myostatin

Summary

Gene Symbol: myostatin
Description: myostatin
Alias: Cmpt, Gdf8, growth/differentiation factor 8
Species: mouse
Products:     myostatin

Top Publications

  1. Zimmers T, Davies M, Koniaris L, Haynes P, Esquela A, Tomkinson K, et al. Induction of cachexia in mice by systemically administered myostatin. Science. 2002;296:1486-8 pubmed
    Mice and cattle with genetic deficiencies in myostatin exhibit dramatic increases in skeletal muscle mass, suggesting that myostatin normally suppresses muscle growth...
  2. Cohn R, Liang H, Shetty R, Abraham T, Wagner K. Myostatin does not regulate cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis. Neuromuscul Disord. 2007;17:290-6 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth...
  3. Kärst S, Vahdati A, Brockmann G, Hager R. Genomic imprinting and genetic effects on muscle traits in mice. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:408 pubmed publisher
  4. Choi S, Yablonka Reuveni Z, Kaiyala K, Ogimoto K, Schwartz M, Wisse B. Increased energy expenditure and leptin sensitivity account for low fat mass in myostatin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E1031-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin deficiency causes dramatically increased skeletal muscle mass and reduced fat mass...
  5. Lee S, McPherron A. Myostatin and the control of skeletal muscle mass. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:604-7 pubmed
    ..The recent discovery of myostatin suggests that negative regulation of tissue growth may be an important mechanism for controlling skeletal muscle ..
  6. Mendias C, Marcin J, Calerdon D, Faulkner J. Contractile properties of EDL and soleus muscles of myostatin-deficient mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;101:898-905 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass. The impact of myostatin deficiency on the contractile properties of healthy muscles has not been determined...
  7. Kondás K, Szláma G, Trexler M, Patthy L. Both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 have high affinity for growth and differentiation factors 8 and 11. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent experiments have shown that WFIKKN2 protein binds mature GDF8/myostatin and myostatin propeptide and inhibits the biological activity of myostatin (Hill, J. J., Qiu, Y., Hewick, R. M...
  8. McPherron A, Lawler A, Lee S. Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature. 1997;387:83-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GDF-8 functions specifically as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. ..
  9. Amthor H, Nicholas G, McKinnell I, Kemp C, Sharma M, Kambadur R, et al. Follistatin complexes Myostatin and antagonises Myostatin-mediated inhibition of myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;270:19-30 pubmed
    ..to antagonise the function of several members of the TGF-beta family of secreted signalling factors, including Myostatin, the most powerful inhibitor of muscle growth characterised to date...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Steelman C, Recknor J, Nettleton D, Reecy J. Transcriptional profiling of myostatin-knockout mice implicates Wnt signaling in postnatal skeletal muscle growth and hypertrophy. FASEB J. 2006;20:580-2 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Disruption of the Mstn gene in mice results in muscles that weigh two to three times those of controls, but precisely how myostatin signals to exert its effects on muscle is unclear...
  2. Girgenrath S, Song K, Whittemore L. Loss of myostatin expression alters fiber-type distribution and expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow- and fast-type skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2005;31:34-40 pubmed
    b>Myostatin (Mstn) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn knockout mice have greater skeletal muscle mass than wild-type littermates...
  3. Varga L, Müller G, Szabo G, Pinke O, Korom E, Kovacs B, et al. Mapping modifiers affecting muscularity of the myostatin mutant (Mstn(Cmpt-dl1Abc)) compact mouse. Genetics. 2003;165:257-67 pubmed
    ..Previously we mapped and identified a 12-bp deletion in the myostatin gene, denoted Mstn(Cmpt-dl1Abc), which can be considered as a major gene responsible for the hypermuscular ..
  4. Bogdanovich S, Krag T, Barton E, Morris L, Whittemore L, Ahima R, et al. Functional improvement of dystrophic muscle by myostatin blockade. Nature. 2002;420:418-21 pubmed
    Mice and cattle with mutations in the myostatin (GDF8) gene show a marked increase in body weight and muscle mass, indicating that this new member of the TGF-beta superfamily is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth...
  5. Morissette M, Cook S, Buranasombati C, Rosenberg M, Rosenzweig A. Myostatin inhibits IGF-I-induced myotube hypertrophy through Akt. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C1124-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a highly conserved negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Loss of functional myostatin in cattle, mice, sheep, dogs, and humans results in increased muscle mass...
  6. Zhang C, McFarlane C, Lokireddy S, Bonala S, Ge X, Masuda S, et al. Myostatin-deficient mice exhibit reduced insulin resistance through activating the AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathway. Diabetologia. 2011;54:1491-501 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin-null mice (Mstn(-/-)) have reduced body fat and increased tolerance to glucose. To date the molecular mechanisms through which myostatin regulates body fat content and insulin sensitivity are not known...
  7. Rebbapragada A, Benchabane H, Wrana J, Celeste A, Attisano L. Myostatin signals through a transforming growth factor beta-like signaling pathway to block adipogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7230-42 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family member, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth...
  8. McPherron A, Lee S. Suppression of body fat accumulation in myostatin-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:595-601 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a TGF-beta family member that acts as a negative regulator of muscle growth...
  9. Lee S, Lee Y, Zimmers T, Soleimani A, Matzuk M, Tsuchida K, et al. Regulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activins. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1998-2008 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a TGF-? family member that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle mass. Follistatin is a myostatin-binding protein that can inhibit myostatin activity in vitro and promote muscle growth in vivo...
  10. Welle S, Cardillo A, Zanche M, Tawil R. Skeletal muscle gene expression after myostatin knockout in mature mice. Physiol Genomics. 2009;38:342-50 pubmed publisher
    There is much interest in developing anti-myostatin agents to reverse or prevent muscle atrophy in adults, so it is important to characterize the effects of reducing myostatin activity after normal muscle development...
  11. Li Z, Shelton G, Engvall E. Elimination of myostatin does not combat muscular dystrophy in dy mice but increases postnatal lethality. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:491-7 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a TGF-beta family member and a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. It has been proposed that reduction or elimination of myostatin could be a treatment for degenerative muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy...
  12. McMahon C, Popovic L, Oldham J, Jeanplong F, Smith H, Kambadur R, et al. Myostatin-deficient mice lose more skeletal muscle mass than wild-type controls during hindlimb suspension. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E82-7 pubmed
    b>Myostatin inhibits myogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine if mice lacking the myostatin gene [Mstn(-/-)] would lose less muscle mass than wild-type mice during 7 days of hindlimb suspension (HS)...
  13. Matsakas A, Otto A, Elashry M, Brown S, Patel K. Altered primary and secondary myogenesis in the myostatin-null mouse. Rejuvenation Res. 2010;13:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The adult myostatin null mouse (MSTN(-/-)) displays both an increase in fiber number and size relative to wild type (MSTN(+/+)), ..
  14. Matsakas A, Macharia R, Otto A, Elashry M, Mouisel E, Romanello V, et al. Exercise training attenuates the hypermuscular phenotype and restores skeletal muscle function in the myostatin null mouse. Exp Physiol. 2012;97:125-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin regulates both muscle mass and muscle metabolism. The myostatin null (MSTN(-/-)) mouse has a hypermuscular phenotype owing to both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the myofibres...
  15. Reisz Porszasz S, Bhasin S, Artaza J, Shen R, Sinha Hikim I, Hogue A, et al. Lower skeletal muscle mass in male transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of myostatin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E876-88 pubmed
    Mutations in the myostatin gene are associated with hypermuscularity, suggesting that myostatin inhibits skeletal muscle growth...
  16. Callis T, Pandya K, Seok H, Tang R, Tatsuguchi M, Huang Z, et al. MicroRNA-208a is a regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and conduction in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2772-86 pubmed publisher
    ..resulted in pronounced repression of the miR-208 regulatory targets thyroid hormone-associated protein 1 and myostatin, 2 negative regulators of muscle growth and hypertrophy...
  17. Welle S, Bhatt K, Pinkert C, Tawil R, Thornton C. Muscle growth after postdevelopmental myostatin gene knockout. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E985-91 pubmed
    Constitutive myostatin gene knockout in mice causes excessive muscle growth during development...
  18. Shao C, Liu M, Wu X, Ding F. Time-dependent expression of myostatin RNA transcript and protein in gastrocnemius muscle of mice after sciatic nerve resection. Microsurgery. 2007;27:487-93 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has been identified as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass...
  19. Personius K, Jayaram A, Krull D, Brown R, Xu T, Han B, et al. Grip force, EDL contractile properties, and voluntary wheel running after postdevelopmental myostatin depletion in mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;109:886-94 pubmed publisher
    There is no consensus about whether making muscles abnormally large by reducing myostatin activity affects force-generating capacity or the ability to perform activities requiring muscular endurance...
  20. Morissette M, Stricker J, Rosenberg M, Buranasombati C, Levitan E, Mittleman M, et al. Effects of myostatin deletion in aging mice. Aging Cell. 2009;8:573-83 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitors of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, are being developed to mitigate aging-related muscle loss. Knock-out (KO) mouse studies suggest myostatin also affects adiposity, glucose handling and cardiac growth...
  21. Benny Klimek M, Aydogdu T, Link M, Pons M, Koniaris L, Zimmers T. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1548-54 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor...
  22. Huang Z, Chen X, Yu B, He J, Chen D. MicroRNA-27a promotes myoblast proliferation by targeting myostatin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, overexpression of miR-27a in C2C12 cells promoted myoblast proliferation by reducing the expression of myostatin, a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis...
  23. Wang Q, McPherron A. Myostatin inhibition induces muscle fibre hypertrophy prior to satellite cell activation. J Physiol. 2012;590:2151-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth during development and in the adult, and MSTN ..
  24. Lee J, Hopkinson N, Kemp P. Myostatin induces autophagy in skeletal muscle in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:632-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is an important regulator of muscle mass that contributes to the loss of muscle mass in a number of chronic diseases...
  25. Kawada S, Tachi C, Ishii N. Content and localization of myostatin in mouse skeletal muscles during aging, mechanical unloading and reloading. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2001;22:627-33 pubmed
    Changes in myostatin content and localization in mouse skeletal muscles were investigated during aging, hindlimb suspension (HS) and reloading after HS...
  26. Allen D, Loh A. Posttranscriptional mechanisms involving microRNA-27a and b contribute to fast-specific and glucocorticoid-mediated myostatin expression in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;300:C124-37 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the antigrowth factor myostatin (MSTN) differs between fast and slow skeletal muscles and is increased in nearly every form of muscle atrophy, but the contribution of transcriptional vs...
  27. Anderson S, Goldberg A, Whitman M. Identification of a novel pool of extracellular pro-myostatin in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7027-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily ligand, negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth...
  28. Savage K, McPherron A. Endurance exercise training in myostatin null mice. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:355-62 pubmed publisher
    The growth factor myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass...
  29. Lee S. Quadrupling muscle mass in mice by targeting TGF-beta signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e789 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-beta family member that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle growth...
  30. Allen D, Cleary A, Speaker K, Lindsay S, Uyenishi J, Reed J, et al. Myostatin, activin receptor IIb, and follistatin-like-3 gene expression are altered in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of obese mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E918-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted growth inhibitor expressed in muscle and adipose...
  31. Li Z, Kollias H, Wagner K. Myostatin directly regulates skeletal muscle fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that in the absence of the endogenous muscle growth regulator myostatin, regeneration of muscle is enhanced, and muscle fibrosis is correspondingly reduced...
  32. Nishi M, Yasue A, Nishimatu S, Nohno T, Yamaoka T, Itakura M, et al. A missense mutant myostatin causes hyperplasia without hypertrophy in the mouse muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:247-51 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, which is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle formation...
  33. Schneyer A, Sidis Y, Gulati A, Sun J, Keutmann H, Krasney P. Differential antagonism of activin, myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 by wild-type and mutant follistatin. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4589-95 pubmed publisher
    Follistatin binds and neutralizes members of the TGFbeta superfamily including activin, myostatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11)...
  34. Hill J, Davies M, Pearson A, Wang J, Hewick R, Wolfman N, et al. The myostatin propeptide and the follistatin-related gene are inhibitory binding proteins of myostatin in normal serum. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40735-41 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, also known as growth and differentiation factor 8, is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass (1)...
  35. Hill J, Qiu Y, Hewick R, Wolfman N. Regulation of myostatin in vivo by growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein-1: a novel protein with protease inhibitor and follistatin domains. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1144-54 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, is a potent and specific negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass...
  36. McFarlane C, Langley B, Thomas M, Hennebry A, Plummer E, Nicholas G, et al. Proteolytic processing of myostatin is auto-regulated during myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2005;283:58-69 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a potent negative regulator of myogenesis, is proteolytically processed by furin proteases into active mature myostatin before secretion from myoblasts...
  37. Wagner K, Liu X, Chang X, Allen R. Muscle regeneration in the prolonged absence of myostatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2519-24 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is an endogenous inhibitor of muscle conserved across diverse species. In the absence of myostatin, there is massive muscle growth in mice, cattle, and humans...
  38. Philip B, Lu Z, Gao Y. Regulation of GDF-8 signaling by the p38 MAPK. Cell Signal. 2005;17:365-75 pubmed
    ..Together, these results highlight a functional link between the p38 MAPK and GDF-8-activated Smad pathways, and identify a critical role for the p38 MAPK in GDF-8's function as a negative regulator of muscle growth. ..
  39. Rios R, Carneiro I, Arce V, Devesa J. Myostatin is an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;282:C993-9 pubmed
    b>Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily member, has been shown to negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting muscle precursor cell proliferation...
  40. McCroskery S, Thomas M, Maxwell L, Sharma M, Kambadur R. Myostatin negatively regulates satellite cell activation and self-renewal. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1135-47 pubmed
    ..Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. Here we show that myostatin, a TGF-beta member, signals satellite cell quiescence and also negatively regulates satellite cell self-renewal...
  41. Yang J, Ratovitski T, Brady J, Solomon M, Wells K, Wall R. Expression of myostatin pro domain results in muscular transgenic mice. Mol Reprod Dev. 2001;60:351-61 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta family, negatively regulates skeletal muscle development. Depression of myostatin activity leads to increased muscle growth and carcass lean yield...
  42. Trendelenburg A, Meyer A, Rohner D, Boyle J, Hatakeyama S, Glass D. Myostatin reduces Akt/TORC1/p70S6K signaling, inhibiting myoblast differentiation and myotube size. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1258-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle size, previously shown to inhibit muscle cell differentiation...
  43. Mendias C, Bakhurin K, Faulkner J. Tendons of myostatin-deficient mice are small, brittle, and hypocellular. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:388-93 pubmed
    ..b>Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of muscle mass...
  44. Huang Z, Chen D, Zhang K, Yu B, Chen X, Meng J. Regulation of myostatin signaling by c-Jun N-terminal kinase in C2C12 cells. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2286-95 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth...
  45. Welle S, Bhatt K, Pinkert C. Myofibrillar protein synthesis in myostatin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E409-15 pubmed
    ..protein half-life is necessary to support the excessive muscle growth and maintenance of enlarged muscles in myostatin-deficient mice...
  46. Zhao B, Wall R, Yang J. Transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:248-55 pubmed
    ..study effects of skeletal muscle growth on obesity prevention, we focused on a key gene of skeletal muscle named myostatin, which plays an inhibitory role in muscle growth and development...
  47. Bunger L, Ott G, Varga L, Schlote W, Rehfeldt C, Renne U, et al. Marker-assisted introgression of the Compact mutant myostatin allele MstnCmpt-dl1Abc into a mouse line with extreme growth effects on body composition and muscularity. Genet Res. 2004;84:161-73 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and mutations in its gene lead to muscular hypertrophy and reduced fat. In cattle, this is seen in 'double muscled' breeds...
  48. Manickam R, Pena R, Whitelaw C. Mammary gland differentiation inversely correlates with GDF-8 expression. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate a role for GDF-8 in mammary epithelial cell differentiation and demonstrate that GDF-8 has cell-type specific activities. ..
  49. Morissette M, Cook S, Foo S, McKoy G, Ashida N, Novikov M, et al. Myostatin regulates cardiomyocyte growth through modulation of Akt signaling. Circ Res. 2006;99:15-24 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a highly conserved, potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in many species, from rodents to humans, although its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood...
  50. Welle S, Burgess K, Mehta S. Stimulation of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis, p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation, and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation by inhibition of myostatin in mature mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E567-72 pubmed publisher
    Knocking out myostatin activity during development increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis...
  51. Whittemore L, Song K, Li X, Aghajanian J, Davies M, Girgenrath S, et al. Inhibition of myostatin in adult mice increases skeletal muscle mass and strength. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:965-71 pubmed
    ..b>Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta family of growth factors, is a known negative regulator of muscle mass, as mice ..
  52. Salerno M, Dyer K, Bracegirdle J, Platt L, Thomas M, Siriett V, et al. Akirin1 (Mighty), a novel promyogenic factor regulates muscle regeneration and cell chemotaxis. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2012-21 pubmed publisher
    Akirin1 (Mighty) is a downstream target gene of myostatin and has been shown to be a promyogenic factor. Although expressed in many tissues, akirin1 is negatively regulated by myostatin specifically in skeletal muscle tissue...
  53. Szabo G, Dallmann G, Muller G, Patthy L, Soller M, Varga L. A deletion in the myostatin gene causes the compact (Cmpt) hypermuscular mutation in mice. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:671-2 pubmed
  54. Matsakas A, Foster K, Otto A, Macharia R, Elashry M, Feist S, et al. Molecular, cellular and physiological investigation of myostatin propeptide-mediated muscle growth in adult mice. Neuromuscul Disord. 2009;19:489-99 pubmed publisher
    Inhibition of myostatin signalling or its biological activity has recently emerged as a potential remedial approach against muscle wasting and degenerative diseases such as muscular dystrophies...
  55. Varga L, Szabo G, Darvasi A, Muller G, Sass M, Soller M. Inheritance and mapping of Compact (Cmpt), a new mutation causing hypermuscularity in mice. Genetics. 1997;147:755-64 pubmed
    ..Linkage mapping using selective DNA pooling located a single locus (denoted Cmpt) strongly associated with the Compact phenotype on mouse chromosome 1...
  56. McPherron A, Huynh T, Lee S. Redundancy of myostatin and growth/differentiation factor 11 function. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:24 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin (Mstn) and growth/differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11) are highly related transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family members that play important roles in regulating embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis...
  57. Guo T, Jou W, Chanturiya T, Portas J, Gavrilova O, McPherron A. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4937 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass...
  58. Lee S. Genetic analysis of the role of proteolysis in the activation of latent myostatin. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1628 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a secreted protein that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle growth...
  59. Langley B, Thomas M, Bishop A, Sharma M, Gilmour S, Kambadur R. Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by down-regulating MyoD expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49831-40 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is shown to function by controlling the proliferation of myoblasts...
  60. Wagner K, McPherron A, Winik N, Lee S. Loss of myostatin attenuates severity of muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Ann Neurol. 2002;52:832-6 pubmed
    b>Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth...
  61. McCroskery S, Thomas M, Platt L, Hennebry A, Nishimura T, McLeay L, et al. Improved muscle healing through enhanced regeneration and reduced fibrosis in myostatin-null mice. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3531-41 pubmed
    ..that neutralization of muscle growth inhibitory factors, such as myostatin (Mstn; also known as growth differentiation factor 8, Gdf8), also leads to increased muscle regeneration in mdx mice that are known to have cycles of ..
  62. Cash J, Rejon C, McPherron A, Bernard D, Thompson T. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding. EMBO J. 2009;28:2662-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288)...
  63. McPherron A, Lee S. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12457-61 pubmed
    b>Myostatin (GDF-8) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of secreted growth and differentiation factors that is essential for proper regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice...
  64. Carlson C, Booth F, Gordon S. Skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA expression is fiber-type specific and increases during hindlimb unloading. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:R601-6 pubmed
    Transgenic mice lacking a functional myostatin (MSTN) gene demonstrate greater skeletal muscle mass resulting from muscle fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia (McPherron, A. C., A. M. Lawler, and S. -J. Lee. Nature 387: 83-90, 1997)...
  65. Zhang C, McFarlane C, Lokireddy S, Masuda S, Ge X, Gluckman P, et al. Inhibition of myostatin protects against diet-induced obesity by enhancing fatty acid oxidation and promoting a brown adipose phenotype in mice. Diabetologia. 2012;55:183-93 pubmed publisher
    Although myostatin-null (Mstn (-/-)) mice fail to accumulate fat in adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet (HFD), little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon...
  66. Ohsawa Y, Hagiwara H, Nakatani M, Yasue A, Moriyama K, Murakami T, et al. Muscular atrophy of caveolin-3-deficient mice is rescued by myostatin inhibition. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2924-34 pubmed
    ..b>Myostatin, a member of the muscle-specific TGF-beta superfamily, negatively regulates skeletal muscle volume...
  67. Zhu J, Li Y, Shen W, Qiao C, Ambrosio F, Lavasani M, et al. Relationships between transforming growth factor-beta1, myostatin, and decorin: implications for skeletal muscle fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25852-63 pubmed
    Recent studies have shown that myostatin, first identified as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, may also be involved in the formation of fibrosis within skeletal muscle...
  68. Wilkes J, Lloyd D, Gekakis N. Loss-of-function mutation in myostatin reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha production and protects liver against obesity-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2009;58:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    Insulin resistance develops in tandem with obesity. Ablating myostatin (Mstn) prevents obesity, so we investigated if Mstn deficiency could improve insulin sensitivity...
  69. Welle S, Burgess K, Thornton C, Tawil R. Relation between extent of myostatin depletion and muscle growth in mature mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E935-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and fiber size...
  70. Grobet L, Pirottin D, Farnir F, Poncelet D, Royo L, Brouwers B, et al. Modulating skeletal muscle mass by postnatal, muscle-specific inactivation of the myostatin gene. Genesis. 2003;35:227-38 pubmed
    ..a conditional gene targeting approach exploiting the cre-lox system, we show that postnatal inactivation of the myostatin gene in striated muscle is sufficient to cause a generalized muscular hypertrophy of the same magnitude as that ..
  71. Parsons S, Millay D, Sargent M, McNally E, Molkentin J. Age-dependent effect of myostatin blockade on disease severity in a murine model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1975-85 pubmed
    b>Myostatin (MSTN) is a muscle-specific secreted peptide that functions to limit muscle growth through an autocrine regulatory feedback loop...
  72. Spiller M, Kambadur R, Jeanplong F, Thomas M, Martyn J, Bass J, et al. The myostatin gene is a downstream target gene of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MyoD. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7066-82 pubmed
    b>Myostatin is a negative regulator of myogenesis, and inactivation of myostatin leads to heavy muscle growth. Here we have cloned and characterized the bovine myostatin gene promoter...
  73. Lin J, Arnold H, Della Fera M, Azain M, Hartzell D, Baile C. Myostatin knockout in mice increases myogenesis and decreases adipogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:701-6 pubmed
    Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), or Myostatin, plays an important inhibitory role during muscle development...
  74. Sartori R, Schirwis E, Blaauw B, Bortolanza S, Zhao J, Enzo E, et al. BMP signaling controls muscle mass. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations that inactivate myostatin lead to excessive muscle growth in animals and humans, but the signals and pathways responsible for this ..