Gene Symbol: Ncam1
Description: neural cell adhesion molecule 1
Alias: CD56, E-NCAM, NCAM-1, Ncam, neural cell adhesion molecule 1, N-CAM-1
Species: mouse
Products:     Ncam1

Top Publications

  1. Bodrikov V, Leshchyns ka I, Sytnyk V, Overvoorde J, den Hertog J, Schachner M. RPTPalpha is essential for NCAM-mediated p59fyn activation and neurite elongation. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:127-39 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) forms a complex with p59fyn kinase and activates it via a mechanism that has remained unknown...
  2. Møller C, Christgau S, Williamson M, Madsen O, Niu Z, Bock E, et al. Differential expression of neural cell adhesion molecule and cadherins in pancreatic islets, glucagonomas, and insulinomas. Mol Endocrinol. 1992;6:1332-42 pubmed
    ..In this study we have analyzed the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and cadherin molecules in neonatal, young, and adult rat islet cells as well as in glucagonomas and insulinomas ..
  3. Gennarini G, Hirsch M, He H, Hirn M, Finne J, Goridis C. Differential expression of mouse neural cell-adhesion molecule (N-CAM) mRNA species during brain development and in neural cell lines. J Neurosci. 1986;6:1983-90 pubmed
    ..A comparison of N-CAM protein and mRNA levels reveals a striking correlation between the relative concentrations of the Mr 120,000 N-CAM protein (N-CAM120) and the 5.2 kb transcript.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  4. Cassens C, Kleene R, Xiao M, Friedrich C, Dityateva G, Schafer Nielsen C, et al. Binding of the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates phosphorylation of NCAM and NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28959-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and the neurotrophin receptor TrkB directly interact via sequences in their intracellular domains...
  5. Col J, Matsuo T, Storm D, Rodriguez I. Adenylyl cyclase-dependent axonal targeting in the olfactory system. Development. 2007;134:2481-9 pubmed
    ..This mechanism probably involves the regulation of receptor genes known to be crucial in axonal guidance processes. ..
  6. Hu H, Tomasiewicz H, Magnuson T, Rutishauser U. The role of polysialic acid in migration of olfactory bulb interneuron precursors in the subventricular zone. Neuron. 1996;16:735-43 pubmed
    ..studies have been used to show that tangential migration of olfactory bulb interneuron precursors is retarded in NCAM-mutant mice, and that this defect reflects loss of NCAM polysialic acid (PSA)...
  7. Santuccione A, Sytnyk V, Leshchyns ka I, Schachner M. Prion protein recruits its neuronal receptor NCAM to lipid rafts to activate p59fyn and to enhance neurite outgrowth. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:341-54 pubmed
    ..We show that PrP interacts directly with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and associates with NCAM at the neuronal cell surface...
  8. Rønn L, Berezin V, Bock E. The neural cell adhesion molecule in synaptic plasticity and ageing. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000;18:193-9 pubmed
    By mediating cell adhesion and signal transduction, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates neurite outgrowth, fasciculation and target recognition in the developing nervous system...
  9. Noakes P, Phillips W, Hanley T, Sanes J, Merlie J. 43K protein and acetylcholine receptors colocalize during the initial stages of neuromuscular synapse formation in vivo. Dev Biol. 1993;155:275-80 pubmed
    ..The precise colocalization of 43K and AChRs persisted through development. These results are consistent with 43K being involved in the nerve-induced clustering of AChRs during synapse formation. ..

More Information


  1. Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A, Fujita H, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, et al. OCAM: A new member of the neural cell adhesion molecule family related to zone-to-zone projection of olfactory and vomeronasal axons. J Neurosci. 1997;17:5830-42 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a precisely coordinated zonal expression of chemoreceptors and OCAM and suggest that OCAM may play important roles in selective fasciculation and zone-to-zone projection of the primary olfactory axons. ..
  2. Kochlamazashvili G, Senkov O, Grebenyuk S, Robinson C, Xiao M, Stummeyer K, et al. Neural cell adhesion molecule-associated polysialic acid regulates synaptic plasticity and learning by restraining the signaling through GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4171-83 pubmed publisher
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of alpha2,8 polysialic acid (PSA) in the mammalian brain...
  3. Xian X, Håkansson J, Ståhlberg A, Lindblom P, Betsholtz C, Gerhardt H, et al. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:642-51 pubmed
    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes...
  4. Bukalo O, Fentrop N, Lee A, Salmen B, Law J, Wotjak C, et al. Conditional ablation of the neural cell adhesion molecule reduces precision of spatial learning, long-term potentiation, and depression in the CA1 subfield of mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1565-77 pubmed
    b>NCAM, a neural cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in neuronal migration and differentiation, axon outgrowth and fasciculation, and synaptic plasticity...
  5. Shou J, Murray R, Rim P, Calof A. Opposing effects of bone morphogenetic proteins on neuron production and survival in the olfactory receptor neuron lineage. Development. 2000;127:5403-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, they reveal the presence of a factor or factors, produced by OE stroma, that can synergize with BMP4 to stimulate OE neurogenesis. ..
  6. Bisaz R, Sandi C. Vulnerability of conditional NCAM-deficient mice to develop stress-induced behavioral alterations. Stress. 2012;15:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) following chronic stress has been proposed to be crucially involved in neuronal retraction and behavioral ..
  7. Albrecht A, Bergado Acosta J, Pape H, Stork O. Role of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in amygdalo-hippocampal interactions and salience determination of contextual fear memory. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13:661-74 pubmed publisher
    Evidence suggests that the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is an important molecular constituent of adaptive and maladaptive circuit (re-)organization in the central nervous system...
  8. Moscoso L, Cremer H, Sanes J. Organization and reorganization of neuromuscular junctions in mice lacking neural cell adhesion molecule, tenascin-C, or fibroblast growth factor-5. J Neurosci. 1998;18:1465-77 pubmed
    ..Again, no significant differences among genotypes were observed. Together, these results demonstrate that N-CAM, tenascin-C, and FGF-5 are dispensable for major aspects of synaptic development and regeneration. ..
  9. Tomasiewicz H, Ono K, Yee D, Thompson C, Goridis C, Rutishauser U, et al. Genetic deletion of a neural cell adhesion molecule variant (N-CAM-180) produces distinct defects in the central nervous system. Neuron. 1993;11:1163-74 pubmed
    ..Subtle but distinct abnormalities also were observed in other regions of the brain. ..
  10. Stork O, Welzl H, Wolfer D, Schuster T, Mantei N, Stork S, et al. Recovery of emotional behaviour in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) null mutant mice through transgenic expression of NCAM180. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:3291-306 pubmed
    In the present study we further investigate functions of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the mature central nervous system and its implications for animal behaviour...
  11. Hardy M, Vielkind U. Changing patterns of cell adhesion molecules during mouse pelage hair follicle development. 1. Follicle morphogenesis in wild-type mice. Acta Anat (Basel). 1996;157:169-82 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the main role of cell adhesion molecules is to mould the follicle by relaxing or reinforcing cell contacts in areas of increased morphogenetic activity. ..
  12. Stork O, Welzl H, Cremer H, Schachner M. Increased intermale aggression and neuroendocrine response in mice deficient for the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Eur J Neurosci. 1997;9:1117-25 pubmed
    Mice deficient for the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) show morphological and behavioural abnormalities in the adult form, including a reduced size of the olfactory bulb, reduced exploratory behaviour, and deficits in spatial ..
  13. Cain J, Islam E, Haxho F, Chen L, Bridgewater D, Nieuwenhuis E, et al. GLI3 repressor controls nephron number via regulation of Wnt11 and Ret in ureteric tip cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7313 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GLI3 repressor controls nephron number by regulating ureteric tip cell expression of Wnt11 and Ret. ..
  14. Bally Cuif L, Goridis C, Santoni M. The mouse NCAM gene displays a biphasic expression pattern during neural tube development. Development. 1993;117:543-52 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is one of the most abundant cell adhesion molecules expressed in vertebrates and it is thought to play important roles as a regulator of morphogenetic processes, but little is known of its ..
  15. Plappert C, Schachner M, Pilz P. Neural cell adhesion molecule-null mice are not deficient in prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Neuroreport. 2005;16:1009-12 pubmed
  16. Santoni M, Barthels D, Vopper G, Boned A, Goridis C, Wille W. Differential exon usage involving an unusual splicing mechanism generates at least eight types of NCAM cDNA in mouse brain. EMBO J. 1989;8:385-92 pubmed
    The murine neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is known to exist in three isoforms of different size, NCAM-180, -140 and -120 coded for by four transcripts of 6.9, 6.1, 4.8 and 2.7 kb in length...
  17. Seidenfaden R, Krauter A, Hildebrandt H. The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM regulates neuritogenesis by multiple mechanisms of interaction. Neurochem Int. 2006;49:1-11 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM and its glycosylation with polysialic acid (polySia) are crucially involved in proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural progenitors...
  18. Balmer C, LaMantia A. Noses and neurons: induction, morphogenesis, and neuronal differentiation in the peripheral olfactory pathway. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:464-81 pubmed
  19. Schmitt Ulms G, Legname G, Baldwin M, Ball H, Bradon N, Bosque P, et al. Binding of neural cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) to the cellular prion protein. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:1209-25 pubmed
    ..1, SEM) days, arguing that N-CAM is not involved in PrP(Sc) replication. Our findings raise the possibility that N-CAM may join with PrP(C) in carrying out some as yet unidentified physiologic cellular function. ..
  20. Chernyshova Y, Leshchyns ka I, Hsu S, Schachner M, Sytnyk V. The neural cell adhesion molecule promotes FGFR-dependent phosphorylation and membrane targeting of the exocyst complex to induce exocytosis in growth cones. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3522-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this complex binds to the intracellular domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)...
  21. Deng S, Hirschberg A, Worzfeld T, Penachioni J, Korostylev A, Swiercz J, et al. Plexin-B2, but not Plexin-B1, critically modulates neuronal migration and patterning of the developing nervous system in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:6333-47 pubmed
    ..These genetic and functional analyses reveal a key requirement for Plexin-B2, but not Plexin-B1, in patterning of the vertebrate nervous system in vivo. ..
  22. Stoenica L, Senkov O, Gerardy Schahn R, Weinhold B, Schachner M, Dityatev A. In vivo synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM or its polysialic acid. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:2255-64 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM and its associated polysialic acid (PSA) play important roles in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 and/or CA3 regions of the hippocampus in vitro...
  23. Beggs H, Baragona S, Hemperly J, Maness P. NCAM140 interacts with the focal adhesion kinase p125(fak) and the SRC-related tyrosine kinase p59(fyn). J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8310-9 pubmed
    ..Neurite outgrowth mediated by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) requires the src family tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) in nerve growth cones, but the molecular basis for this ..
  24. Polo Parada L, Bose C, Plattner F, Landmesser L. Distinct roles of different neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) isoforms in synaptic maturation revealed by analysis of NCAM 180 kDa isoform-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2004;24:1852-64 pubmed
    Mice that lack all three major isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (180 and 140 kDa transmembrane, and 120 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol linked) were previously shown to exhibit major alterations in the maturation of their ..
  25. Kawauchi S, Kim J, Santos R, Wu H, Lander A, Calof A. Foxg1 promotes olfactory neurogenesis by antagonizing Gdf11. Development. 2009;136:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the pro-neurogenic effects of Foxg1 are likely to be mediated through different signaling pathways in different parts of the nervous system. ..
  26. Müller Röver S, Peters E, Botchkarev V, Panteleyev A, Paus R. Distinct patterns of NCAM expression are associated with defined stages of murine hair follicle morphogenesis and regression. J Histochem Cytochem. 1998;46:1401-10 pubmed
    ..critically involved in pattern formation and because the fundamental importance of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) for feather development has been demonstrated, we studied the protein expression patterns of NCAM during hair ..
  27. Sytnyk V, Leshchyns ka I, Nikonenko A, Schachner M. NCAM promotes assembly and activity-dependent remodeling of the postsynaptic signaling complex. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:1071-85 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates synapse formation and synaptic strength via mechanisms that have remained unknown...
  28. Guillemot F, Lo L, Johnson J, Auerbach A, Anderson D, Joyner A. Mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 is required for the early development of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Cell. 1993;75:463-76 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that Mash-1, like its Drosophila homologs of the AS-C, controls a basic operation in development of neuronal progenitors in distinct neural lineages. ..
  29. Bisaz R, Sandi C. The role of NCAM in auditory fear conditioning and its modulation by stress: a focus on the amygdala. Genes Brain Behav. 2010;9:353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood, increasing evidence highlights the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as an important molecular mediator of stress-induced structural and functional alterations...
  30. Shen H, Watanabe M, Tomasiewicz H, Rutishauser U, Magnuson T, Glass J. Role of neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialic acid in mouse circadian clock function. J Neurosci. 1997;17:5221-9 pubmed
    The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) express the highly polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) that has been proposed to promote plasticity in the adult brain...
  31. Hammond M, Sims C, Parameshwaran K, Suppiramaniam V, Schachner M, Dityatev A. Neural cell adhesion molecule-associated polysialic acid inhibits NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and prevents glutamate-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34859-69 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its associated glycan polysialic acid play important roles in the development of the nervous system and N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the adult...
  32. Molin D, Poelmann R, DeRuiter M, Azhar M, Doetschman T, Gittenberger de Groot A. Transforming growth factor beta-SMAD2 signaling regulates aortic arch innervation and development. Circ Res. 2004;95:1109-17 pubmed
    ..Fourth arch artery maturation was studied with antibodies directed against smooth muscle alpha-actin and neural NCAM-1 and RMO-270...
  33. Cremer H, Lange R, Christoph A, Plomann M, Vopper G, Roes J, et al. Inactivation of the N-CAM gene in mice results in size reduction of the olfactory bulb and deficits in spatial learning. Nature. 1994;367:455-9 pubmed
    ..The animals showed deficits in spatial learning when tested in the Morris water maze, whereas activity and motor abilities appeared normal. ..
  34. Pillai Nair N, Panicker A, Rodriguiz R, Gilmore K, Demyanenko G, Huang J, et al. Neural cell adhesion molecule-secreting transgenic mice display abnormalities in GABAergic interneurons and alterations in behavior. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4659-71 pubmed
    The extracellular region of the transmembrane neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-EC) is shed as a soluble fragment at elevated levels in the schizophrenic brain...
  35. Ong E, Nakayama J, Angata K, Reyes L, Katsuyama T, Arai Y, et al. Developmental regulation of polysialic acid synthesis in mouse directed by two polysialyltransferases, PST and STX. Glycobiology. 1998;8:415-24 pubmed
    ..At the same time, they are expressed differentially in tissue-specific and cell-type-specific manners, suggesting that PST and STX may have distinct roles in development and organogenesis. ..
  36. Delling M, Wischmeyer E, Dityatev A, Sytnyk V, Veh R, Karschin A, et al. The neural cell adhesion molecule regulates cell-surface delivery of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channels via lipid rafts. J Neurosci. 2002;22:7154-64 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) exhibit increased anxiety and anxiolytic sensitivity to serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonists...
  37. Gascon E, Vutskits L, Jenny B, Durbec P, Kiss J. PSA-NCAM in postnatally generated immature neurons of the olfactory bulb: a crucial role in regulating p75 expression and cell survival. Development. 2007;134:1181-90 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the polysialylated isoforms of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) act as a pro-survival molecule in immature newborn neurons...
  38. Deiner M, Kennedy T, Fazeli A, Serafini T, Tessier Lavigne M, Sretavan D. Netrin-1 and DCC mediate axon guidance locally at the optic disc: loss of function leads to optic nerve hypoplasia. Neuron. 1997;19:575-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, netrin-1 through DCC appears to guide RGC axons locally at the optic disc rather than at long range, apparently reflecting the localization of netrin-1 protein to the vicinity of netrin-1-producing cells at the optic disc. ..
  39. Edelman G, Jones F. Developmental control of N-CAM expression by Hox and Pax gene products. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1995;349:305-12 pubmed
    ..The significance of these observations is that they connect gene products capable of morphoregulation (such as CAMs) to pattern-forming genes. ..
  40. Vaithianathan T, Matthias K, Bahr B, Schachner M, Suppiramaniam V, Dityatev A, et al. Neural cell adhesion molecule-associated polysialic acid potentiates alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor currents. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47975-84 pubmed
    ..charged polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate predominantly carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in mammals. NCAM and, in particular, PSA play important roles in cellular and synaptic plasticity...
  41. Sytnyk V, Leshchyns ka I, Delling M, Dityateva G, Dityatev A, Schachner M. Neural cell adhesion molecule promotes accumulation of TGN organelles at sites of neuron-to-neuron contacts. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:649-61 pubmed
    ..hippocampal neurons, TGN organelles are linked via spectrin to clusters of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the plasma membrane...
  42. Cremer H, Chazal G, Goridis C, Represa A. NCAM is essential for axonal growth and fasciculation in the hippocampus. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1997;8:323-35 pubmed
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), probably the best characterized and most abundant cell adhesion molecule on neurons, is thought to be a major regulator of axonal growth and pathfinding...
  43. Seki T, Rutishauser U. Removal of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule induces aberrant mossy fiber innervation and ectopic synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1998;18:3757-66 pubmed
    ..the developing and adult dentate gyrus express the highly polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as they innervate the proximal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus...
  44. Xiao M, Xu J, Tereshchenko Y, Novak D, Schachner M, Kleene R. Neural cell adhesion molecule modulates dopaminergic signaling and behavior by regulating dopamine D2 receptor internalization. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14752-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) promotes D(2)R internalization/desensitization and subsequent degradation via direct interaction with a short ..
  45. Stork O, Welzl H, Wotjak C, Hoyer D, Delling M, Cremer H, et al. Anxiety and increased 5-HT1A receptor response in NCAM null mutant mice. J Neurobiol. 1999;40:343-55 pubmed
    Mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) show behavioral abnormalities as adults, including altered exploratory behavior, deficits in spatial learning, and increased intermale aggression...
  46. Polo Parada L, Plattner F, Bose C, Landmesser L. NCAM 180 acting via a conserved C-terminal domain and MLCK is essential for effective transmission with repetitive stimulation. Neuron. 2005;46:917-31 pubmed
    b>NCAM 180 isoform null neuromuscular junctions are unable to effectively mobilize and exocytose synaptic vesicles and thus exhibit periods of total transmission failure during high-frequency repetitive stimulation...
  47. Murray R, Navi D, Fesenko J, Lander A, Calof A. Widespread defects in the primary olfactory pathway caused by loss of Mash1 function. J Neurosci. 2003;23:1769-80 pubmed
  48. Murphy J, Hartwick A, Rutishauser U, Clarke D. Endogenous polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule enhances the survival of retinal ganglion cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:861-9 pubmed publisher
    During development, all retinal cells express polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)...
  49. Potschka H, Pekcec A, Weinhold B, Gerardy Schahn R. Deficiency of neural cell adhesion molecule or its polysialylation modulates pharmacological effects of the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX. Neuroscience. 2008;152:1093-8 pubmed publisher
    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM and its dynamically regulated posttranslational modification polysialic acid (PSA) are major determinants of cellular interactions during ontogeny...
  50. Aonurm Helm A, Jurgenson M, Zharkovsky T, Sonn K, Berezin V, Bock E, et al. Depression-like behaviour in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-deficient mice and its reversal by an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:1618-28 pubmed publisher
    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in brain plasticity. Brain plasticity itself has a crucial role in the development of depression...
  51. Matsunami H, Takeichi M. Fetal brain subdivisions defined by R- and E-cadherin expressions: evidence for the role of cadherin activity in region-specific, cell-cell adhesion. Dev Biol. 1995;172:466-78 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that cadherins confer region-specific adhesiveness on fetal brain cells and that this process may take part in brain segmentation. ..
  52. Polo Parada L, Bose C, Landmesser L. Alterations in transmission, vesicle dynamics, and transmitter release machinery at NCAM-deficient neuromuscular junctions. Neuron. 2001;32:815-28 pubmed
    Although functional neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) form in NCAM-deficient mice, they exhibit multiple alterations in presynaptic organization and function...
  53. Gamble J, Karunadasa D, Pape J, Skynner M, Todman M, Bicknell R, et al. Disruption of ephrin signaling associates with disordered axophilic migration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3142-50 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence for a role of EphA-ephrin signaling in the axophilic migration of the GnRH neurons during embryogenesis. ..