Gene Symbol: Nfkb1
Description: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1, p105
Alias: NF-KB1, NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB1, p105, p50, p50/p105, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit, DNA-binding factor KBF1, EBP-1, NF kappaB1, NF-kappa-B1 p84/NF-kappa-B1 p98, NF-kappaB p50, nuclear factor kappaB p50, nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells 1, p105, p50 subunit of NF kappaB
Species: mouse
Products:     Nfkb1

Top Publications

  1. Enwere E, Holbrook J, Lejmi Mrad R, Vineham J, Timusk K, Sivaraj B, et al. TWEAK and cIAP1 regulate myoblast fusion through the noncanonical NF-?B signaling pathway. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify roles for TWEAK, cIAP1, and noncanonical NF-?B signaling in the regulation of myoblast fusion and highlight a role for cytokine signaling during adult skeletal myogenesis...
  2. Maier H, Schips T, Wietelmann A, Kruger M, Brunner C, Sauter M, et al. Cardiomyocyte-specific I?B kinase (IKK)/NF-?B activation induces reversible inflammatory cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that IKK/NF-?B activation in cardiomyocytes is sufficient to cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure by inducing an excessive inflammatory response and myocyte atrophy. ..
  3. Mohammadtaghvaei N, Taheripak G, Taghikhani M, Meshkani R. Palmitate-induced PTP1B expression is mediated by ceramide-JNK and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1964-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide the evidence that the mechanism by which palmitate increased the expression of PTP1B seems to be through a mechanism involving the activation of ceramide-JNK and NF-?B pathways. ..
  4. Dissanayake D, Hall H, Berg Brown N, Elford A, Hamilton S, Murakami K, et al. Nuclear factor-?B1 controls the functional maturation of dendritic cells and prevents the activation of autoreactive T cells. Nat Med. 2011;17:1663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a new perspective on functional DC maturation and a potential mechanism that may account for pathologic T cell activation. ..
  5. Burkitt M, Williams J, Duckworth C, O Hara A, Hanedi A, Varro A, et al. Signaling mediated by the NF-?B sub-units NF-?B1, NF-?B2 and c-Rel differentially regulate Helicobacter felis-induced gastric carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Oncogene. 2013;32:5563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this C57BL/6, Nfkb1(-/-), Nfkb2(-/-) and c-Rel(-/-) mice were infected with Helicobacter felis for 6 weeks or 12 months...
  6. Yang L, Boldin M, Yu Y, Liu C, Ea C, Ramakrishnan P, et al. miR-146a controls the resolution of T cell responses in mice. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1655-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results identify miR-146a as an important new member of the negative feedback loop that controls TCR signaling to NF-?B. Our findings also add microRNA to the list of regulators that control the resolution of T cell responses. ..
  7. Haegens A, Schols A, Gorissen S, van Essen A, Snepvangers F, Gray D, et al. NF-?B activation and polyubiquitin conjugation are required for pulmonary inflammation-induced diaphragm atrophy. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study is the first to demonstrate that diaphragm muscle atrophy, resulting from acute pulmonary inflammation, requires NF-?B activation and UPS-mediated protein degradation...
  8. Chien Y, Scuoppo C, Wang X, Fang X, BALGLEY B, Bolden J, et al. Control of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype by NF-?B promotes senescence and enhances chemosensitivity. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that NF-?B controls both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous aspects of the senescence program and identify a tumor-suppressive function of NF-?B that contributes to the outcome of cancer therapy. ..
  9. Yamashita T, Yao Z, Li F, Zhang Q, Badell I, Schwarz E, et al. NF-kappaB p50 and p52 regulate receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-induced osteoclast precursor differentiation by activating c-Fos and NFATc1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18245-53 pubmed
    ..Osteoclast formation induced by these cytokines requires NF-kappaB p50 and p52, c-Fos, and NFATc1 expression in osteoclast precursors...

More Information


  1. He F, Peng J, Deng X, Yang L, Wu L, Zhang C, et al. RhoA and NF-?B are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced brain microvascular cell line hyperpermeability. Neuroscience. 2011;188:35-47 pubmed publisher
    ..LPS induces brain microvascular endothelial barrier hyperpermeability by disrupting TJs, in part through RhoA and NF-?B activation, in which RhoA is the positive upstream regulator for NF-?B. ..
  2. Wang Y, Rickman B, Poutahidis T, Schlieper K, Jackson E, Erdman S, et al. c-Rel is essential for the development of innate and T cell-induced colitis. J Immunol. 2008;180:8118-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, c-Rel plays a critical role in regulating the innate inflammatory response to microflora within the lower bowel, likely through its ability to modulate expression of IL-12/23 family members. ..
  3. Bakkar N, Wang J, Ladner K, Wang H, Dahlman J, Carathers M, et al. IKK/NF-kappaB regulates skeletal myogenesis via a signaling switch to inhibit differentiation and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal a unique IKK/NF-kappaB signaling switch that functions to both inhibit differentiation and promote myotube homeostasis. ..
  4. Takada Y, Fang X, Jamaluddin M, Boyd D, Aggarwal B. Genetic deletion of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta abrogates activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, JNK, Akt, and p44/p42 MAPK but potentiates apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39541-54 pubmed
  5. Bohuslav J, Kravchenko V, Parry G, Erlich J, Gerondakis S, Mackman N, et al. Regulation of an essential innate immune response by the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1645-52 pubmed
    ..deletions of the proteins of NF-kappaB complex, we provide data demonstrating that increased expression of the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB directly results in the downregulation of LPS-induced TNF production...
  6. Grumont R, Lock P, Mollinari M, Shannon F, Moore A, Gerondakis S. The mitogen-induced increase in T cell size involves PKC and NFAT activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-dependent c-myc expression. Immunity. 2004;21:19-30 pubmed
  7. Huxford T, Huang D, Malek S, Ghosh G. The crystal structure of the IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex reveals mechanisms of NF-kappaB inactivation. Cell. 1998;95:759-70 pubmed
    ..The 2.3 A crystal structure of IkappaBalpha in complex with the NF-kappaB p50/p65 heterodimer reveals mechanisms of these inhibitory activities...
  8. Beg A, Sha W, Bronson R, Baltimore D. Constitutive NF-kappa B activation, enhanced granulopoiesis, and neonatal lethality in I kappa B alpha-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2736-46 pubmed
    ..NF-kappa B elevation results in these phenotypic abnormalities because mice lacking both I kappa B alpha and the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B show a dramatically delayed onset of abnormalities...
  9. Shea L, Beehler C, Schwartz M, Shenkar R, Tuder R, Abraham E. Hyperoxia activates NF-kappaB and increases TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma gene expression in mouse pulmonary lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1996;157:3902-8 pubmed
  10. Kang Y, Wingerd B, Arakawa T, Smith W. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene transcription in a macrophage model of inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;177:8111-22 pubmed
    ..In support of this concept, we found, using inhibitors of Jun kinase and NF-kappaB p50 nuclear localization, that COX-2 gene transcription was completely dependent on phospho-c-Jun plus p50 at 6 h after ..
  11. Hikoso S, Yamaguchi O, Nakano Y, Takeda T, Omiya S, Mizote I, et al. The I{kappa}B kinase {beta}/nuclear factor {kappa}B signaling pathway protects the heart from hemodynamic stress mediated by the regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase expression. Circ Res. 2009;105:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the IKKbeta/NF-kappaB signaling pathway plays a protective role in cardiomyocytes because of the attenuation of oxidative stress and JNK activation in a setting of acute pressure overload. ..
  12. Reynaert N, van Der Vliet A, Guala A, McGovern T, Hristova M, Pantano C, et al. Dynamic redox control of NF-kappaB through glutaredoxin-regulated S-glutathionylation of inhibitory kappaB kinase beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13086-91 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate the physiological relevance of the S-glutathionylation-GRX redox module in controlling the magnitude of activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  13. Fukui N, Ikeda Y, Ohnuki T, Hikita A, Tanaka S, Yamane S, et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces bone morphogenetic protein-2 in chondrocytes via mRNA stabilization and transcriptional up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27229-41 pubmed
  14. Ki S, Choi M, Lee C, Kim S. Galpha12 specifically regulates COX-2 induction by sphingosine 1-phosphate. Role for JNK-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of IkappaBalpha. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1938-47 pubmed
  15. Das J, Chen C, Yang L, Cohn L, Ray P, Ray A. A critical role for NF-kappa B in GATA3 expression and TH2 differentiation in allergic airway inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:45-50 pubmed
    ..Mice that lack the p50 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) are unable to mount airway eosinophilic inflammation...
  16. Ghosh S, Gifford A, Riviere L, Tempst P, Nolan G, Baltimore D. Cloning of the p50 DNA binding subunit of NF-kappa B: homology to rel and dorsal. Cell. 1990;62:1019-29 pubmed
    The DNA binding subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, p50, has been cloned. p50 appears to be synthesized as a larger protein that is then processed to its functional size...
  17. Weih F, Carrasco D, Durham S, Barton D, Rizzo C, Ryseck R, et al. Multiorgan inflammation and hematopoietic abnormalities in mice with a targeted disruption of RelB, a member of the NF-kappa B/Rel family. Cell. 1995;80:331-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, RelB plays a decisive role in the hematopoietic system, and its absence cannot be functionally compensated by any other member of the NF-kappa B/Rel family. ..
  18. Cai D, Yuan M, Frantz D, Melendez P, Hansen L, Lee J, et al. Local and systemic insulin resistance resulting from hepatic activation of IKK-beta and NF-kappaB. Nat Med. 2005;11:183-90 pubmed
    ..This causes insulin resistance both locally in liver and systemically. ..
  19. Wang H, Hertlein E, Bakkar N, Sun H, Acharyya S, Wang J, et al. NF-kappaB regulation of YY1 inhibits skeletal myogenesis through transcriptional silencing of myofibrillar genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4374-87 pubmed
    ..NF-kappaB regulation of YY1 occurred at the transcriptional level, mediated by direct binding of the p50/p65 heterodimer complex to the YY1 promoter...
  20. Doi T, Takahashi T, Taguchi O, Azuma T, Obata Y. NF-kappa B RelA-deficient lymphocytes: normal development of T cells and B cells, impaired production of IgA and IgG1 and reduced proliferative responses. J Exp Med. 1997;185:953-61 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that RelA plays a critical role in production of specific Ig isotypes and also in signal transduction pathways for lymphocyte proliferation. ..
  21. Basak S, Kim H, Kearns J, Tergaonkar V, O Dea E, Werner S, et al. A fourth IkappaB protein within the NF-kappaB signaling module. Cell. 2007;128:369-81 pubmed
    ..a mathematical model of the four-IkappaB-containing NF-kappaB signaling module to account for NF-kappaB/RelA:p50 activation in response to inflammatory and developmental stimuli and find signaling crosstalk between them that ..
  22. O Neil J, Ventura J, Cusson N, Kelliher M. NF-kappaB activation in premalignant mouse tal-1/scl thymocytes and tumors. Blood. 2003;102:2593-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, nuclear p65/p50 heterodimers are detected in premalignant tal-1/scl and mut tal-1/scl thymocytes, suggesting that E2A depletion may ..
  23. Yilmaz Z, Weih D, Sivakumar V, Weih F. RelB is required for Peyer's patch development: differential regulation of p52-RelB by lymphotoxin and TNF. EMBO J. 2003;22:121-30 pubmed
    ..LTbetaR)-deficient mice also lack PPs, and we demonstrate that LTbetaR signaling induces p52-RelB and classical p50-RelA heterodimers, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activates only RelA...
  24. Kassed C, Willing A, Garbuzova Davis S, Sanberg P, Pennypacker K. Lack of NF-kappaB p50 exacerbates degeneration of hippocampal neurons after chemical exposure and impairs learning. Exp Neurol. 2002;176:277-88 pubmed the limbic-specific neurotoxicant trimethyltin (TMT) as a model in which to examine activation of the NF-kappaB p50 subunit before, during, and after neuronal degeneration...
  25. Mabley J, Hasko G, Liaudet L, Soriano F, Soriano F, Southan G, et al. NFkappaB1 (p50)-deficient mice are not susceptible to multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2002;173:457-64 pubmed
    ..To assess the potential role of the NFkappaB subunit, p50, in the development of IDDM, mice with gene disruption for NFkappaB (p50) were investigated for susceptibility to ..
  26. Grumont R, Rourke I, O Reilly L, Strasser A, Miyake K, Sha W, et al. B lymphocytes differentially use the Rel and nuclear factor kappaB1 (NF-kappaB1) transcription factors to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in quiescent and mitogen-activated cells. J Exp Med. 1998;187:663-74 pubmed
    ..Consistent with an increased rate of mature B cell turnover in naive nfkb1-/- mice, the level of apoptosis in cultures of quiescent nfkb1-/-, but not c-rel-/-, B cells is higher...
  27. Cai D, Frantz J, Tawa N, Melendez P, Oh B, Lidov H, et al. IKKbeta/NF-kappaB activation causes severe muscle wasting in mice. Cell. 2004;119:285-98 pubmed
  28. Weih F, Durham S, Barton D, Sha W, Baltimore D, Bravo R. Both multiorgan inflammation and myeloid hyperplasia in RelB-deficient mice are T cell dependent. J Immunol. 1996;157:3974-9 pubmed
    ..We also generated mutant mice deficient in both RelB and the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB (p50(kappaO), multiple defects in B cell function)...
  29. Cronstein B, Montesinos M, Weissmann G. Salicylates and sulfasalazine, but not glucocorticoids, inhibit leukocyte accumulation by an adenosine-dependent mechanism that is independent of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and p105 of NFkappaB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6377-81 pubmed the generic murine air-pouch model by using wild-type mice and mice rendered deficient in either COX-2 or p105, the precursor of p50, one of the components of the multimeric transcription factor NFkappaB...
  30. Leung T, Hoffmann A, Baltimore D. One nucleotide in a kappaB site can determine cofactor specificity for NF-kappaB dimers. Cell. 2004;118:453-64 pubmed
    ..This suggests that binding sites may impart a specific configuration to bound transcription factors. ..
  31. Gugasyan R, Voss A, Varigos G, Thomas T, Grumont R, Kaur P, et al. The transcription factors c-rel and RelA control epidermal development and homeostasis in embryonic and adult skin via distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5733-45 pubmed
  32. Hatada E, Do R, Orlofsky A, Liou H, Prystowsky M, MacLennan I, et al. NF-kappa B1 p50 is required for BLyS attenuation of apoptosis but dispensable for processing of NF-kappa B2 p100 to p52 in quiescent mature B cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:761-8 pubmed
    ..It rapidly and transiently enhances the p50/p65 DNA binding activity and induces phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha characteristic of the classical NF-kappaB ..
  33. Yang H, Wang Y, Zhao X, Demissie E, Papoutsopoulou S, Mambole A, et al. NF-?B1 inhibits TLR-induced IFN-? production in macrophages through TPL-2-dependent ERK activation. J Immunol. 2011;186:1989-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profile of LPS-stimulated Nfkb1(-/-) macrophages that lack both p50 and p105...
  34. Liang Y, Seymour R, Sundberg J. Inhibition of NF-?B signaling retards eosinophilic dermatitis in SHARPIN-deficient mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that absence of SHARPIN causes IHES with eosinophilic dermatitis by NF-?B activation, and bortezomib may be an effective treatment for skin problems of IHES. ..
  35. O Keeffe M, Grumont R, Hochrein H, Fuchsberger M, Gugasyan R, Vremec D, et al. Distinct roles for the NF-kappaB1 and c-Rel transcription factors in the differentiation and survival of plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells activated by TLR-9 signals. Blood. 2005;106:3457-64 pubmed
    ..With the exception of impaired interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, cultured Nfkb1(-/-)C-Rel(-/-) cDCs responded relatively normally to CpG DNA...
  36. Robben P, Mordue D, Truscott S, Takeda K, Akira S, Sibley L. Production of IL-12 by macrophages infected with Toxoplasma gondii depends on the parasite genotype. J Immunol. 2004;172:3686-94 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that early induction of high levels of IL-12 by macrophages infected with type II strain parasites may contribute to more effective control. ..
  37. Berkowitz B, Huang D, Chen Park F, Sigler P, Ghosh G. The x-ray crystal structure of the NF-kappa B p50.p65 heterodimer bound to the interferon beta -kappa B site. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24694-700 pubmed
    We have determined the x-ray crystal structure of the transcription factor NF-kappaB p50.p65 heterodimer complexed to kappaB DNA from the cytokine interferon beta enhancer (IFNbeta-kappaB)...
  38. Ghosh S, May M, Kopp E. NF-kappa B and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol. 1998;16:225-60 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss some of these recent findings and their implications for the study of NF-kappa B. ..
  39. Sitcheran R, Cogswell P, Baldwin A. NF-kappaB mediates inhibition of mesenchymal cell differentiation through a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2368-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, in response to cytokine signaling, NF-kappaB modulates the differentiation of mesenchymal-derived cell lineages via RNA sequence-dependent, posttranscriptional down-regulation of key developmental regulators. ..
  40. Verma I, Stevenson J, Schwarz E, Van Antwerp D, Miyamoto S. Rel/NF-kappa B/I kappa B family: intimate tales of association and dissociation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2723-35 pubmed
  41. Weih F, Carrasco D, Bravo R. Constitutive and inducible Rel/NF-kappa B activities in mouse thymus and spleen. Oncogene. 1994;9:3289-97 pubmed
    ..and spleen extracts when compared to RelA, in both tissues the predominant kappa B-binding activity consists of p50/RelB and p52/RelB heterodimers and only very little binding of RelA-containing complexes to kappa B sites was ..
  42. Beg A, Sha W, Bronson R, Ghosh S, Baltimore D. Embryonic lethality and liver degeneration in mice lacking the RelA component of NF-kappa B. Nature. 1995;376:167-70 pubmed
    NF-kappa B, which consists of two polypeptides, p50 (M(r) 50K) and p65/RelA (M(r) 65K), is thought to be a key regulator of genes involved in responses to infection, inflammation and stress...
  43. James C, Moorman M, Carson B, Branda C, Lantz J, Manginell R, et al. Nuclear translocation kinetics of NF-kappaB in macrophages challenged with pathogens in a microfluidic platform. Biomed Microdevices. 2009;11:693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..The device also contains a unique architecture for capturing and fluidically isolating single host cells for the purpose of differentiating between primary and secondary immune signaling. ..
  44. Judge A, Koncarevic A, Hunter R, Liou H, Jackman R, Kandarian S. Role for IkappaBalpha, but not c-Rel, in skeletal muscle atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C372-82 pubmed
    ..Previous work showed that p50 is one of the NF-kappaB family members required for this activation and for muscle atrophy...
  45. Kassed C, Herkenham M. NF-kappaB p50-deficient mice show reduced anxiety-like behaviors in tests of exploratory drive and anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2004;154:577-84 pubmed
    ..Recently, it has been found to be active in neurons, and mice lacking NF-kappaB subunits p50 or p65 show deficits in specific cognitive tasks...
  46. Gerondakis S, Morrice N, Richardson I, Wettenhall R, Fecondo J, Grumont R. The activity of a 70 kilodalton I kappa B molecule identical to the carboxyl terminus of the p105 NF-kappa B precursor is modulated by protein kinase A. Cell Growth Differ. 1993;4:617-27 pubmed
    The p50 subunit of NF-kappa B is derived from the amino terminus of a 105 kilodalton precursor. The p105 carboxyl terminus, which contains ankyrin-like repeats, a feature of I kappa B molecules, regulates the cytoplasmic retention of p105 ..
  47. Yoshida R, Takaesu G, Yoshida H, Okamoto F, Yoshioka T, Choi Y, et al. TRAF6 and MEKK1 play a pivotal role in the RIG-I-like helicase antiviral pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that IPS-1 requires TRAF6 and MEKK1 to activate NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases that are critical for the optimal induction of type I interferons. ..
  48. Grumont R, Gerondakis S. Rel induces interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) expression in lymphocytes: modulation of interferon-regulated gene expression by rel/nuclear factor kappaB. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1281-92 pubmed
    ..This cross-regulation between two different signaling pathways represents a novel mechanism that Rel/nuclear factor kappaB can repress the transcription of IFN-regulated genes in a cell type-specific manner. ..
  49. Dong W, Liu Y, Peng J, Chen L, Zou T, Xiao H, et al. The IRAK-1-BCL10-MALT1-TRAF6-TAK1 cascade mediates signaling to NF-kappaB from Toll-like receptor 4. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26029-40 pubmed
    ..We show that BCL10 oligomerization is a prerequisite for BCL10 function in LPS signaling to NF-kappaB and that IRAK-1 dimerization is an important event in this process. ..
  50. Grumont R, Gerondakis S. Alternative splicing of RNA transcripts encoded by the murine p105 NF-kappa B gene generates I kappa B gamma isoforms with different inhibitory activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:4367-71 pubmed
    The gene encoding the 105-kDa protein (p105) precursor of the p50 subunit of transcription factor NF-kappa B also encodes a p70 I kappa B protein, I kappa B gamma, which is identical to the C-terminal 607 amino acids of p105...
  51. Franzoso G, Carlson L, Xing L, Poljak L, Shores E, Brown K, et al. Requirement for NF-kappaB in osteoclast and B-cell development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:3482-96 pubmed
    ..We have generated mice deficient in both the p50 and p52 subunits of NF-kappaB to reveal critical functions that may be shared by these two highly homologous ..
  52. Nakamura Y, Grumont R, Gerondakis S. NF-kappaB1 can inhibit v-Abl-induced lymphoid transformation by functioning as a negative regulator of cyclin D1 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5563-74 pubmed
    ..A reduction in endogenous cyclin D1 levels that coincided with NF-kappaB1 transgene reversal of enhanced nfkb1(-/-) pre-B-cell transformation, coupled with NF-kappaB1 inhibition of v-Abl-induced kappaB-dependent murine cyclin ..
  53. Liu Y, Liao S, Huang C, Tsai Y, Quinn D, Li L. Role for nuclear factor-kappaB in augmented lung injury because of interaction between hyperoxia and high stretch ventilation. Transl Res. 2009;154:228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hyperoxia increased high-tidal-volume-induced cytokine production and neutrophil influx through activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. ..
  54. Pohl T, Gugasyan R, Grumont R, Strasser A, Metcalf D, Tarlinton D, et al. The combined absence of NF-kappa B1 and c-Rel reveals that overlapping roles for these transcription factors in the B cell lineage are restricted to the activation and function of mature cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4514-9 pubmed
    ..Embryonic development and the maturation of hemopoietic progenitors were unaffected in nfkb1(-/-)c-rel(-/-) mice...
  55. Zhao J, Rao D, Boldin M, Taganov K, O Connell R, Baltimore D. NF-kappaB dysregulation in microRNA-146a-deficient mice drives the development of myeloid malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic ablation of NF-?B p50 suppresses the myeloproliferation, showing that dysregulation of NF-?B is responsible for the myeloproliferative ..
  56. Dennis A, Kudo T, Kruidenier L, Girard F, Crepin V, MacDonald T, et al. The p50 subunit of NF-kappaB is critical for in vivo clearance of the noninvasive enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4978-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we characterize the immune response and pathology of mice lacking the p50 subunit of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) during C. rodentium infection...
  57. Acharyya S, Villalta S, Bakkar N, Bupha Intr T, Janssen P, Carathers M, et al. Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:889-901 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results underscore the critical role of NF-kappaB in the progression of muscular dystrophy and suggest the IKK/NF-kappaB signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target for DMD. ..
  58. Lang H, Schulte B, Zhou D, Smythe N, Spicer S, Schmiedt R. Nuclear factor kappaB deficiency is associated with auditory nerve degeneration and increased noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3541-50 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that NFkappaB can play a central role in the degeneration of SGNs. Mice lacking the p50 subunit of NFkappaB (p50(-/-) mice) showed an accelerated hearing loss with age that was highly associated with an ..
  59. Weih F, Caamano J. Regulation of secondary lymphoid organ development by the nuclear factor-kappaB signal transduction pathway. Immunol Rev. 2003;195:91-105 pubmed
    ..Induction of the classical p50-RelA NF-kappaB activity, as exemplified by tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling, clearly also contributes, but ..
  60. Yang G, Abate A, George A, Weng Y, Dennery P. Maturational differences in lung NF-kappaB activation and their role in tolerance to hyperoxia. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:669-78 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, neonatal p50-null mutant (p50(-/-)) mice showed increased lung DNA degradation and decreased survival in hyperoxia compared with ..
  61. Inoue J, Kerr L, Kakizuka A, Verma I. I kappa B gamma, a 70 kd protein identical to the C-terminal half of p110 NF-kappa B: a new member of the I kappa B family. Cell. 1992;68:1109-20 pubmed
    ..The 70 kd protein expressed in bacteria prevents sequence-specific DNA binding of p50-p65 NF-kappa B heterodimer, p50 homodimer, and c-rel...
  62. Tomczak M, Erdman S, Davidson A, Wang Y, Nambiar P, Rogers A, et al. Inhibition of Helicobacter hepaticus-induced colitis by IL-10 requires the p50/p105 subunit of NF-kappa B. J Immunol. 2006;177:7332-9 pubmed
    ..The defect in response to IL-10-Ig appeared to be primarily the result of the absence of the p50/p105 subunit, because the ability of IL-10-Ig to inhibit colitis was also compromised in p50(-/-); RAG-2(-/-) (p50/RAG) ..
  63. Wang X, Hussain S, Wang E, Wang X, Li M, Garcia Sastre A, et al. Lack of essential role of NF-kappa B p50, RelA, and cRel subunits in virus-induced type 1 IFN expression. J Immunol. 2007;178:6770-6 pubmed
    ..and IFN-alpha expression was strongly induced following virus infection of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from p50(-/-), RelA/p65(-/-), cRel(-/-), p50(-/-)cRel(-/-), and p50(-/-)RelA(-/-) mice...
  64. Senftleben U, Li Z, Baud V, Karin M. IKKbeta is essential for protecting T cells from TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. Immunity. 2001;14:217-30 pubmed
    ..Indeed, Ikkbeta-/- radiation chimeras exibit elevated circulating TNFalpha, and Ikkbeta-/- thymocytes display increased TNFalpha sensitivity. ..
  65. Fox J, Rogers A, Whary M, Ge Z, Taylor N, Xu S, et al. Gastroenteritis in NF-kappaB-deficient mice is produced with wild-type Camplyobacter jejuni but not with C. jejuni lacking cytolethal distending toxin despite persistent colonization with both strains. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1116-25 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in NF-kappaB subunits (p50(-/-) p65(+/-)) in a C57BL/129 background are particularly susceptible to colitis induced by another enterohepatic ..
  66. Jové M, Planavila A, Sanchez R, Merlos M, Laguna J, Vázquez Carrera M. Palmitate induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism involving protein kinase C and nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Endocrinology. 2006;147:552-61 pubmed
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