Gene Symbol: Myocd
Description: myocardin
Alias: BSAC2A, Srfcp, myocardin, SRF co-factor protein (cardiac and smooth muscle), SRF cofactor protein, basic SAP coiled-coil transcription activator 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Myocd

Top Publications

  1. Wang Z, Wang D, Pipes G, Olson E. Myocardin is a master regulator of smooth muscle gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7129-34 pubmed
    ..We show that myocardin, a cardiac muscle- and smooth muscle-specific transcriptional coactivator of SRF, can activate smooth muscle ..
  2. Chen J, Yin H, Jiang Y, Radhakrishnan S, Huang Z, Li J, et al. Induction of microRNA-1 by myocardin in smooth muscle cells inhibits cell proliferation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:368-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin is a cardiac- and smooth muscle-specific transcription co-factor that potently activates the expression of downstream target genes...
  3. Creemers E, Sutherland L, McAnally J, Richardson J, Olson E. Myocardin is a direct transcriptional target of Mef2, Tead and Foxo proteins during cardiovascular development. Development. 2006;133:4245-56 pubmed
    b>Myocardin is a transcriptional co-activator of serum response factor (Srf), which is a key regulator of the expression of smooth and cardiac muscle genes...
  4. Parmacek M. Myocardin-related transcription factors: critical coactivators regulating cardiovascular development and adaptation. Circ Res. 2007;100:633-44 pubmed
    ..b>Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), including myocardin, MRTF-A/MKL1/MAL, and MRTF-B/MKL2, comprise a family ..
  5. Mao X, Debenedittis P, Sun Y, Chen J, Yuan K, Jiao K, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell Smad4 gene is important for mouse vascular development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide important insight into the role of Smad4 and its upstream Smads in regulating SMC function and vascular development of mice. ..
  6. Huang J, Elicker J, Bowens N, Liu X, Cheng L, Cappola T, et al. Myocardin regulates BMP10 expression and is required for heart development. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:3678-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin is a muscle lineage-restricted transcriptional coactivator that has been shown to transduce extracellular signals to the nucleus required for SMC differentiation...
  7. Hoofnagle M, Neppl R, Berzin E, Teg Pipes G, Olson E, Wamhoff B, et al. Myocardin is differentially required for the development of smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H1707-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin is a serum response factor (SRF) coactivator exclusively expressed in cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
  8. Ueyama T, Kasahara H, Ishiwata T, Nie Q, Izumo S. Myocardin expression is regulated by Nkx2.5, and its function is required for cardiomyogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:9222-32 pubmed
    ..5-null hearts at embryonic day 8.5. We isolated a mouse cDNA encoding myocardin A, which is an alternative spliced isoform of myocardin and the most abundant isoform in the heart from embryo ..
  9. Imamura M, Long X, Nanda V, Miano J. Expression and functional activity of four myocardin isoforms. Gene. 2010;464:1-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin (MYOCD) is an essential component of a molecular switch for the expression of contractile genes in smooth muscle and cardiac muscle cells...

More Information


  1. Goss A, Tian Y, Cheng L, Yang J, Zhou D, Cohen E, et al. Wnt2 signaling is necessary and sufficient to activate the airway smooth muscle program in the lung by regulating myocardin/Mrtf-B and Fgf10 expression. Dev Biol. 2011;356:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..a transcriptional and signaling network critical for smooth muscle specification and differentiation including myocardin/Mrtf-B and the signaling factor Fgf10...
  2. Huang J, Min Lu M, Cheng L, Yuan L, Zhu X, Stout A, et al. Myocardin is required for cardiomyocyte survival and maintenance of heart function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myocardin is a remarkably potent transcriptional coactivator expressed exclusively in cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle ..
  3. Wang D, Li S, Hockemeyer D, Sutherland L, Wang Z, Schratt G, et al. Potentiation of serum response factor activity by a family of myocardin-related transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14855-60 pubmed
    b>Myocardin is a SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, PIAS) domain transcription factor that associates with serum response factor (SRF) to potently enhance SRF-dependent transcription...
  4. Huang J, Cheng L, Li J, Chen M, Zhou D, Lu M, et al. Myocardin regulates expression of contractile genes in smooth muscle cells and is required for closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:515-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin (Myocd) is a potent transcriptional coactivator that has been implicated in cardiovascular development and adaptation of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic stress...
  5. Song L, Yan W, Chen X, Deng C, Wang Q, Jiao K. Myocardial smad4 is essential for cardiogenesis in mouse embryos. Circ Res. 2007;101:277-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study provides the first mouse model showing that Smad4 plays essential roles during cardiogenesis. ..
  6. Du K, Ip H, Li J, Chen M, Dandre F, Yu W, et al. Myocardin is a critical serum response factor cofactor in the transcriptional program regulating smooth muscle cell differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2425-37 pubmed
    The SAP family transcription factor myocardin functionally synergizes with serum response factor (SRF) and plays an important role in cardiac development...
  7. Tang R, Zheng X, Callis T, Stansfield W, He J, Baldwin A, et al. Myocardin inhibits cellular proliferation by inhibiting NF-kappaB(p65)-dependent cell cycle progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3362-7 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported the importance of the serum response factor (SRF) cofactor myocardin in controlling muscle gene expression as well as the fundamental role for the inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB in governing cellular ..
  8. Cao D, Wang Z, Zhang C, Oh J, Xing W, Li S, et al. Modulation of smooth muscle gene expression by association of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases with myocardin. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:364-76 pubmed
    ..b>Myocardin is a cardiac and smooth muscle-specific expressed transcriptional coactivator of SRF and is sufficient and ..
  9. Caubit X, Lye C, Martin E, Coré N, Long D, Vola C, et al. Teashirt 3 is necessary for ureteral smooth muscle differentiation downstream of SHH and BMP4. Development. 2008;135:3301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Bmp4 transcripts as normal, with appropriate expression of Ptch1 and pSMAD1/5/8 in target SM precursors, whereas myocardin, a key regulator for SMC differentiation, was not expressed in Tshz3-null ureters...
  10. Cordes K, Sheehy N, White M, Berry E, Morton S, Muth A, et al. miR-145 and miR-143 regulate smooth muscle cell fate and plasticity. Nature. 2009;460:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-145 and miR-143 were direct transcriptional targets of serum response factor, myocardin and Nkx2-5 (NK2 transcription factor related, locus 5) and were downregulated in injured or atherosclerotic ..
  11. Wang D, Chang P, Wang Z, Sutherland L, Richardson J, Small E, et al. Activation of cardiac gene expression by myocardin, a transcriptional cofactor for serum response factor. Cell. 2001;105:851-62 pubmed
    ..screen for unknown cardiac-specific genes, we identified a novel and highly potent transcription factor, named myocardin, that is expressed in cardiac and smooth muscle cells...
  12. Wang C, Cao D, Wang Q, Wang D. Synergistic activation of cardiac genes by myocardin and Tbx5. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24242 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the transcriptional networks that control cardiac gene expression are not completely understood. Myocardin is a cardiac and smooth muscle-specific expressed transcriptional coactivator of Serum Response Factor (SRF) and ..
  13. Martin E, Caubit X, Airik R, Vola C, Fatmi A, Kispert A, et al. TSHZ3 and SOX9 regulate the timing of smooth muscle cell differentiation in the ureter by reducing myocardin activity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63721 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that TSHZ3 also binds to the master regulator of the smooth muscle program, MYOCD, and displaces it from the coregulator SRF, thereby disrupting the activation of smooth muscle specific genes...
  14. Long X, Tharp D, Georger M, Slivano O, Lee M, Wamhoff B, et al. The smooth muscle cell-restricted KCNMB1 ion channel subunit is a direct transcriptional target of serum response factor and myocardin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A luciferase assay showed myocardin (MYOCD)-mediated transactivation of the KCNMB1 promoter in a CArG element-dependent manner...
  15. Li S, Wang D, Wang Z, Richardson J, Olson E. The serum response factor coactivator myocardin is required for vascular smooth muscle development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9366-70 pubmed
    ..b>Myocardin is a smooth and cardiac muscle-specific transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor, a ubiquitous ..
  16. Creemers E, Sutherland L, Oh J, Barbosa A, Olson E. Coactivation of MEF2 by the SAP domain proteins myocardin and MASTR. Mol Cell. 2006;23:83-96 pubmed
    b>Myocardin is a cardiac- and smooth muscle-specific SAP domain transcription factor that functions as a coactivator for serum response factor (SRF), which controls genes involved in muscle differentiation and cell proliferation...
  17. Zhou J, Herring B. Mechanisms responsible for the promoter-specific effects of myocardin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10861-9 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated that the interaction of SRF with the co-activator myocardin is a critical determinant of smooth muscle development...
  18. Oh J, Richardson J, Olson E. Requirement of myocardin-related transcription factor-B for remodeling of branchial arch arteries and smooth muscle differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15122-7 pubmed
    b>Myocardin and the myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) A and B act as coactivators for serum response factor, which plays a key role in cardiovascular development...
  19. Xie W, Li Z, Miano J, Long X, Chen S. Smad3-mediated myocardin silencing: a novel mechanism governing the initiation of smooth muscle differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15050-7 pubmed publisher
    Both TGF-? and myocardin (MYOCD) are important for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation, but their precise role in regulating the initiation of SMC development is less clear...
  20. Qiu P, Ritchie R, Fu Z, Cao D, Cumming J, Miano J, et al. Myocardin enhances Smad3-mediated transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling in a CArG box-independent manner: Smad-binding element is an important cis element for SM22alpha transcription in vivo. Circ Res. 2005;97:983-91 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, myocardin (Myocd), a known CArG box-dependent serum response factor coactivator, participates in Smad3-mediated TGF-beta1 ..
  21. Taurin S, Sandbo N, Yau D, Sethakorn N, Kach J, Dulin N. Phosphorylation of myocardin by extracellular signal-regulated kinase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myocardin is a cardiac and SM-restricted coactivator of SRF that is necessary for SM gene transcription...
  22. Weiss R, Guo S, Shan A, Shi H, Romano R, Sinha S, et al. Brg1 determines urothelial cell fate during ureter development. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:618-26 pubmed publisher
  23. Kuwahara K, Barrientos T, Pipes G, Li S, Olson E. Muscle-specific signaling mechanism that links actin dynamics to serum response factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3173-81 pubmed
    b>Myocardin and the myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) MRTF-A and MRTF-B are coactivators for serum response factor (SRF), which regulates genes involved in cell proliferation, migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, and myogenesis...
  24. Long X, Creemers E, Wang D, Olson E, Miano J. Myocardin is a bifunctional switch for smooth versus skeletal muscle differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16570-5 pubmed
    ..b>Myocardin (Myocd) is a serum response factor (SRF) coactivator that promotes SMC differentiation through transcriptional ..
  25. Yin Z, Jones G, Towns W, Zhang X, Abel E, Binkley P, et al. Heart-specific ablation of Prkar1a causes failure of heart development and myxomagenesis. Circulation. 2008;117:1414-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These biochemical changes lead to myxoma-like changes, indicating that these mice may be a good model with which to study the formation of these tumors. ..
  26. Speer M, Li X, Hiremath P, Giachelli C. Runx2/Cbfa1, but not loss of myocardin, is required for smooth muscle cell lineage reprogramming toward osteochondrogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:935-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, loss- and gain-of-function studies of myocardin, a SM-specific transcription co-activator, and Runx2/Cbfa1, an osteochondrogenic transcription factor, revealed ..
  27. Hauschka S. Myocardin. a novel potentiator of SRF-mediated transcription in cardiac muscle. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1-2 pubmed
    In the June 29, 2001, issue of Cell, Wang et al. report the discovery of myocardin, a cardiac and smooth muscle-specific accessory factor for SRF...
  28. Anderson C, Hu J, Thomas R, Gainous T, Celona B, Sinha T, et al. Cooperative activation of cardiac transcription through myocardin bridging of paired MEF2 sites. Development. 2017;144:1235-1241 pubmed publisher
    ..cooperatively due to bridging of the MEF2C-bound sites by the SAP domain-containing co-activator protein myocardin, and we show that paired sites buffer the enhancer from integration site-dependent effects on transcription ..
  29. Huang H, Cotton J, Wang Y, Rajurkar M, Zhu L, Lewis B, et al. Specific requirement of Gli transcription factors in Hedgehog-mediated intestinal development. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study reveals, for the first time, the distinct roles of Gli proteins in intestine development and suggests SLRPs as novel regulators of smooth muscle cell differentiation. ..
  30. Mamo T, Wittern A, Kleppa M, Bohnenpoll T, Weiss A, Kispert A. BMP4 uses several different effector pathways to regulate proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the developing mouse ureter. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3553-3563 pubmed publisher
  31. Kosfeld A, Brand F, Weiss A, Kreuzer M, Goerk M, Martens H, et al. Mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene and Lifr deficiency cause urinary tract malformations. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:1716-1731 pubmed publisher
    ..3% of CAKUT patients, and provide evidence that Lifr deficiency and deactivating LIFR mutations cause highly similar anomalies of the urogenital tract in mice and humans. ..
  32. Wang X, Karamariti E, Simpson R, Wang W, Xu Q. Dickkopf Homolog 3 Induces Stem Cell Differentiation into Smooth Muscle Lineage via ATF6 Signalling. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:19844-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the expression of DKK3 is essential for the expression of SMC markers and myocardin at both the mRNA and protein levels during mouse ES cell differentiation into SMCs (ESC-SMC differentiation)...
  33. Parlakian A, Tuil D, Hamard G, Tavernier G, Hentzen D, Concordet J, et al. Targeted inactivation of serum response factor in the developing heart results in myocardial defects and embryonic lethality. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5281-9 pubmed
    ..5, GATA4, myocardin, and the SRF target gene c-fos prior to overt maldevelopment...
  34. Jayewickreme C, Shivdasani R. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1. Dev Biol. 2015;405:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. ..
  35. Xu Z, Ji G, Shen J, Wang X, Zhou J, Li L. SOX9 and myocardin counteract each other in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This process is characterized by the induction of Sox9 and Col2a1 genes accompanied by the repression of myocardin (Myocd) and SMC differentiation markers such as SM22, SM ?-actin and SM-MHC...
  36. Shikatani E, Chandy M, Besla R, Li C, Momen A, El Mounayri O, et al. c-Myb Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adventitial Sca1+ Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Progenitors by Transactivation of Myocardin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This is mediated by reduced transcriptional activation of myocardin because chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed c-Myb binding to the myocardin promoter only during ..
  37. Espinoza Lewis R, Wang D. Generation of a Cre knock-in into the Myocardin locus to mark early cardiac and smooth muscle cell lineages. Genesis. 2014;52:879-87 pubmed publisher
    The molecular events that control cell fate determination in cardiac and smooth muscle lineages remain elusive. Myocardin is an important transcription cofactor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and development of the ..
  38. Shi N, Chen S. Cell division cycle 7 mediates transforming growth factor-?-induced smooth muscle maturation through activation of myocardin gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:34336-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, Cdc7 activates the mRNA expression and promoter activity of myocardin (Myocd), a master regulator of SM differentiation, whose transcription is blocked in the initial phase of the ..
  39. Pipes G, Sinha S, Qi X, Zhu C, Gallardo T, Shelton J, et al. Stem cells and their derivatives can bypass the requirement of myocardin for smooth muscle gene expression. Dev Biol. 2005;288:502-13 pubmed
    The Serum Response Factor (SRF) coactivator myocardin stimulates the transcription of multiple muscle genes during cardiac and smooth muscle development...
  40. Cushing L, Costinean S, Xu W, Jiang Z, Madden L, Kuang P, et al. Disruption of miR-29 Leads to Aberrant Differentiation of Smooth Muscle Cells Selectively Associated with Distal Lung Vasculature. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005238 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings suggested a vessel specific role of miR-29 in vSMC differentiation and function by targeting several key negative regulators. ..
  41. Li J, Jiang J, Yin H, Wang L, Tian R, Li H, et al. Atorvastatin inhibits myocardin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension. 2012;60:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myocardin is a coactivator of serum response factor, which upregulates SM contractile proteins...
  42. Zeidan A, Swärd K, Nordström I, Ekblad E, Zhang J, Parmacek M, et al. Ablation of SM22alpha decreases contractility and actin contents of mouse vascular smooth muscle. FEBS Lett. 2004;562:141-6 pubmed
    ..Ablation of SM22alpha did not affect stretch sensitivity of any of these proteins. Thus, SM22alpha plays a role in contractility, possibly by affecting actin filament organisation. ..
  43. Bolte C, Ren X, Tomley T, Ustiyan V, Pradhan A, Hoggatt A, et al. Forkhead box F2 regulation of platelet-derived growth factor and myocardin/serum response factor signaling is essential for intestinal development. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:7563-75 pubmed publisher
    ..colonic smooth muscle was associated with increased expression of Foxf1, PDGFa, PDGFb, PDGF receptor α, and myocardin. FOXF2 bound to promoter regions of these genes indicating direct transcriptional regulation...
  44. Bardot E, Calderon D, Santoriello F, Han S, Cheung K, Jadhav B, et al. Foxa2 identifies a cardiac progenitor population with ventricular differentiation potential. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14428 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings provide insight into the developmental origin of ventricular and atrial cells, and may lead to the establishment of new strategies for generating chamber-specific cell types from pluripotent stem cells. ..
  45. Milyavsky M, Shats I, Cholostoy A, Brosh R, Buganim Y, Weisz L, et al. Inactivation of myocardin and p16 during malignant transformation contributes to a differentiation defect. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:133-46 pubmed
    b>Myocardin is known as an important transcriptional regulator in smooth and cardiac muscle development. Here we found that myocardin is frequently repressed during human malignant transformation, contributing to a differentiation defect...
  46. Lopes M, Goupille O, Saint Cloment C, Lallemand Y, Cumano A, Robert B. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation. Development. 2011;138:3055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs. ..
  47. Wystub K, Besser J, Bachmann A, Boettger T, Braun T. miR-1/133a clusters cooperatively specify the cardiomyogenic lineage by adjustment of myocardin levels during embryonic heart development. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003793 pubmed publisher
    ..knockout of miR-1-1/133a-2 and miR-1-2/133a-1 released suppression of the transcriptional co-activator myocardin, a major regulator of SM gene expression, but not of its binding partner SRF...
  48. Yoshida T, Yamashita M, Horimai C, Hayashi M. Kruppel-like factor 4 protein regulates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy by modulating myocardin expression and activity. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:26107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, induction of myocardin, a transcriptional cofactor regulating fetal cardiac genes, was enhanced in CM Klf4 KO mice...
  49. Huang J, Wang T, Wright A, Yang J, Zhou S, Li L, et al. Myocardin is required for maintenance of vascular and visceral smooth muscle homeostasis during postnatal development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4447-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin is a muscle-restricted transcriptional coactivator that activates a serum response factor (SRF)-dependent gene program required for cardiogenesis and embryonic survival...
  50. Lockman K, Taylor J, Mack C. The histone demethylase, Jmjd1a, interacts with the myocardin factors to regulate SMC differentiation marker gene expression. Circ Res. 2007;101:e115-23 pubmed
    We and others have previously shown that the myocardin transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation marker gene expression...
  51. Wang D, Passier R, Liu Z, Shin C, Wang Z, Li S, et al. Regulation of cardiac growth and development by SRF and its cofactors. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2002;67:97-105 pubmed
  52. Tian W, Hao C, Fan Z, Weng X, Qin H, Wu X, et al. Myocardin related transcription factor A programs epigenetic activation of hepatic stellate cells. J Hepatol. 2015;62:165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the myocardin related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) in HSC activation...
  53. Losa M, Latorre V, Andrabi M, Ladam F, SAGERSTROM C, Novoa A, et al. A tissue-specific, Gata6-driven transcriptional program instructs remodeling of the mature arterial tree. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Gata6-directed differentiation of NC to SMCs as an essential mechanism that specifies the aortic tree, and provide a new framework for how mutations in GATA6 lead to congenital heart disorders in humans. ..
  54. Yi L, Domyan E, Lewandoski M, Sun X. Fibroblast growth factor 9 signaling inhibits airway smooth muscle differentiation in mouse lung. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:123-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This model also represents our findings on the genetic relationship between FGF9 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the establishment of airway SMC pattern. ..
  55. Grauss R, van Tuyn J, Steendijk P, Winter E, Pijnappels D, Hogers B, et al. Forced myocardin expression enhances the therapeutic effect of human mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation in ischemic mouse hearts. Stem Cells. 2008;26:1083-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Forced expression of the cardiomyogenic transcription factor myocardin may stimulate hMSCs to acquire a cardiomyogenic phenotype, thereby improving their possible therapeutic ..
  56. Baeten J, Lilly B. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:16226-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. ..
  57. Kiyan Y, Limbourg A, Kiyan R, Tkachuk S, Limbourg F, Ovsianikov A, et al. Urokinase receptor associates with myocardin to control vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype in vascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:110-22 pubmed publisher
    ..that the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) acts together with the transcriptional coactivator myocardin to regulate the VSMC phenotype...
  58. Zhang S, Gao L, Zhang X, Zhang R, Zhu L, Wang P, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 8 modulates phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells by regulating the activity of myocardin. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:400-14 pubmed publisher
    ..IRF8 inhibited SMC marker gene expression through regulating serum response factor (SRF) transactivation in a myocardin-dependent manner...
  59. Hoggatt A, Kim J, Ustiyan V, Ren X, Kalin T, Kalinichenko V, et al. The transcription factor Foxf1 binds to serum response factor and myocardin to regulate gene transcription in visceral smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Foxf1 also directly binds to serum response factor (SRF) and myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs)...
  60. Vengrenyuk Y, Nishi H, Long X, Ouimet M, Savji N, Martinez F, et al. Cholesterol loading reprograms the microRNA-143/145-myocardin axis to convert aortic smooth muscle cells to a dysfunctional macrophage-like phenotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..downregulation of miR-143/145, which positively regulate the master VSMC differentiation transcription factor myocardin. Mechanisms were further probed in mouse VSMC...
  61. Van Handel B, Montel Hagen A, Sasidharan R, Nakano H, Ferrari R, Boogerd C, et al. Scl represses cardiomyogenesis in prospective hemogenic endothelium and endocardium. Cell. 2012;150:590-605 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal unexpected plasticity in embryonic endothelium such that loss of a single master regulator can induce ectopic cardiomyogenesis from endothelial cells. ..
  62. Proweller A, Pear W, Parmacek M. Notch signaling represses myocardin-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8994-9004 pubmed
    ..or forced expression of the constitutively active Notch1 intracellular domain in C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts inhibited myocardin-dependent transcription of SMC-restricted genes and activity of multiple SMC-restricted transcriptional ..
  63. Madonna R, Geng Y, Bolli R, Rokosh G, Ferdinandy P, Patterson C, et al. Co-activation of nuclear factor-?B and myocardin/serum response factor conveys the hypertrophy signal of high insulin levels in cardiac myoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:19585-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether high insulin affects activation of TNF-?-induced NF-?B and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF) to convey hypertrophy signaling in cardiac myoblasts...
  64. Sun Q, Taurin S, Sethakorn N, Long X, Imamura M, Wang D, et al. Myocardin-dependent activation of the CArG box-rich smooth muscle gamma-actin gene: preferential utilization of a single CArG element through functional association with the NKX3.1 homeodomain protein. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..One particularly strong SRF cofactor, myocardin (MYOCD), acts as a component of a molecular switch for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation by activating ..
  65. Yin H, Jiang Y, Li H, Li J, Gui Y, Zheng X. Proteasomal degradation of myocardin is required for its transcriptional activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1897-906 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin is a transcriptional co-activator of serum response factor (SRF) and can be degraded through ubiquitin-proteasome system...
  66. Cao D, Wang C, Tang R, Chen H, Zhang Z, Tatsuguchi M, et al. Acetylation of myocardin is required for the activation of cardiac and smooth muscle genes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38495-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Myocardin belongs to the SAF-A/B, Acinus, PIAS (SAP) domain family of transcription factors and is specifically expressed in cardiac and smooth muscle...
  67. Heidersbach A, Saxby C, Carver Moore K, Huang Y, Ang Y, de Jong P, et al. microRNA-1 regulates sarcomere formation and suppresses smooth muscle gene expression in the mammalian heart. elife. 2013;2:e01323 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-1 repressed Telokin expression through direct targeting and by repressing its transcriptional regulator, Myocardin. Our results reveal that miR-1 is required for postnatal cardiac function and reinforces the striated muscle ..
  68. Ruf S, Symmons O, Uslu V, Dolle D, Hot C, Ettwiller L, et al. Large-scale analysis of the regulatory architecture of the mouse genome with a transposon-associated sensor. Nat Genet. 2011;43:379-86 pubmed publisher
  69. Perlegas D, Xie H, Sinha S, Somlyo A, Owens G. ANG II type 2 receptor regulates smooth muscle growth and force generation in late fetal mouse development. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H96-102 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analyses showed no significant difference in expression of SM-alpha-actin, SM myosin heavy chain, and myocardin in various SM tissues from all three genotypes, suggesting that knockout of AT(2)R had no effect on subsequent ..
  70. Yoshida T, Sinha S, Dandre F, Wamhoff B, Hoofnagle M, Kremer B, et al. Myocardin is a key regulator of CArG-dependent transcription of multiple smooth muscle marker genes. Circ Res. 2003;92:856-64 pubmed
    ..b>Myocardin was recently cloned as a coactivator of SRF in the heart, but its role in regulating CArG-dependent expression ..
  71. Jie W, Wang X, Huang L, Guo J, Kuang D, Zhu P, et al. Contribution of CXCR4(+)/PDGFRbeta(+) progenitor cells in hypoxic alveolar arterioles muscularization: role of myocardin. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:740-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Under the same hypoxic conditions, mice infused with myocardin lentiviral RNAi vector-transduced progenitor cells displayed lower myocardin expression in the muscularized ..