl T, Grumont R. Genetic approaches in mice to understand Rel/NF-kappaB and IkappaB function: transgenics and knockouts. Oncogene. 1999;18:6888-95 pubmed
    ..Future studies will no doubt focus on the effect of multiple gene disruptions of members of this signaling pathway, on tissue-specific disruptions of these genes, and on the use of these mice as models for human diseases. ..
  9. Coope H, Atkinson P, Huhse B, Belich M, Janzen J, Holman M, et al. CD40 regulates the processing of NF-kappaB2 p100 to p52. EMBO J. 2002;21:5375-85 pubmed
    The nf-kb2 gene encodes the cytoplasmic NF-kappaB inhibitory protein p100 from which the active p52 NF-kappaB subunit is derived by proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Ligands which stimulate p100 processing to p52 have not been defined...

More Information


  1. Verma I, Stevenson J, Schwarz E, Van Antwerp D, Miyamoto S. Rel/NF-kappa B/I kappa B family: intimate tales of association and dissociation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2723-35 pubmed
  2. Novack D, Yin L, Hagen Stapleton A, Schreiber R, Goeddel D, Ross F, et al. The IkappaB function of NF-kappaB2 p100 controls stimulated osteoclastogenesis. J Exp Med. 2003;198:771-81 pubmed
    ..of the NF-kappaB and IkappaB families, potentially serving as both the precursor for the active NF-kappaB subunit p52 and as an IkappaB capable of retaining NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm...
  3. Yilmaz Z, Weih D, Sivakumar V, Weih F. RelB is required for Peyer's patch development: differential regulation of p52-RelB by lymphotoxin and TNF. EMBO J. 2003;22:121-30 pubmed
    Targeted disruption of the Rel/NF-kappaB family members NF-kappaB2, encoding p100/p52, and RelB in mice results in anatomical defects of secondary lymphoid tissues...
  4. Claudio E, Brown K, Park S, Wang H, Siebenlist U. BAFF-induced NEMO-independent processing of NF-kappa B2 in maturing B cells. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:958-65 pubmed
    ..This NEMO-independent cascade is physiologically relevant for the survival and, hence, progression of maturing splenic B cells. ..
  5. Poljak L, Carlson L, Cunningham K, Kosco Vilbois M, Siebenlist U. Distinct activities of p52/NF-kappa B required for proper secondary lymphoid organ microarchitecture: functions enhanced by Bcl-3. J Immunol. 1999;163:6581-8 pubmed
    Mice rendered deficient in p52, a subunit of NF-kappa B, or in Bcl-3, an I kappa B-related regulator that associates with p52 homodimers, share defects in the microarchitecture of secondary lymphoid organs...
  6. Guo F, Tänzer S, Busslinger M, Weih F. Lack of nuclear factor-kappa B2/p100 causes a RelB-dependent block in early B lymphopoiesis. Blood. 2008;112:551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, tightly controlled p100 processing and RelB activation is essential for normal B lymphopoiesis and lymphoid/myeloid lineage decision in bone marrow. ..
  7. Stadanlick J, Kaileh M, Karnell F, Scholz J, Miller J, Quinn W, et al. Tonic B cell antigen receptor signals supply an NF-kappaB substrate for prosurvival BLyS signaling. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a molecular mechanism for the reliance of primary B cells on continuous BR3 and BCR signaling, as well as for the gradual resistance to negative selection that is acquired during B cell maturation. ..
  8. Vaira S, Johnson T, Hirbe A, Alhawagri M, Anwisye I, Sammut B, et al. RelB is the NF-kappaB subunit downstream of NIK responsible for osteoclast differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the alternative NF-kappaB pathway, culminating in activation of RelB, has a key and specific role in the differentiation of OCs that cannot be compensated for by p65. ..
  9. Basak S, Kim H, Kearns J, Tergaonkar V, O Dea E, Werner S, et al. A fourth IkappaB protein within the NF-kappaB signaling module. Cell. 2007;128:369-81 pubmed
    ..Our results have important implications for physiological and pathological scenarios in which inflammatory and developmental signals converge. ..
  10. Ghosh S, May M, Kopp E. NF-kappa B and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol. 1998;16:225-60 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss some of these recent findings and their implications for the study of NF-kappa B. ..
  11. Lind E, Ahonen C, Wasiuk A, Kosaka Y, Becher B, Bennett K, et al. Dendritic cells require the NF-kappaB2 pathway for cross-presentation of soluble antigens. J Immunol. 2008;181:354-63 pubmed
    ..These experiments indicate a possible role for NIK in mediating cross-priming of soluble Ag. In addition, our findings explain the profound immune unresponsiveness of the Aly mouse. ..
  12. Tucker E, O Donnell K, Fuchsberger M, Hilton A, Metcalf D, Greig K, et al. A novel mutation in the Nfkb2 gene generates an NF-kappa B2 "super repressor". J Immunol. 2007;179:7514-22 pubmed
    ..We have generated mice harboring a novel mutation in Nfkb2 that prevents the processing of the inhibitory precursor, p100, into the active subunit, p52...
  13. Demicco E, Kavanagh K, Romieu Mourez R, Wang X, Shin S, Landesman Bollag E, et al. RelB/p52 NF-kappaB complexes rescue an early delay in mammary gland development in transgenic mice with targeted superrepressor IkappaB-alpha expression and promote carcinogenesis of the mammary gland. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10136-47 pubmed
    ..5). Recovery correlated with induction of nuclear cyclin D1 and RelB/p52 NF-kappaB complexes...
  14. Qing G, Xiao G. Essential role of IkappaB kinase alpha in the constitutive processing of NF-kappaB2 p100. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9765-8 pubmed
    Processing of NF-kappaB2 precursor protein p100 to generate p52 is tightly controlled, which is important for proper function of NF-kappaB...
  15. Dejardin E, Droin N, Delhase M, Haas E, Cao Y, Makris C, et al. The lymphotoxin-beta receptor induces different patterns of gene expression via two NF-kappaB pathways. Immunity. 2002;17:525-35 pubmed
    ..ligation of this receptor induces the processing of the cytosolic NF-kappaB2/p100 precursor to yield the mature p52 subunit, followed by translocation of p52 to the nucleus...
  16. Paxian S, Merkle H, Riemann M, Wilda M, Adler G, Hameister H, et al. Abnormal organogenesis of Peyer's patches in mice deficient for NF-kappaB1, NF-kappaB2, and Bcl-3. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1853-68 pubmed
    ..These data show that all 3 genes are crucial for PP development but contribute differently to PP organogenesis. ..
  17. Xiao G, Harhaj E, Sun S. NF-kappaB-inducing kinase regulates the processing of NF-kappaB2 p100. Mol Cell. 2001;7:401-9 pubmed
    Processing of the nf(kappa)b2 gene product p100 to generate p52 is an important step in NF-kappaB regulation...
  18. Ishikawa H, Carrasco D, Claudio E, Ryseck R, Bravo R. Gastric hyperplasia and increased proliferative responses of lymphocytes in mice lacking the COOH-terminal ankyrin domain of NF-kappaB2. J Exp Med. 1997;186:999-1014 pubmed
    The nfkb2 gene encodes the p100 precursor which produces the p52 protein after proteolytic cleavage of its COOH-terminal domain...
  19. Wang Z, Zhang B, Yang L, Ding J, Ding H. Constitutive production of NF-kappaB2 p52 is not tumorigenic but predisposes mice to inflammatory autoimmune disease by repressing Bim expression. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10698-706 pubmed publisher
    Normal development of the immune system requires regulated processing of NF-kappaB2 p100 to p52, which activates NF-kappaB2 signaling...
  20. Artis D, Shapira S, Mason N, Speirs K, Goldschmidt M, Caamano J, et al. Differential requirement for NF-kappa B family members in control of helminth infection and intestinal inflammation. J Immunol. 2002;169:4481-7 pubmed
    ..muris and the control of infection-induced intestinal inflammation...
  21. Inta I, Paxian S, Maegele I, Zhang W, Pizzi M, Spano P, et al. Bim and Noxa are candidates to mediate the deleterious effect of the NF-kappa B subunit RelA in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12896-903 pubmed functional in cerebral ischemia, we induced focal cerebral ischemia in mice with a germline deletion of the p52 or c-Rel gene or with a conditional deletion of RelA in the brain. Only RelA deficiency reduced infarct size...
  22. Zarnegar B, He J, Oganesyan G, Hoffmann A, Baltimore D, Cheng G. Unique CD40-mediated biological program in B cell activation requires both type 1 and type 2 NF-kappaB activation pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8108-13 pubmed
    ..Here, we have compared the contribution of the type 1 (p50-dependent) and type 2 (p52-dependent) NF-kappaB activation pathways to cell survival, proliferation, homotypic aggregation, and specific gene ..
  23. Iotsova V, Caamano J, Loy J, Yang Y, Lewin A, Bravo R. Osteopetrosis in mice lacking NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaB2. Nat Med. 1997;3:1285-9 pubmed
    The nfkb1 and nfkb2 genes encode closely related products regulating immune and inflammatory responses. Their role during development and differentiation remains unclear...
  24. Bonizzi G, Bebien M, Otero D, Johnson Vroom K, Cao Y, Vu D, et al. Activation of IKKalpha target genes depends on recognition of specific kappaB binding sites by RelB:p52 dimers. EMBO J. 2004;23:4202-10 pubmed
    ..This pathway, which activates RelB:p52 dimers, is required for induction of several chemokine genes needed for organization of secondary lymphoid organs...
  25. Yamashita T, Yao Z, Li F, Zhang Q, Badell I, Schwarz E, et al. NF-kappaB p50 and p52 regulate receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-induced osteoclast precursor differentiation by activating c-Fos and NFATc1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18245-53 pubmed
    ..Osteoclast formation induced by these cytokines requires NF-kappaB p50 and p52, c-Fos, and NFATc1 expression in osteoclast precursors...
  26. Ciana P, Neri A, Cappellini C, Cavallo F, Pomati M, Chang C, et al. Constitutive expression of lymphoma-associated NFKB-2/Lyt-10 proteins is tumorigenic in murine fibroblasts. Oncogene. 1997;14:1805-10 pubmed
    ..Such mutant NFKB-2 proteins have lost the ability to repress transcription that is typical of NFKB-2 subunit p52, and function as constitutive transcriptional activators...
  27. Weih F, Caamano J. Regulation of secondary lymphoid organ development by the nuclear factor-kappaB signal transduction pathway. Immunol Rev. 2003;195:91-105 pubmed
    ..that activation of the recently described alternative NF-kappaB pathway by membrane-bound lymphotoxin, via p52-RelB heterodimers, plays a major role during initiation steps of secondary lymphoid organ development...
  28. Derudder E, Dejardin E, Pritchard L, Green D, Korner M, Baud V. RelB/p50 dimers are differentially regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta receptor activation: critical roles for p100. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23278-84 pubmed
    ..that the alternative NF-kappaB pathway based on p100 processing may account not only for the activation of RelB/p52 dimers but also for that of RelB/p50 dimers and that p100 regulates the binding activity of RelB/p50 dimers via at ..
  29. Franzoso G, Carlson L, Poljak L, Shores E, Epstein S, Leonardi A, et al. Mice deficient in nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B/p52 present with defects in humoral responses, germinal center reactions, and splenic microarchitecture. J Exp Med. 1998;187:147-59 pubmed
    b>p52 is a subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factors, most closely related to p50...
  30. Franzoso G, Carlson L, Xing L, Poljak L, Shores E, Brown K, et al. Requirement for NF-kappaB in osteoclast and B-cell development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3482-96 pubmed
    ..We have generated mice deficient in both the p50 and p52 subunits of NF-kappaB to reveal critical functions that may be shared by these two highly homologous proteins...
  31. Otero J, Dai S, Alhawagri M, Darwech I, Abu Amer Y. IKKbeta activation is sufficient for RANK-independent osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data establish the sufficiency of IKKbeta activation for osteolysis and suggest that IKKbeta hyperactivation may play a role in conditions of pathologic bone destruction refractory to RANK/RANKL proximal therapeutic interventions. ..
  32. Lo J, Basak S, James E, Quiambo R, Kinsella M, Alegre M, et al. Coordination between NF-kappaB family members p50 and p52 is essential for mediating LTbetaR signals in the development and organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. Blood. 2006;107:1048-55 pubmed
    ..and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) to direct processing of the nfkappab2 protein p100 to yield RelB:p52 complexes. Despite the biochemical evidence, LT-, RelB-, p52-deficient mice show discrepant phenotypes...
  33. Paxian S, Liptay S, Adler G, Hameister H, Schmid R. Genomic organization and chromosomal mapping of mouse nuclear factor kappa B 2 (NFKB2). Immunogenetics. 1999;49:743-50 pubmed
    b>NFKB2 is a member of the NFKB/Rel gene family, which is known to be a pivotal regulator of the acute phase and immune responses...
  34. Claudio E, Saret S, Wang H, Siebenlist U. Cell-autonomous role for NF-kappa B in immature bone marrow B cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:3406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the lifelong dependency of B cells on NF-kappaB-mediated survival functions is set in motion at the time of first expression of a full BCR. ..
  35. Phan H, Cho K, Sainz Lyon K, Shin S, Greenhalgh D. CD14-dependent modulation of NF-kappaB alternative splicing in the lung after burn injury. Gene. 2006;371:121-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the CD14-mediated LPS signaling pathway may play a role in the regulation of NF-kappaB alternative splicing in the lungs after injury. ..
  36. Yang L, Cui H, Wang Z, Zhang B, Ding J, Liu L, et al. Loss of negative feedback control of nuclear factor-kappaB2 activity in lymphocytes leads to fatal lung inflammation. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..processing of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB2 precursor protein p100 generates the active NF-kappaB2 subunit p52, which in turn transcriptionally up-regulates p100 expression...
  37. Doyle S, Shirey K, McGettrick A, Kenny E, Carpenter S, Caffrey B, et al. Nuclear factor ?B2 p52 protein has a role in antiviral immunity through I?B kinase epsilon-dependent induction of Sp1 protein and interleukin 15. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..NF?B2 is induced in response to poly(I:C), a mimic of viral dsRNA. Poly(I:C), acting via TLR3, induces p52-dependent transactivation of a reporter gene in a manner that requires the kinase activity of I?B kinase ? (IKK?) ..
  38. Castro I, Wright J, Damdinsuren B, Hoek K, Carlesso G, Shinners N, et al. B cell receptor-mediated sustained c-Rel activation facilitates late transitional B cell survival through control of B cell activating factor receptor and NF-kappaB2. J Immunol. 2009;182:7729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, acquisition of resistance to apoptosis during transitional B cell maturation is achieved by integration of BCR and BAFF-R signals. ..
  39. Torres J, Watt F. Nanog maintains pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells by inhibiting NFkappaB and cooperating with Stat3. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Nanog represses the pro-differentiation activities of NFkappaB and cooperates with Stat3 to maintain pluripotency. ..
  40. Burkitt M, Williams J, Duckworth C, O Hara A, Hanedi A, Varro A, et al. Signaling mediated by the NF-?B sub-units NF-?B1, NF-?B2 and c-Rel differentially regulate Helicobacter felis-induced gastric carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Oncogene. 2013;32:5563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this C57BL/6, Nfkb1(-/-), Nfkb2(-/-) and c-Rel(-/-) mice were infected with Helicobacter felis for 6 weeks or 12 months...
  41. Savinova O, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G. The Nfkb1 and Nfkb2 proteins p105 and p100 function as the core of high-molecular-weight heterogeneous complexes. Mol Cell. 2009;34:591-602 pubmed publisher
    Nfkb1 and Nfkb2 proteins p105 and p100 serve both as NF-kappaB precursors and inhibitors of NF-kappaB dimers...
  42. Xing L, Carlson L, Story B, Tai Z, Keng P, Siebenlist U, et al. Expression of either NF-kappaB p50 or p52 in osteoclast precursors is required for IL-1-induced bone resorption. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:260-9 pubmed
    ..Its expression is regulated by NF-kappaB and vice versa. To examine the role of NF-kappaB p50 and p52 (they are required for osteoclast formation during embryonic development) in IL-1-induced resorption, we used ..
  43. Maier H, Marienfeld R, Wirth T, Baumann B. Critical role of RelB serine 368 for dimerization and p100 stabilization. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39242-50 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that expression of functional RelB, but not of serine 368 mutants, severely reduces p52 generation and strongly increases expression of the p52 precursor, p100...
  44. Speirs K, Lieberman L, Caamano J, Hunter C, Scott P. Cutting edge: NF-kappa B2 is a negative regulator of dendritic cell function. J Immunol. 2004;172:752-6 pubmed
    ..These studies identify a novel role for NF-kappaB2 in the negative regulation of RelB-induced DC maturation, with critical consequences for the regulation of adaptive immune responses. ..
  45. Song P, Zhou Y, Coughlan K, Dai X, Xu H, Viollet B, et al. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-?2 deficiency promotes vascular smooth muscle cell migration via S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..repeat-containing protein resulting in the proteolytic processing of the p100 precursor and nuclear factor ?B2/p52 induction...
  46. De Silva N, Anderson M, Carette A, Silva K, Heise N, Bhagat G, et al. Transcription factors of the alternative NF-?B pathway are required for germinal center B-cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9063-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using conditional deletion of relb and nfkb2 in GC B cells, we here report that ablation of both RELB and NF-?B2, but not of the single transcription factors, ..
  47. Zarnegar B, Wang Y, Mahoney D, Dempsey P, Cheung H, He J, et al. Noncanonical NF-kappaB activation requires coordinated assembly of a regulatory complex of the adaptors cIAP1, cIAP2, TRAF2 and TRAF3 and the kinase NIK. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the lethality of TRAF3 deficiency in mice could be rescued by a single NIK gene, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated NIK. ..
  48. Yu L, Mohamed A, Simonson O, Vargas L, Blomberg K, Bjorkstrand B, et al. Proteasome-dependent autoregulation of Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) promoter via NF-kappaB. Blood. 2008;111:4617-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that Btk induces NF-kappaB activity in mice. Collectively, we show that Btk uses a positive autoregulatory feedback mechanism to stimulate transcription from its own promoter via NF-kappaB. ..
  49. Chen K, Coonrod E, Kumanovics A, Franks Z, Durtschi J, Margraf R, et al. Germline mutations in NFKB2 implicate the noncanonical NF-?B pathway in the pathogenesis of common variable immunodeficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:812-24 pubmed publisher
    ..2564delA (p.Lys855Serfs(?)7), in NFKB2 affecting the C terminus of NF-?B2 (also known as p100/p52 or p100/p49)...
  50. Wang Y, Cui H, Schroering A, Ding J, Lane W, McGill G, et al. NF-kappa B2 p100 is a pro-apoptotic protein with anti-oncogenic function. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:888-93 pubmed
    ..These observations thus identify an I kappa B-independent apoptotic activity of NF-kappa B2 p100 and help explain its unique tumour suppressor role. ..
  51. Powolny Budnicka I, Riemann M, Tänzer S, Schmid R, Hehlgans T, Weih F. RelA and RelB transcription factors in distinct thymocyte populations control lymphotoxin-dependent interleukin-17 production in ?? T cells. Immunity. 2011;34:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RelA and RelB within different thymocyte subpopulations cooperate in the regulation of IL-17 production by ?? T cells and contribute to the host's ability to fight bacterial infections. ..
  52. Jin J, Xiao Y, Chang J, Yu J, Hu H, Starr R, et al. The kinase TBK1 controls IgA class switching by negatively regulating noncanonical NF-?B signaling. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:1101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish TBK1 as a pivotal negative regulator of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway and identify a unique mechanism that controls IgA production. ..
  53. Fusco A, Mazumder A, Wang V, Tao Z, Ware C, Ghosh G. The NF-κB subunit RelB controls p100 processing by competing with the kinases NIK and IKK1 for binding to p100. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra96 pubmed publisher
    The heterodimer formed by the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) subunits p52 and RelB is the product of noncanonical signaling in which the key event is the proteolytic processing of p100 to generate p52...
  54. Banoth B, Chatterjee B, Vijayaragavan B, Prasad M, Roy P, Basak S. Stimulus-selective crosstalk via the NF-κB signaling system reinforces innate immune response to alleviate gut infection. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitant LTβR signal targeted TLR4-induced newly synthesized p100, encoded by Nfkb2, for processing into p52 that not only neutralized p100 mediated inhibitions, but potently generated RelA:p52/NF-Î..
  55. Williams J, Duckworth C, Watson A, Frey M, Miguel J, Burkitt M, et al. A mouse model of pathological small intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and shedding induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1388-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This model will enable investigation of the importance and regulation of pathological IEC apoptosis and cell shedding in various diseases. ..
  56. Hu Y, Baud V, Delhase M, Zhang P, Deerinck T, Ellisman M, et al. Abnormal morphogenesis but intact IKK activation in mice lacking the IKKalpha subunit of IkappaB kinase. Science. 1999;284:316-20 pubmed
    ..Instead, loss of IKKalpha interfered with multiple morphogenetic events, including limb and skeletal patterning and proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. ..
  57. Liu P, Li K, Garofalo R, Brasier A. Respiratory syncytial virus induces RelA release from cytoplasmic 100-kDa NF-kappa B2 complexes via a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene-I{middle dot}NF- kappa B-inducing kinase signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we surprisingly found that RIG-I silencing also inhibited p100 processing to 52-kDa NF-kappaB2 ("p52"), suggesting that RIG-I was functionally upstream of the noncanonical regulatory kinase complex composed of ..
  58. Krljanac B, Weih D, Jacobsen I, Hu D, Koliesnik I, Reppe K, et al. NF-?B2/p100 deficiency impairs immune responses to T-cell-independent type 2 antigens. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44:662-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, p100 was also necessary for efficient defense against clinically relevant TI-2 pathogens. ..
  59. Wessells J, Baer M, Young H, Claudio E, Brown K, Siebenlist U, et al. BCL-3 and NF-kappaB p50 attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49995-50003 pubmed
    ..we have investigated the inhibitory role of BCL-3, an IkappaB-like protein that interacts exclusively with p50 and p52 homodimers. BCL-3 was induced by LPS with delayed kinetics and was associated with p50 in the nucleus...
  60. Carragher D, Johal R, Button A, White A, Eliopoulos A, Jenkinson E, et al. A stroma-derived defect in NF-kappaB2-/- mice causes impaired lymph node development and lymphocyte recruitment. J Immunol. 2004;173:2271-9 pubmed
  61. Kumar D, Singla S, Puri V, Puri S. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e115947 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI. ..
  62. Carlson H, Quinn J, Yang Y, Thornburg C, Chang H, Stadler H. LncRNA-HIT Functions as an Epigenetic Regulator of Chondrogenesis through Its Recruitment of p100/CBP Complexes. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005680 pubmed publisher
  63. De Silva N, Silva K, Anderson M, Bhagat G, Klein U. Impairment of Mature B Cell Maintenance upon Combined Deletion of the Alternative NF-κB Transcription Factors RELB and NF-κB2 in B Cells. J Immunol. 2016;196:2591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion of relb led to only a slight decrease in the fraction of mature splenic B cells, whereas deletion of nfkb2 caused a marked reduction...
  64. Sau A, Lau R, Cabrita M, Nolan E, Crooks P, Visvader J, et al. Persistent Activation of NF-κB in BRCA1-Deficient Mammary Progenitors Drives Aberrant Proliferation and Accumulation of DNA Damage. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:52-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We have discovered that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) (p52/RelB) is persistently activated in a subset of BRCA1-deficient mammary luminal progenitors...
  65. Otero J, Chen T, Zhang K, Abu Amer Y. Constitutively active canonical NF-?B pathway induces severe bone loss in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38694 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we observed that IKK2SSEE induced high expression of not only p65 but also p52 and RelB; the latter two molecules are considered exclusive members of the alternative NF-?B pathway...
  66. Shih V, Davis Turak J, Macal M, Huang J, Ponomarenko J, Kearns J, et al. Control of RelB during dendritic cell activation integrates canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathways. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:1162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that RelB promoted DC activation not as the expected RelB-p52 effector of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway, but as a RelB-p50 dimer regulated by canonical I?Bs, I?B? and I?B?...
  67. Liao G, Sun S. Regulation of NF-kappaB2/p100 processing by its nuclear shuttling. Oncogene. 2003;22:4868-74 pubmed
    Processing of the NF-kappaB2 precursor protein p100 to generate p52 is an important step of NF-kappaB regulation. This proteolytic event is tightly regulated by sequences located at the C-terminal portion of p100...
  68. Cao J, Niu H, Wang H, Huang X, Gao D. NF-?B p65/p52 plays a role in GDNF up-regulating Bcl-2 and Bcl-w expression in 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of MN9D cell. Int J Neurosci. 2013;123:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously observed that nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) signaling pathway, i.e. p65/p52, mediated the antiapoptosis role of GDNF in MN9D cells...
  69. Vatsyayan J, Qing G, Xiao G, Hu J. SUMO1 modification of NF-kappaB2/p100 is essential for stimuli-induced p100 phosphorylation and processing. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:885-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the alternative nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway requires NF-kappaB2/p100 processing to generate p52. In most cases, stimuli-induced p100 processing is dependent on NF-kappaB-inducing kinase/IkappaB kinase alpha-..
  70. Parrott J, Gay N. Expression and subcellular distribution of rel/NF kappa B transcription factors in the preimplantation mouse embryo: novel kappa B binding activities in the blastocyst stage embryo. Zygote. 1998;6:249-60 pubmed
    ..However, novel kappa B-binding proteins are found in the mouse blastocyst and may provide an alternative mechanism for regulation of gene expression via the kappa B motif in the early mouse embryo. ..