Gene Symbol: Neurog3
Description: neurogenin 3
Alias: Atoh5, Math4B, bHLHa7, ngn3, neurogenin-3, NGN-3, Neurogenin 3 (Atonal protein homolog 5) (Helix-loop-helix protein mATH-4B) (MATH4B), atonal homolog 5, helix-loop-helix protein mATH-4B, protein atonal homolog 5
Species: mouse
Products:     Neurog3

Top Publications

  1. Ioannou M, Serafimidis I, Arnés L, Sussel L, Singh S, Vasiliou V, et al. ALDH1B1 is a potential stem/progenitor marker for multiple pancreas progenitor pools. Dev Biol. 2013;374:153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In a screen conducted for downstream Ngn3 target genes using ES derived pancreas progenitors we identified Aldh1b1, encoding a mitochondrial enzyme, as one ..
  2. Wang S, Jensen J, Seymour P, Hsu W, Dor Y, Sander M, et al. Sustained Neurog3 expression in hormone-expressing islet cells is required for endocrine maturation and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9715-20 pubmed publisher
    Neurog3 (Neurogenin 3 or Ngn3) is both necessary and sufficient to induce endocrine islet cell differentiation from embryonic pancreatic progenitors...
  3. Mastracci T, Wilcox C, Arnés L, Panea C, Golden J, MAY C, et al. Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression. Dev Biol. 2011;359:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of Arx in specific pancreatic cell populations established that the functions of Arx are necessary in the Neurog3+ endocrine progenitors. Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2...
  4. Xuan S, Borok M, Decker K, Battle M, Duncan S, Hale M, et al. Pancreas-specific deletion of mouse Gata4 and Gata6 causes pancreatic agenesis. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3516-28 pubmed publisher
    ..subsequent failure to induce the differentiation of progenitor cells expressing carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) and neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3)...
  5. Beucher A, Martin M, Spenlé C, Poulet M, Collin C, Gradwohl G. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development. Dev Biol. 2012;361:277-85 pubmed publisher
    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny...
  6. Galichet C, Guillemot F, Parras C. Neurogenin 2 has an essential role in development of the dentate gyrus. Development. 2008;135:2031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a unique role of Ngn2 in DG neurogenesis during development and raise the possibility that Ngn2 has a similar function in adult neurogenesis. ..
  7. Suzuki A, Nakauchi H, Taniguchi H. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (1-37) converts intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5034-9 pubmed
    ..intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, a process mediated by up-regulation of the Notch-related gene ngn3 and its downstream targets, which are involved in pancreatic endocrine differentiation...
  8. Pelling M, Anthwal N, McNay D, Gradwohl G, Leiter A, Guillemot F, et al. Differential requirements for neurogenin 3 in the development of POMC and NPY neurons in the hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2011;349:406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate here that Ngn3, another basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is expressed in mitotic progenitors in the arcuate and ..
  9. Seymour P, Freude K, Dubois C, Shih H, Patel N, Sander M. A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation. Dev Biol. 2008;323:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore suggest that defective endocrine specification might underlie the pancreatic phenotype of individuals with CD. ..

More Information


  1. Chu K, Tsai M. Neuronatin, a downstream target of BETA2/NeuroD1 in the pancreas, is involved in glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2005;54:1064-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest for the first time an important role for NNAT in insulin secretion and for proper beta-cell function. ..
  2. McNay D, Pelling M, Claxton S, Guillemot F, Ang S. Mash1 is required for generic and subtype differentiation of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1623-32 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Mash1 is both required for the generation of ventral neuroendocrine neurons as well as playing a central role in subtype specification of these neurons. ..
  3. Van de Casteele M, Leuckx G, Baeyens L, Cai Y, Yuchi Y, Coppens V, et al. Neurogenin 3+ cells contribute to ?-cell neogenesis and proliferation in injured adult mouse pancreas. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e523 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that injury by partial duct ligation (PDL) in adult mouse pancreas activates Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)(+) progenitor cells that can differentiate to ? cells ex vivo...
  4. Kilic G, Wang J, Sosa Pineda B. Osteopontin is a novel marker of pancreatic ductal tissues and of undifferentiated pancreatic precursors in mice. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1659-67 pubmed
    ..Finally, the maintenance of Opn expression in pancreatic tissues of adults argues for a possible function of this protein in injury and pathologic responses. ..
  5. Lee J, Smith S, Watada H, Lin J, Scheel D, Wang J, et al. Regulation of the pancreatic pro-endocrine gene neurogenin3. Diabetes. 2001;50:928-36 pubmed
    Neurogenin3 (ngn3), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, functions as a pro-endocrine factor in the developing pancreas: by itself, it is sufficient to force undifferentiated pancreatic epithelial cells to become islet ..
  6. Petri A, Ahnfelt Rønne J, Frederiksen K, Edwards D, Madsen D, Serup P, et al. The effect of neurogenin3 deficiency on pancreatic gene expression in embryonic mice. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:301-16 pubmed
    ..regulating pancreatic endocrine development and function, pancreatic gene expression was compared between Ngn3-deficient mice and littermate controls on embryonic days 13 and 15...
  7. Mellitzer G, Beucher A, Lobstein V, Michel P, Robine S, Kedinger M, et al. Loss of enteroendocrine cells in mice alters lipid absorption and glucose homeostasis and impairs postnatal survival. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..homeostasis, we generated mice with intestinal-specific ablation of the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (referred to herein as Ngn3Deltaint mice)...
  8. Murtaugh L, Stanger B, Kwan K, Melton D. Notch signaling controls multiple steps of pancreatic differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14920-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, endocrine differentiation is associated with escape from this activity, because Ngn3-expressing endocrine precursors are susceptible to Notch inhibition, whereas fully differentiated endocrine cells ..
  9. Artner I, Le Lay J, Hang Y, Elghazi L, Schisler J, Henderson E, et al. MafB: an activator of the glucagon gene expressed in developing islet alpha- and beta-cells. Diabetes. 2006;55:297-304 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MafB is not only important to islet alpha-cell function but may also be involved in regulating genes required in both endocrine alpha- and beta-cell differentiation. ..
  10. Gu G, Dubauskaite J, Melton D. Direct evidence for the pancreatic lineage: NGN3+ cells are islet progenitors and are distinct from duct progenitors. Development. 2002;129:2447-57 pubmed
    ..We have employed an inducible Cre-ER(TM)-LoxP system to indelibly mark the progeny of cells expressing either Ngn3 or Pdx1 at different stages of development...
  11. Jacquemin P, Durviaux S, Jensen J, Godfraind C, Gradwohl G, Guillemot F, et al. Transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 regulates pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation and controls expression of the proendocrine gene ngn3. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4445-54 pubmed
    ..The expression of neurogenin 3 (Ngn-3), a transcription factor that is essential for determination of endocrine cell precursors, was almost ..
  12. Bjerknes M, Cheng H. Neurogenin 3 and the enteroendocrine cell lineage in the adult mouse small intestinal epithelium. Dev Biol. 2006;300:722-35 pubmed
    ..Because Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) null mice lack enteroendocrine cells, Neurog3-expressing progenitors derived from the common ..
  13. Haumaitre C, Barbacci E, Jenny M, Ott M, Gradwohl G, Cereghini S. Lack of TCF2/vHNF1 in mice leads to pancreas agenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1490-5 pubmed
    ..This study provides further insights into early molecular events controlling pancreas development and may contribute to the development of cell-replacement strategies for diabetes. ..
  14. Hald J, Hjorth J, German M, Madsen O, Serup P, Jensen J. Activated Notch1 prevents differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells and attenuate endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2003;260:426-37 pubmed
  15. Apelqvist A, Li H, Sommer L, Beatus P, Anderson D, Honjo T, et al. Notch signalling controls pancreatic cell differentiation. Nature. 1999;400:877-81 pubmed
    ..A similar phenotype was observed in mice over-expressing neurogenin 3 (ngn 3) or the intracellular form of Notch3 (a repressor of Notch signalling)...
  16. Seymour P, Freude K, Tran M, Mayes E, Jensen J, Kist R, et al. SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1865-70 pubmed
    ..These findings will be of major significance for the development of in vitro protocols for cell replacement therapies. ..
  17. Muñoz Bravo J, Hidalgo Figueroa M, Pascual A, Lopez Barneo J, Leal Cerro A, Cano D. GDNF is required for neural colonization of the pancreas. Development. 2013;140:3669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data further show that exogenous GDNF promotes the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells in organ culture. In summary, our results point to GDNF as crucial for the development of the intrinsic innervation of the pancreas. ..
  18. Selander L, Edlund H. Nestin is expressed in mesenchymal and not epithelial cells of the developing mouse pancreas. Mech Dev. 2002;113:189-92 pubmed
    ..The data presented demonstrate that nestin is expressed in mesenchymal and not epithelial cells of the developing mouse pancreas. ..
  19. Wang J, Elghazi L, Parker S, Kizilocak H, Asano M, Sussel L, et al. The concerted activities of Pax4 and Nkx2.2 are essential to initiate pancreatic beta-cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2004;266:178-89 pubmed
    ..This role of Pax4 appears to be accomplished via its genetic interaction with another homeobox gene, Nkx2.2. ..
  20. Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Kim H, German M. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Because transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in progenitor cells in the developing pancreas initiates their differentiation to mature islet cells, we ..
  21. Oliver Krasinski J, Kasner M, Yang J, Crutchlow M, Rustgi A, Kaestner K, et al. The diabetes gene Pdx1 regulates the transcriptional network of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1888-98 pubmed publisher
    ..endocrine progenitors and a marked reduction in levels of mRNA encoding the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)...
  22. Miyatsuka T, Li Z, German M. Chronology of islet differentiation revealed by temporal cell labeling. Diabetes. 2009;58:1863-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogenin 3 plays a pivotal role in pancreatic endocrine differentiation...
  23. Soyer J, Flasse L, Raffelsberger W, Beucher A, Orvain C, Peers B, et al. Rfx6 is an Ngn3-dependent winged helix transcription factor required for pancreatic islet cell development. Development. 2010;137:203-12 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Neurog3 or Ngn3) controls islet cell fate specification in multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells in the mouse embryo...
  24. Wang S, Hecksher Sorensen J, Xu Y, Zhao A, Dor Y, Rosenberg L, et al. Myt1 and Ngn3 form a feed-forward expression loop to promote endocrine islet cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008;317:531-40 pubmed publisher
    High levels of Ngn3 expression in pancreatic progenitor cells are both necessary and sufficient to initiate endocrine differentiation...
  25. Lee C, De Leon D, Kaestner K, Stoffers D. Regeneration of pancreatic islets after partial pancreatectomy in mice does not involve the reactivation of neurogenin-3. Diabetes. 2006;55:269-72 pubmed
    ..Neurogenin-3 (Ngn3) is a bHLH transcription factor that responds to Notch signaling and whose expression marks endocrine progenitors...
  26. Smith S, Qu H, Taleb N, Kishimoto N, Scheel D, Lu Y, et al. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010;463:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..During embryonic development, the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) initiates the differentiation of the beta-cells and other islet cell types from pancreatic endoderm, ..
  27. Jenny M, Uhl C, Roche C, Duluc I, Guillermin V, Guillemot F, et al. Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. EMBO J. 2002;21:6338-47 pubmed
    ..We have shown previously that the basic helix- loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor neurogenin3 (ngn3) is required for the specification of the endocrine lineage in uncommitted progenitors in the developing pancreas...
  28. Cras Méneur C, Li L, Kopan R, Permutt M. Presenilins, Notch dose control the fate of pancreatic endocrine progenitors during a narrow developmental window. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2088-101 pubmed publisher
    ..this pathway by targeted deletion of presenilin1 and presenilin2, the catalytic core of gamma-secretase, in Ngn3- or Pax6-expressing endocrine progenitors...
  29. Du A, McCracken K, Walp E, Terry N, Klein T, Han A, et al. Arx is required for normal enteroendocrine cell development in mice and humans. Dev Biol. 2012;365:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Arx expression is detected in a subset of Neurogenin3 (Ngn3)-positive endocrine progenitors and is also found in a subset of hormone-producing cells...
  30. van Arensbergen J, García Hurtado J, Moran I, Maestro M, Xu X, Van De Casteele M, et al. Derepression of Polycomb targets during pancreatic organogenesis allows insulin-producing beta-cells to adopt a neural gene activity program. Genome Res. 2010;20:722-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a dynamic regulation of Polycomb repression programs that shape the identity of differentiated beta-cells. ..
  31. Xu X, D Hoker J, Stangé G, Bonne S, De Leu N, Xiao X, et al. Beta cells can be generated from endogenous progenitors in injured adult mouse pancreas. Cell. 2008;132:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Guided by the expression of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), the earliest islet cell-specific transcription factor in embryonic development, we show that beta cell ..
  32. Henseleit K, Nelson S, Kuhlbrodt K, Hennings J, Ericson J, Sander M. NKX6 transcription factor activity is required for alpha- and beta-cell development in the pancreas. Development. 2005;132:3139-49 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that expression of Myt1 depends on overall Nkx6 gene dose, and therefore identify Myt1 as a possible downstream target of Nkx6 genes in the endocrine differentiation pathway. ..
  33. Gasa R, Mrejen C, Lynn F, Skewes Cox P, Sanchez L, Yang K, et al. Induction of pancreatic islet cell differentiation by the neurogenin-neuroD cascade. Differentiation. 2008;76:381-91 pubmed
    The related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors neurogenin3 (Neurog3) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) regulate pancreatic islet cell formation...
  34. Ruiz Palmero I, Simon Areces J, Garcia Segura L, Arevalo M. Notch/neurogenin 3 signalling is involved in the neuritogenic actions of oestradiol in developing hippocampal neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that the Notch-regulated transcription factor neurogenin 3 controls neuritogenesis...
  35. Dubois C, Shih H, Seymour P, Patel N, Behrmann J, Ngo V, et al. Sox9-haploinsufficiency causes glucose intolerance in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23131 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show Sox9 plays an important role in endocrine development by maintaining Ngn3 and Pdx1 expression...
  36. Johansson K, Dursun U, Jordan N, Gu G, Beermann F, Gradwohl G, et al. Temporal control of neurogenin3 activity in pancreas progenitors reveals competence windows for the generation of different endocrine cell types. Dev Cell. 2007;12:457-65 pubmed
    ..of pancreatic progenitors changes over time, we generated transgenic mice expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Ngn3 fusion protein under the control of the pdx1 promoter and backcrossed the transgene into the ngn3(-/-) background, ..
  37. Salama Cohen P, Arevalo M, Grantyn R, Rodriguez Tebar A. Notch and NGF/p75NTR control dendrite morphology and the balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input to hippocampal neurones through Neurogenin 3. J Neurochem. 2006;97:1269-78 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that Neurogenin 3 is a proneural gene that is negatively regulated by Homologue of enhancer of split 1/5...
  38. Gradwohl G, Dierich A, LeMeur M, Guillemot F. neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1607-11 pubmed
    ..neurogenin3 (ngn3) is a member of a family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that is involved in the determination of ..
  39. Wang S, Yan J, Anderson D, Xu Y, Kanal M, Cao Z, et al. Neurog3 gene dosage regulates allocation of endocrine and exocrine cell fates in the developing mouse pancreas. Dev Biol. 2010;339:26-37 pubmed publisher
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Neurog3 (Neurogenin3 or Ngn3) actively drives endodermal progenitor cells towards endocrine islet cell differentiation during embryogenesis...
  40. Heller R, Jenny M, Collombat P, Mansouri A, Tomasetto C, Madsen O, et al. Genetic determinants of pancreatic epsilon-cell development. Dev Biol. 2005;286:217-24 pubmed
  41. Smith S, Watada H, German M. Neurogenin3 activates the islet differentiation program while repressing its own expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:142-9 pubmed
    ..2 gene, the PAX4 gene, and the NEUROG3 gene, the human gene encoding Neurogenin3 itself...
  42. Nir T, Melton D, Dor Y. Recovery from diabetes in mice by beta cell regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2553-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that regenerative therapy for type 1 diabetes may be achieved if autoimmunity is halted using regeneration-compatible drugs. ..
  43. Wang S, Zhang J, Zhao A, Hipkens S, Magnuson M, Gu G. Loss of Myt1 function partially compromises endocrine islet cell differentiation and pancreatic physiological function in the mouse. Mech Dev. 2007;124:898-910 pubmed
    ..The consequences of Myt1 inactivation in the developing pancreas could be masked by activation of its paralogs, Myt1l and Myt3. These findings suggest Myt1 is involved in proper endocrine differentiation and function. ..
  44. Gao N, LeLay J, Vatamaniuk M, Rieck S, Friedman J, Kaestner K. Dynamic regulation of Pdx1 enhancers by Foxa1 and Foxa2 is essential for pancreas development. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3435-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the regulation of Pdx1 expression by Foxa1 and Foxa2 is a key early event controlling the expansion and differentiation of the pancreatic primordia. ..
  45. Huang H, Liu M, El Hodiri H, Chu K, Jamrich M, Tsai M. Regulation of the pancreatic islet-specific gene BETA2 (neuroD) by neurogenin 3. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3292-307 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that the expression of neurogenin 3 (ngn3), an islet- and neuron-specific basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor, partially overlaps that of ..
  46. Serafimidis I, Rakatzi I, Episkopou V, Gouti M, Gavalas A. Novel effectors of directed and Ngn3-mediated differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into endocrine pancreas progenitors. Stem Cells. 2008;26:3-16 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor Ngn3 is required for the specification of the endocrine lineage, but its direct targets and the scope of biological ..
  47. Valtat B, Dupuis C, Zenaty D, Singh Estivalet A, Tronche F, Breant B, et al. Genetic evidence of the programming of beta cell mass and function by glucocorticoids in mice. Diabetologia. 2011;54:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the crucial role of excess fetal glucocorticoids and the importance of GR signalling in progenitor cells to programme beta cell mass and dysfunction. ..
  48. Sommer L, Ma Q, Anderson D. neurogenins, a novel family of atonal-related bHLH transcription factors, are putative mammalian neuronal determination genes that reveal progenitor cell heterogeneity in the developing CNS and PNS. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1996;8:221-41 pubmed
    ..Cell 87: 43-52, 1996). Here we identify two additional ngn's, ngn2 and ngn3, which together define a novel subfamily of atonal-related mouse genes...
  49. Ma F, Haumaitre C, Chen F, Han Z. Comparison of murine embryonic pancreatic development in vitro and in vivo. Pancreas. 2011;40:1012-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The percentage of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)-positive cells in pancreas cultured for 1 and 3 days was higher than that of pancreas at 13.5 and 15...
  50. Song Y, Lee E, Yashar P, Pfaff L, Kim S, Jameson J. Islet cell differentiation in liver by combinatorial expression of transcription factors neurogenin-3, BETA2, and RIPE3b1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:334-9 pubmed
    ..tri-cistronic constructs were generated in hybrid adenovirus/adeno-associated virus (Ad/AAV) vectors containing neurogenin 3 (NGN3), BETA2 (NeuroD), and RIPE3b1 (MafA), each of which plays a role in islet cell differentiation...
  51. Lejonklou M, Edfeldt K, Johansson T, Stalberg P, Skogseid B. Neurogenin 3 and neurogenic differentiation 1 are retained in the cytoplasm of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 islet and pancreatic endocrine tumor cells. Pancreas. 2009;38:259-66 pubmed publisher
  52. Juhl K, Sarkar S, Wong R, Jensen J, Hutton J. Mouse pancreatic endocrine cell transcriptome defined in the embryonic Ngn3-null mouse. Diabetes. 2008;57:2755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA expression profiling was performed by microarray analysis of e12.5-18.5 embryonic pancreas from neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)-null mice, a background that abrogates endocrine pancreatic differentiation...
  53. Simon Areces J, Dopazo A, Dettenhofer M, Rodriguez Tebar A, Garcia Segura L, Arevalo M. Formin1 mediates the induction of dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis by neurogenin3 in mouse hippocampal neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21825 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in these actions of Ngn3. We have used a microarray analysis to identify Ngn3 regulated genes related with cytoskeleton dynamics...
  54. Villasenor A, Chong D, Cleaver O. Biphasic Ngn3 expression in the developing pancreas. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3270-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ngn3 is a bHLH transcription factor critical for the specification of endocrine cells in the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans...
  55. Collombat P, Mansouri A, Hecksher Sorensen J, Serup P, Krull J, Gradwohl G, et al. Opposing actions of Arx and Pax4 in endocrine pancreas development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2591-603 pubmed
    ..One such transcription factor, Arx, exhibits Ngn3-dependent expression throughout endocrine pancreas development in alpha, beta-precursor, and delta cells...
  56. Lee J, Wu Y, Qi Y, Xue H, Liu Y, Scheel D, et al. Neurogenin3 participates in gliogenesis in the developing vertebrate spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2003;253:84-98 pubmed
    ..As assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) was transiently expressed in bipotential glial cells fated to become either oligodendrocytes or astrocytes...
  57. Shih H, Kopp J, Sandhu M, Dubois C, Seymour P, Grapin Botton A, et al. A Notch-dependent molecular circuitry initiates pancreatic endocrine and ductal cell differentiation. Development. 2012;139:2488-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Notch signaling promotes the expression of Sox9, which cell-autonomously activates the pro-endocrine gene Ngn3. However, at high Notch activity endocrine differentiation is blocked, as Notch also induces expression of the Ngn3 ..
  58. Mellitzer G, Bonne S, Luco R, Van De Casteele M, Lenne Samuel N, Collombat P, et al. IA1 is NGN3-dependent and essential for differentiation of the endocrine pancreas. EMBO J. 2006;25:1344-52 pubmed
    b>Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) is key for endocrine cell specification in the embryonic pancreas and induction of a neuroendocrine cell differentiation program by misexpression in adult pancreatic duct cells...
  59. Metzger D, Gasperowicz M, Otto F, Cross J, Gradwohl G, Zaret K. The transcriptional co-repressor Grg3/Tle3 promotes pancreatic endocrine progenitor delamination and ?-cell differentiation. Development. 2012;139:1447-56 pubmed publisher
    Pancreatic ?-cells arise from Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitors within the trunk epithelium of the embryonic pancreas...
  60. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners J, Scheel D, Kalamaras J, Dela Cruz F, et al. Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas. Development. 2000;127:5533-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments reveal two independently controlled pathways for beta-cell differentiation, and place Nkx6.1 downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell differentiation. ..
  61. Du A, Hunter C, Murray J, Noble D, Cai C, Evans S, et al. Islet-1 is required for the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. 2009;58:2059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the requirement for Isl-1 in the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the second wave of hormone-producing islet cells. ..
  62. Schwitzgebel V, Scheel D, Conners J, Kalamaras J, Lee J, Anderson D, et al. Expression of neurogenin3 reveals an islet cell precursor population in the pancreas. Development. 2000;127:3533-42 pubmed
  63. Xu Y, Wang S, Zhang J, Zhao A, Stanger B, Gu G. The fringe molecules induce endocrine differentiation in embryonic endoderm by activating cMyt1/cMyt3. Dev Biol. 2006;297:340-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, ectopic Mfng expression induces the expression of basic helix-loop-helix gene, Ngn3, and two zinc finger genes, cMyt1 and cMyt3...
  64. Kokubu H, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Mash1 is required for neuroendocrine cell development in the glandular stomach. Genes Cells. 2008;13:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The bHLH gene Neurogenin3 (Ngn3), which is known to regulate formation of subsets of gastric neuroendocrine cells (gastrin-, glucagon- and ..
  65. Georgia S, Soliz R, Li M, Zhang P, Bhushan A. p57 and Hes1 coordinate cell cycle exit with self-renewal of pancreatic progenitors. Dev Biol. 2006;298:22-31 pubmed
  66. Kopp J, Dubois C, Schaffer A, Hao E, Shih H, Seymour P, et al. Sox9+ ductal cells are multipotent progenitors throughout development but do not produce new endocrine cells in the normal or injured adult pancreas. Development. 2011;138:653-65 pubmed publisher
    ..pancreatic injury by partial duct ligation (PDL) has been suggested to induce ?-cell regeneration from a transient Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitor cell population...
  67. Hart A, Papadopoulou S, Edlund H. Fgf10 maintains notch activation, stimulates proliferation, and blocks differentiation of pancreatic epithelial cells. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:185-93 pubmed
    ..for maintaining cells in the progenitor state, in part by blocking the expression of the pro-endocrine gene neurogenin 3 (ngn3), and hence endocrine cell differentiation...
  68. Schaffer A, Freude K, Nelson S, Sander M. Nkx6 transcription factors and Ptf1a function as antagonistic lineage determinants in multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Dev Cell. 2010;18:1022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cross-antagonism between Nkx6 and Ptf1a in multipotent progenitors governs the equilibrium between endocrine and acinar cell neogenesis required for normal pancreas development. ..
  69. Simon Areces J, Membrive G, Garcia Fernandez C, Garcia Segura L, Arevalo M. Neurogenin 3 cellular and subcellular localization in the developing and adult hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1814-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), a proneural gene controlled by the Notch receptor, is implicated in the control of dendrite morphology and synaptic plasticity of cultured hippocampal neurons...
  70. Nelson S, Schaffer A, Sander M. The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Development. 2007;134:2491-500 pubmed
    ..Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, whereas no rescue was observed upon expression in committed Ngn3(+) (Neurog3(+)) endocrine progenitors...
  71. Lynn F, Smith S, Wilson M, Yang K, Nekrep N, German M. Sox9 coordinates a transcriptional network in pancreatic progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10500-5 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that Sox9 plays a dual role in pancreatic progenitor cells: both maintaining a stable transcriptional network and supporting the programs by which these cells differentiate into distinct lineages. ..
  72. Akinci E, Banga A, Greder L, Dutton J, Slack J. Reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells towards a beta (?) cell character using Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA. Biochem J. 2012;442:539-50 pubmed publisher
    Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), Ngn3 (neurogenin 3) and MafA (v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A) have been reported to bring about the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells to beta (?) ..
  73. Desgraz R, Herrera P. Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors. Development. 2009;136:3567-74 pubmed publisher
    Pancreatic islet endocrine cells arise during development from precursors expressing neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)...
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