Gene Symbol: Myog
Description: myogenin
Alias: MYF4, bHLHc3, myo, myogenin, MYOD1-related protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Myog

Top Publications

  1. Knapp J, Davie J, Myer A, Meadows E, Olson E, Klein W. Loss of myogenin in postnatal life leads to normal skeletal muscle but reduced body size. Development. 2006;133:601-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we test this assumption by determining the role of the myogenic regulator myogenin in postnatal life...
  2. Zhao W, Dhoot G. Skeletal muscle precursors in mouse esophagus are determined during early fetal development. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:10-20 pubmed mouse esophagus by investigating the expression of four myogenic regulatory factor transcripts: MyoD, Myf-5, myogenin, and MRF4...
  3. Floss T, Arnold H, Braun T. A role for FGF-6 in skeletal muscle regeneration. Genes Dev. 1997;11:2040-51 pubmed
    ..The number of MyoD- and Myogenin-expressing activated satellite cells after injury were significantly reduced in mutants...
  4. Yang X, Vogan K, Gros P, Park M. Expression of the met receptor tyrosine kinase in muscle progenitor cells in somites and limbs is absent in Splotch mice. Development. 1996;122:2163-71 pubmed
  5. Kassar Duchossoy L, Gayraud Morel B, Gomès D, Rocancourt D, Buckingham M, Shinin V, et al. Mrf4 determines skeletal muscle identity in Myf5:Myod double-mutant mice. Nature. 2004;431:466-71 pubmed
    ..Gene targeting studies have revealed hierarchical relationships between these and the other MRF genes, Mrf4 and myogenin, where the latter are regarded as differentiation genes...
  6. Kablar B, Tajbakhsh S, Rudnicki M. Transdifferentiation of esophageal smooth to skeletal muscle is myogenic bHLH factor-dependent. Development. 2000;127:1627-39 pubmed
    ..investigate smooth-to-skeletal esophageal muscle transition, we analyzed Myf5nlacZ knock-in mice, MyoD-lacZ and myogenin-lacZ transgenic embryos with a panel of the antibodies reactive with myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and ..
  7. Conlon R, Reaume A, Rossant J. Notch1 is required for the coordinate segmentation of somites. Development. 1995;121:1533-45 pubmed
    ..However, we have found that somitogenesis is delayed and disorganized in Notch1 mutant embryos. We propose that Notch1 normally coordinates the process of somitogenesis, and we provide a model of how this might occur. ..
  8. Hrabe de Angelis M, McIntyre J, Gossler A. Maintenance of somite borders in mice requires the Delta homologue DII1. Nature. 1997;386:717-21 pubmed
  9. Seo K. Dmrt2 and Pax3 double-knockout mice show severe defects in embryonic myogenesis. Comp Med. 2007;57:460-8 pubmed
    ..Dmrt2 and Pax3 were tested for genetic and functional interactions during embryonic myogenesis by evaluating myogenin and desmin expression patterns in Dmrt2-Pax3 mutant mouse embryos...

More Information


  1. Kitamura K, Miura H, Miyagawa Tomita S, Yanazawa M, Katoh Fukui Y, Suzuki R, et al. Mouse Pitx2 deficiency leads to anomalies of the ventral body wall, heart, extra- and periocular mesoderm and right pulmonary isomerism. Development. 1999;126:5749-58 pubmed
  2. Zhang W, Behringer R, Olson E. Inactivation of the myogenic bHLH gene MRF4 results in up-regulation of myogenin and rib anomalies. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1388-99 pubmed
    The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins MyoD, myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 can initiate myogenesis when expressed in nonmuscle cells...
  3. Arnold H, Braun T. Genetics of muscle determination and development. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2000;48:129-64 pubmed
    ..Finally, we present recent evidence on genes that play a role in regeneration of muscle in adult organisms. ..
  4. Lagha M, Brunelli S, Messina G, Cumano A, Kume T, Relaix F, et al. Pax3:Foxc2 reciprocal repression in the somite modulates muscular versus vascular cell fate choice in multipotent progenitors. Dev Cell. 2009;17:892-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides insight into how cell fate choices are orchestrated by these lineage genes in the dermomyotome. ..
  5. Bober E, Lyons G, Braun T, Cossu G, Buckingham M, Arnold H. The muscle regulatory gene, Myf-6, has a biphasic pattern of expression during early mouse development. J Cell Biol. 1991;113:1255-65 pubmed
    ..c.). In contrast to other muscle determination genes (MyoD1, myogenin, Myf-5), Myf-6 mRNA is not detected in limb buds or visceral arches and skeletal muscle of the mouse embryo (day ..
  6. Blais A, Tsikitis M, Acosta Alvear D, Sharan R, Kluger Y, Dynlacht B. An initial blueprint for myogenic differentiation. Genes Dev. 2005;19:553-69 pubmed
    ..We identified a cadre of overlapping and distinct targets of the key myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs)--MyoD and myogenin--and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2)...
  7. Hosokawa R, Oka K, Yamaza T, Iwata J, Urata M, Xu X, et al. TGF-beta mediated FGF10 signaling in cranial neural crest cells controls development of myogenic progenitor cells through tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;341:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of FGF10 rescued the muscle cell number in Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2(flox/flox) mice. Thus, TGF-beta induced FGF10 signaling has a critical function in regulating tissue-tissue interaction during tongue skeletal muscle development. ..
  8. Seo K, Wang Y, Kokubo H, Kettlewell J, Zarkower D, Johnson R. Targeted disruption of the DM domain containing transcription factor Dmrt2 reveals an essential role in somite patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;290:200-10 pubmed the expression patterns of dermomyotomal and myotomal transcription factors including Pax3, Paraxis, Myf5, myogenin, Mrf4 and MyoD. Despite these defects, embryos harvested from E13...
  9. Edmondson D, Cheng T, Cserjesi P, Chakraborty T, Olson E. Analysis of the myogenin promoter reveals an indirect pathway for positive autoregulation mediated by the muscle-specific enhancer factor MEF-2. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:3665-77 pubmed
    ..b>Myogenin, along with other members of the MyoD gene family, possesses the apparent ability to redirect nonmuscle cells ..
  10. Hasty P, Bradley A, Morris J, Edmondson D, Venuti J, Olson E, et al. Muscle deficiency and neonatal death in mice with a targeted mutation in the myogenin gene. Nature. 1993;364:501-6 pubmed
    b>Myogenin is a muscle-specific transcription factor that can induce myogenesis in a variety of cell types in tissue culture. To test myogenin's role in vivo, mice homozygous for a targeted mutation in the myogenin gene were generated...
  11. Weintraub H, Davis R, Tapscott S, Thayer M, Krause M, Benezra R, et al. The myoD gene family: nodal point during specification of the muscle cell lineage. Science. 1991;251:761-6 pubmed
    ..MyoD is expressed only in skeletal muscle and its precursors; in nonmuscle cells myoD is repressed by specific genes. MyoD activates its own transcription; this may stabilize commitment to myogenesis. ..
  12. Le Grand F, Auda Boucher G, Levitsky D, Rouaud T, Fontaine Pérus J, Gardahaut M. Endothelial cells within embryonic skeletal muscles: a potential source of myogenic progenitors. Exp Cell Res. 2004;301:232-41 pubmed
    ..The marked ability of the embryonic muscle endothelial cells to activate myogenic program could be related to their somitic origin. ..
  13. Shi S, Stanley P. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 is an essential component of Notch signaling pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5234-9 pubmed
    ..Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 is therefore an essential core member of Notch signaling pathways in mammals. ..
  14. Schuster Gossler K, Cordes R, Gossler A. Premature myogenic differentiation and depletion of progenitor cells cause severe muscle hypotrophy in Delta1 mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:537-42 pubmed
  15. Crist C, Montarras D, Pallafacchina G, Rocancourt D, Cumano A, Conway S, et al. Muscle stem cell behavior is modified by microRNA-27 regulation of Pax3 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13383-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that miR-27b regulates Pax3 protein levels and this down-regulation ensures rapid and robust entry into the myogenic differentiation program. ..
  16. Venuti J, Morris J, Vivian J, Olson E, Klein W. Myogenin is required for late but not early aspects of myogenesis during mouse development. J Cell Biol. 1995;128:563-76 pubmed
    Mice with a targeted mutation in the myogenic basic helix-loop-helix regulatory protein myogenin have severe muscle defects resulting in perinatal death...
  17. Han D, Zhao H, Parada C, Hacia J, Bringas P, Chai Y. A TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development. Development. 2012;139:1640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis...
  18. Ohkawa Y, Yoshimura S, Higashi C, Marfella C, Dacwag C, Tachibana T, et al. Myogenin and the SWI/SNF ATPase Brg1 maintain myogenic gene expression at different stages of skeletal myogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6564-70 pubmed
    ..Brg1 ATPase are necessary to induce myogenesis in cell culture models and in developing embryonic tissue, whereas myogenin and Brg1 are critical for the expression of the late genes that induce terminal muscle differentiation...
  19. Venters S, Thorsteinsdottir S, Duxson M. Early development of the myotome in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1999;216:219-32 pubmed
    ..This, along with their distinct morphology, suggests these cells may form a separate lineage of pioneer myogenic cells. ..
  20. Sabourin L, Rudnicki M. The molecular regulation of myogenesis. Clin Genet. 2000;57:16-25 pubmed
    ..studies have unraveled important mechanisms by which the four myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs: MyoD, Myf-5, myogenin, and MRF4) control the specification and the differentiation of the muscle lineage...
  21. Kopan R, Nye J, Weintraub H. The intracellular domain of mouse Notch: a constitutively activated repressor of myogenesis directed at the basic helix-loop-helix region of MyoD. Development. 1994;120:2385-96 pubmed
    ..Additional experiments show that the CDC10/SWI6/ankyrin repeats are also necessary for myogenic inhibition. ..
  22. Buckingham M. Muscle differentiation. Which myogenic factors make muscle?. Curr Biol. 1994;4:61-3 pubmed
    Mice lacking myogenin have little skeletal muscle as fibres fail to differentiate. Lack of both MyoD and myf-5 results in no skeletal muscle and apparently no myoblasts, suggesting that these factors act earlier in muscle development.
  23. Meadows E, Cho J, Flynn J, Klein W. Myogenin regulates a distinct genetic program in adult muscle stem cells. Dev Biol. 2008;322:406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the role that the myogenic basic helix-loop-helix regulatory factor myogenin has in postnatal muscle growth and adult muscle stem cell gene expression...
  24. Bladt F, Riethmacher D, Isenmann S, Aguzzi A, Birchmeier C. Essential role for the c-met receptor in the migration of myogenic precursor cells into the limb bud. Nature. 1995;376:768-71 pubmed
    ..We have therefore identified a paracrine signalling system that regulates migration of myogenic precursor cells. ..
  25. Shih H, Gross M, Kioussi C. Expression pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 during muscle development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:441-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrate that, within muscle anlagen, Pitx2 marks the muscle lineage more completely that any of the known markers, and are consistent with a role for Pitx2 in muscle anlagen formation or maintenance. ..
  26. Seale P, Bjork B, Yang W, Kajimura S, Chin S, Kuang S, et al. PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch. Nature. 2008;454:961-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that PRDM16 specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis. ..
  27. Liu Q, Zha X, Faralli H, Yin H, Louis Jeune C, Perdiguero E, et al. Comparative expression profiling identifies differential roles for Myogenin and p38? MAPK signaling in myogenesis. J Mol Cell Biol. 2012;4:386-97 pubmed publisher mediated by a complex gene expression program requiring both the muscle-specific transcription factor Myogenin (Myog) and p38? MAPK (p38?) signaling...
  28. Xu Q, Wu Z. The insulin-like growth factor-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway regulates myogenin expression in normal myogenic cells but not in rhabdomyosarcoma-derived RD cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36750-7 pubmed
    ..One of the molecular mechanisms underlying IGF-stimulated myogenesis is transcriptional induction of myogenin. The current work is aimed to elucidate the signaling pathways mediating the IGF effect on myogenin promoter in ..
  29. Aurade F, Pinset C, Chafey P, Gros F, Montarras D. Myf5, MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 myogenic derivatives of the embryonic mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 exhibit the same adult muscle phenotype. Differentiation. 1994;55:185-92 pubmed
    ..we have further investigated the myogenic phenotype of C3H10T1/2 cells stably transfected with either Myf5, MyoD, myogenin or MRF4 cDNAs...
  30. Yee S, Rigby P. The regulation of myogenin gene expression during the embryonic development of the mouse. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1277-89 pubmed
    ..minimal sequences required for the complete recapitulation of the temporal and spatial expression pattern of the myogenin gene during embryogenesis...
  31. Patapoutian A, Yoon J, Miner J, Wang S, Stark K, Wold B. Disruption of the mouse MRF4 gene identifies multiple waves of myogenesis in the myotome. Development. 1995;121:3347-58 pubmed
    ..The first program (My1), marked initially by Myf-5 expression and followed by myogenin, began on schedule in the MRF4bh1/bh1 embryos at day 8 post coitum (E8)...
  32. Ontell M, Ontell M, Buckingham M. Muscle-specific gene expression during myogenesis in the mouse. Microsc Res Tech. 1995;30:354-65 pubmed
    ..The differences in gene expression in these two types of muscle suggest that no single coordinated pattern of gene activation is required during the initial formation of the muscles of the mouse. ..
  33. Oka C, Nakano T, Wakeham A, de la Pompa J, Mori C, Sakai T, et al. Disruption of the mouse RBP-J kappa gene results in early embryonic death. Development. 1995;121:3291-301 pubmed
    ..Their irregularly shaped somites expressed a somite marker gene Mox 1 but failed to express myogenin. The RBP-J kappa gene was revealed to be essential for postimplantation development of mice.
  34. Hanaoka K, Hayasaka M, Esumi E, Li S, Nonaka I, Nabeshima Y. Myogenin gene disruption results in perinatal lethality because of severe muscle defect. Nature. 1993;364:532-5 pubmed
    b>Myogenin is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene family and converts multipotential mesodermal cells to myoblasts...
  35. Washabaugh C, Ontell M, Shand S, Bradbury N, Kant J, Ontell M. Neuronal control of myogenic regulatory factor accumulation in fetal muscle. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:732-45 pubmed
    ..g., myoD and myogenin [E16.5-E18.5] and MRF4 in the EDL only [E18.5-E19...
  36. Edmondson D, Olson E. A gene with homology to the myc similarity region of MyoD1 is expressed during myogenesis and is sufficient to activate the muscle differentiation program. Genes Dev. 1989;3:628-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest the existence of a family of myogenic regulatory genes that share a conserved motif with c-myc. ..
  37. Wright W, Sassoon D, Lin V. Myogenin, a factor regulating myogenesis, has a domain homologous to MyoD. Cell. 1989;56:607-17 pubmed
    ..isolation, sequence, and initial characterization of the cDNA for the muscle-specific regulatory factor skeletal myogenin. Transfection of myogenin into the mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 produces cells expressing muscle-specific ..
  38. Mastroyiannopoulos N, Nicolaou P, Anayasa M, Uney J, Phylactou L. Down-regulation of myogenin can reverse terminal muscle cell differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29896 pubmed publisher
    ..Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs), MyoD, myogenin, Myf5 and Myf6 are basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors essential towards the regulation of ..
  39. Moresi V, Williams A, Meadows E, Flynn J, Potthoff M, McAnally J, et al. Myogenin and class II HDACs control neurogenic muscle atrophy by inducing E3 ubiquitin ligases. Cell. 2010;143:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that myogenin, an essential regulator of muscle development, controls neurogenic atrophy...
  40. Lagha M, Kormish J, Rocancourt D, Manceau M, Epstein J, Zaret K, et al. Pax3 regulation of FGF signaling affects the progression of embryonic progenitor cells into the myogenic program. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insight into the Pax-initiated regulatory network that modulates stem cell maintenance versus tissue differentiation. ..
  41. Bajanca F, Luz M, Raymond K, Martins G, Sonnenberg A, Tajbakhsh S, et al. Integrin alpha6beta1-laminin interactions regulate early myotome formation in the mouse embryo. Development. 2006;133:1635-44 pubmed
    ..Most Myf5-positive and myogenin-negative myogenic precursor cells localise near assembled laminin, while myogenin-expressing cells are located ..
  42. Tajbakhsh S, Rocancourt D, Cossu G, Buckingham M. Redefining the genetic hierarchies controlling skeletal myogenesis: Pax-3 and Myf-5 act upstream of MyoD. Cell. 1997;89:127-38 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Pax-3 and Myf-5 define two distinct myogenic pathways, and MyoD acts genetically downstream of these genes for myogenesis in the body. This genetic hierarchy does not appear to operate for head muscle formation. ..
  43. Cachaço A, Pereira C, Pardal R, Bajanca F, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Integrin repertoire on myogenic cells changes during the course of primary myogenesis in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:1069-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, myogenic cells change their integrin expression pattern during the course of primary myogenesis in the mouse, suggesting different roles for fibronectin- and laminin-containing matrices in this process. ..
  44. Myer A, Wagner D, Vivian J, Olson E, Klein W. Wild-type myoblasts rescue the ability of myogenin-null myoblasts to fuse in vivo. Dev Biol. 1997;185:127-38 pubmed
    ..In mice lacking the bHLH transcription factor myogenin, myoblasts are specified and positioned correctly, but few fuse to form multinucleated fibers...
  45. Van Ho A, Hayashi S, Bröhl D, Aurade F, Rattenbach R, Relaix F. Neural crest cell lineage restricts skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation through Neuregulin1-ErbB3 signaling. Dev Cell. 2011;21:273-87 pubmed publisher
  46. Shiraishi S, Zhou C, Aoki T, Sato N, Chiba T, Tanaka K, et al. TBP-interacting protein 120B (TIP120B)/cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 2 (CAND2) inhibits SCF-dependent ubiquitination of myogenin and accelerates myogenic differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:9017-28 pubmed
    ..b>Myogenin, a basic helix-loop-helix-type myogenic transcription factor, plays a critical role through transcriptional ..
  47. Bober E, Franz T, Arnold H, Gruss P, Tremblay P. Pax-3 is required for the development of limb muscles: a possible role for the migration of dermomyotomal muscle progenitor cells. Development. 1994;120:603-12 pubmed demonstrated by the lack of hybridization with various probes for myogenic transcription factors (Myf-5, myogenin, MyoD) but make apparently normal axial muscles...
  48. Kassar Duchossoy L, Giacone E, Gayraud Morel B, Jory A, Gomès D, Tajbakhsh S. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1426-31 pubmed
    ..These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies. ..
  49. Kablar B, Krastel K, Ying C, Asakura A, Tapscott S, Rudnicki M. MyoD and Myf-5 differentially regulate the development of limb versus trunk skeletal muscle. Development. 1997;124:4729-38 pubmed
    ..embryos with antibodies reactive with desmin, nestin, myosin heavy chain, sarcomeric actin, Myf-5, MyoD and myogenin. While MyoD(-/-) embryos displayed normal development of paraspinal and intercostal muscles in the body proper, ..
  50. Sumiyoshi H, Laub F, Yoshioka H, Ramirez F. Embryonic expression of type XIX collagen is transient and confined to muscle cells. Dev Dyn. 2001;220:155-62 pubmed
    ..transcription gradually decreases in differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors and concomitantly to increased myogenin gene expression...
  51. Gruenbaum Cohen Y, Harel I, Umansky K, Tzahor E, Snapper S, Shilo B, et al. The actin regulator N-WASp is required for muscle-cell fusion in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..WASp-family elements appear therefore to act as universal mediators of the myogenic cell-cell fusion mechanism underlying formation of functional muscle fibers, in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. ..
  52. Cheng T, Wallace M, Merlie J, Olson E. Separable regulatory elements governing myogenin transcription in mouse embryogenesis. Science. 1993;261:215-8 pubmed
    Expression of the myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein myogenin in muscle cell precursors within somites and limb buds is among the earliest events associated with myogenic lineage determination in vertebrates...
  53. Vasyutina E, Martarelli B, Brakebusch C, Wende H, Birchmeier C. The small G-proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8935-40 pubmed publisher
  54. Rawls A, Morris J, Rudnicki M, Braun T, Arnold H, Klein W, et al. Myogenin's functions do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 during mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 1995;172:37-50 pubmed
    The four myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins, MyoD, myogenin, Myf-5, and MRF4, can each activate skeletal muscle differentiation when introduced into nonmuscle cells...
  55. Berkes C, Bergstrom D, Penn B, Seaver K, Knoepfler P, Tapscott S. Pbx marks genes for activation by MyoD indicating a role for a homeodomain protein in establishing myogenic potential. Mol Cell. 2004;14:465-77 pubmed
    ..and helix III domains, two domains of MyoD that are necessary for the initiation of chromatin remodeling at the myogenin locus, together regulate a restricted subset of genes, including myogenin...
  56. Bajanca F, Luz M, Duxson M, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Integrins in the mouse myotome: developmental changes and differences between the epaxial and hypaxial lineage. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:402-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, alpha4beta1 is expressed in the hypaxial dermomyotome and is maintained by early hypaxial myogenic progenitor cells colonizing the myotome. ..